DIVISION 1. PTERIDOPHYTA


LYCOPODIACEAE CLUB-MOSS FAMILY


Lycopodiella prostrata (R. M. Harper) Cranfill. Lycopodium prostratum R. M. Harper; Lycopodium alopecuroides L. var. pinnatum (Chapm.) Lloyd & Underw. CREEPING CLUB-MOSS. Native perennial. Reported from Travis County by Correll (1956) on the basis of a single specimen, B. C. Tharp s.n., purportedly collected from a Blackland Prairie site; the disposition of this specimen was not provided. It is possible that a Tharp specimen at TEX-LL, collected 15 Oct 1939 from Austin County, was mistakenly attributed to the city of Austin and thus to Travis County. Lycopodiella prostrata occurs mainly in mesic to wet pine forests of the southeastern United States, and its presence in Travis County seems unlikely.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Correll, 1956; Wagner & Beitel, 1993.


SELAGINELLACEAE SPIKE-MOSS FAMILY


Selaginella apoda (L.) Spring. Selaginella apus (L.) Spring. MEADOW SPIKE-MOSS. Native perennial. Rare on wet rocks near shaded springs and seeps, occasionally on stream banks and other perennially moist and at least partially shaded sites.


Specimens: West Cave, on moist bank of brook, 8 Dec 1939, F. McAllister s.n. (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch, cypress bog, 8 Oct 1948, Tharp et al. 53-570 (TEX-LL); lakeside bluff, J. B. Watkins Ranch, 29 Jul 1950, B. C. Tharp & C. S. York 50-39 (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch above Cow Creek on Lake Travis, 2 Jun 1951, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-957 (TEX-LL); seep-moistened exposures of Edwards Limestone on floor of damp rock shelter in N-facing bluff, S bank of Bear Creek ca. 0.85 airmiles NW of int. of Bliss Spillar Rd. and Gunsmith Dr., 24 Nov 1999, W. R. Carr & J. Maresh 18644 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Correll, 1956; Valdespino, 1993.


Selaginella arenicola Underw. subsp. riddellii (Van Eselt.) Tryon. Selaginella riddellii Van Eselt. RIDDELL SPIKE-MOSS. Native perennial. Rather common in unshaded areas on sandy, gravelly soils derived from igneous rocks of the Llano Uplift, as well as in deep sandy soils over Eocene deposits on the coastal plain. In northwestern Travis County it is local in dry sandy soils over ancient Colorado River terrace deposits derived at least in part from igneous rocks of the Llano Uplift, and may still be present in undeveloped patches of post oak woodland on similar substrates within the city of Austin. Apparently rare in or absent from limestone soils.


Specimens: Post oak ridges west of Austin, 12 Jan 1901, W. H. Long s.n. (TEX-LL); dry ground, post oak woods, Austin, no date, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); gravelly hills near Austin, 20 May 1944, B. C. Tharp 44027 (BRIT/SMU, TEX-LL); locally abundant in well drained cobbly sandy soils over Pleistocene Colorado River terrace deposits, in open post oak-Ashe juniper woodland on moderate slope, ca. 500 ft. W of Singleton Rd. ca. 0.7 mi. S of Post Oak Bend Cemetery, S end of Gloster Bend Resource Area, 23 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 11111 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Correll, 1956; Valdespino, 1993.


Selaginella wrightii Hieron. WRIGHT SPIKE-MOSS. Native perennial. Of doubtful status, included here solely on the basis of an apparently unvouchered report from Wild Basin (Williams, 1977). In the western part of the Edwards Plateau, this spike-moss is commonly encountered in very shallow soils on otherwise barren limestone exposures.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Correll, 1956; Valdespino, 1993.


ISOETACEAE QUILLWORT FAMILY


Isoetes melanopoda Gay & Durieu. BLACKFOOT QUILLWORT. Native perennial. Rare in seasonally wet soils in open areas. Easily overlooked, perhaps more common in Travis County than indicated by the dearth of collections.


Specimens: Wet clay on seep on unshaded W bank of Shoal Creek ca. 200-300 ft. S of 45th St., Austin, 17 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7590 (BRIT/SMU) and 29 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7669 (UVST). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Correll, 1956; Taylor et al., 1993.


EQUISETACEAE HORSETAIL FAMILY


Equisetum hyemale L. subsp. affine (Engelm.) J. Calder & R. L. Taylor. Equisetum robustum A. Braun var. affine Engelm.; Equisetum prealtum Raf. WINTER HORSETAIL. Native perennial. Uncommon in moist soils along shaded to unshaded banks of rivers and creeks and shorelines of impoundments.


Specimens: Barton Creek, banks in shaded position, 15 Jan 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 1927, J. F. Normand s.n. (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 15 Mar 1929, F. Normand s.n. (TEX-LL); lakeside bluff, J. B. Watkins Ranch, 29 Jul 1950, B. C. Tharp & C. S. York 50-38 (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch above Cow Creek on Lake Travis, 2 Jun 1951, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-960 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Correll, 1956; Hauke, 1993.


Equisetum laevigatum A. Braun. Equisetum kansanum J. H. Schaffner. SMOOTH HORSETAIL. Native perennial. Uncommon in moist soils along shaded to unshaded banks of rivers and creeks and shorelines of impoundments.


Specimens: Moist sandy bank of Lake Austin at Lake Austin (Emma Long) City Park, 21 Apr 1985, W. R. Carr 6358 (SEU). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: West Cave Preserve (Lemke et al., 1984). References: Correll, 1956; Hauke, 1993.


OPHIOGLOSSACEAE ADDER'S-TONGUE FAMILY


Ophioglossum engelmannii Prantl. ADDER'S-TONGUE. Native perennial. Apparently rare, collected from moist soil along Bull Creek and reported from "rich soil in woods near [Tom Miller] dam" (Young, 1920). No recent reports or specimens.


Specimens: Moist soil, Bull Creek near the head, 22 May 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 6 Oct 1923, R. H. Painter s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Correll, 1956; Wagner & Wagner, 1993.


OSMUNDACEAE ROYAL FERN FAMILY


Osmunda regalis L. var. spectabilis (Willd.) Gray. ROYAL FERN. Native perennial. Of doubtful status in our area, included solely on the basis of a 1901 specimen collected by Bray and Long. Although correctly determined, it seems likely that the specimen's attribution to Travis County is erroneous. The accompanying label originally read "Anemia mexicana," which suggests the possibility that the label and the specimen are unrelated, i.e., that Bray and Long collected Anemia mexicana in Travis County but at some later date their label became attached to someone else's specimen of Osmunda regalis from a location probably far to the east. Royal fern is a denizen of mesic forests throughout much of the eastern half of North America; its presence in Travis County would be quite unexpected and noteworthy if true.


Specimens: [To county only], Feb 1901, Bray & Long s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Correll, 1956; Whetstone & Atkinson, 1993.


ANEMIACEAE NAKED FERN FAMILY


Anemia mexicana Klotzsch. MEXICAN FERN. Native perennial. A species of the Edwards Plateau and northern Mexico, here at or near the northeastern limit of its current distribution. Occasional in steep rocky wooded limestone canyons; apparently more common south of the Colorado River than north.


Specimens: Ten miles up Colorado River from Austin, 9 Feb 1901, Bray & Long s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 6 Apr 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); limestone gorge, 6 Apr 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); near Austin, 22 Apr 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Devil's Canyon, 25 Nov 1984, W. R. Carr 6173 (BRIT/SMU, UVST, TEX-LL); Barton Creek near Scottish Woods Trail, 30 June 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9035 (TEX-LL); juniper-oak woodland in limestone canyon, ca. 2.1 airmiles NW of jct. St. Rt. 71 and R.M. 620, 23 Oct 1992, W. R. Carr, D. Keddy-Hector & P. Turner 12481 (TEX-LL); rare in loamy duff on steep slope of Glen Rose Limestone, wooded mesic limestone canyon at NE corner of Sandy Creek County Park, 2 Jul 1990, W. R. Carr 15590 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Correll, 1956; Mickel, 1993.


PTERIDACEAE MAIDENHAIR FERN FAMILY


Adiantum capillus-veneris L. SOUTHERN MAIDENHAIR FERN. Native perennial. Common on wet, seepy limestone cliff-faces, often occurring as horizontal bands rooted in a layer of crumbly marl or travertine immediately above a layer of impermeable rock.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Correll, 1956; Windham, 1993.


Argyrochosma dealbata (Pursh) M. Windham. Notholaena dealbata (Pursh) Kunze. POWDERY CLOAKFERN. Native perennial. Uncommon, epipetric, often on dry solution-pitted rimrock along wooded limestone ravines, often with Cheilanthes alabamensis, Cheilanthes horridula and Asplenium resiliens.


Specimens: bluff, Onion Creek, 25 Apr 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); dry rock crevices along the Pedernales, 12 mi NW of Bee Cave, 23 July 1947, D. S. Correll 13417 (TEX-LL); face of limestone cliff, Lake Travis, ca. 2 mi above Cow Creek, 22 May 1956, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Pedernales River bridge on St. Rt. 71, 14 Nov 1968, D. Seigler & W. Renold 979 (TEX-LL), 26 Apr 1969, D. Seigler & E. Rodriguez 1198 (TEX-LL); top of cliffs downstream from Miller Dam on Colorado River, 8 Jan 1969, D. Seigler 1035 (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, 29 Mar 1984, W. R. Carr 5982 (TEX-LL); dry, partially shaded limestone outcrops on rimrock at top of slope on S side of Nauman Cove, near SW edge of Pace Bend Park, 16 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr 11073 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Correll, 1956; Windham, 1993.


Astrolepis integerrima (Hook.) D. Benham & M. Windham. Cheilanthes integerrima (Hook.) Mickel; Notholaena sinuata (Lag.) Kaulf. var. integerrima Hook. WAVYLEAF CLOAKFERN. Native perennial. A species of epipetric habits, common on dry limestone outcrops farther west on the Edwards Plateau but rare in Travis County. No recent reports or specimens.


Specimens: Austin, upper Barton Creek, 2 May 1924, R. H. Painter s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Correll, 1956; Windham, 1993.


Cheilanthes alabamensis (Buckl.) Kunze. ALABAMA LIPFERN. Native perennial. Common in humus and loamy soils and on dry limestone outcrops in wooded ravines.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Correll, 1956; Windham, 1993.


Cheilanthes horridula Maxon. ROUGH LIPFERN. Native perennial. Uncommon, epipetric on dry limestone outcrops in wooded ravines or on exposed rimrock, often with Cheilanthes alabamensis.


Specimens: Dry bluff near head of Bull Creek, East Branch, 22 May 1918, E. J. Palmer s.n. (TEX-LL); about 6 mi NW of Bee Cave, 23 Jul 1946, D. S. Correll 13413 (TEX-LL); limestone exposures of Mt. Bonnell near Austin, 24 Jun 1946, C. C. Albers, F. A. Barkley & B. H. Warnock 46454 (TEX-LL); limestone outcrops on steep S-facing slope, S side of Barton Creek, 100-200 ft. E of Loop 360 bridge, Barton Creek Greenbelt, 15 Dec 1990, W. R. Carr 10913 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Correll, 1956; Windham, 1993.


Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link. PURPLE CLIFFBRAKE. Native perennial. Common in loamy soils in rocky wooded limestone ravines; also on limestone rock outcrops, often with Cheilanthes alabamensis.


Specimens: Canyon below dam on Colorado River, Jan 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); near mouth of Bull Creek on leaf mould, shady moist gorge, 20 Apr 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); on river bank above Austin, Bull Creek, 21 Apr 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 Oct 1907, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); limestone ledge, Austin, 20 May 1933, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, 3 Oct 1945, B. H. Warnock 45-38 (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, 22 Apr 1984, W. R. Carr 6046 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Correll, 1956; Windham, 1993.


Pellaea ovata (Desv.) Weath. Pellaea flexuosa (Kaulf.) Link. ZIGZAG CLIFFBRAKE. Native perennial. Uncommon, epipetric on exposed limestone or in dry humus and clay on rubble slopes in wooded ravines; more common south of the Colorado River than north.


Specimens: Correll (1956) cited several specimens from Travis County; material at TEX-LL was on loan in Mar 1996 and was not examined. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. Other reports: Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary (Lyter, 1986). References: Correll, 1956; Windham, 1993.


Pellaea wrightiana Hook. Pellaea ternifolia (Cav.) Link. var. wrightiana (Hook.) A. Tryon. WRIGHT CLIFFBRAKE. Native perennial. Common on dry granite and gneiss exposures in the Llano Uplift area just to the northwest, but known in Travis County from a single specimen (S. B. Buckley s.n., disposition and date not provided) cited by Correll (1956).


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Correll, 1956; Windham, 1993.


THELYPTERIDACEAE MARSH FERN FAMILY


Thelypteris ovata St. John var. lindheimeri (C. Chr.) A. R. Sm. Thelypteris kunthii (Desv.) Morton, in part; Dryopteris normalis Christ. var. lindheimeri Christ. LINDHEIMER SHIELDFERN. Native perennial. Frequent in moist loamy to silty soil along shaded banks of rivers and perennial streams; occasionally with Adiantum capillus-veneris on seepy limestone cliff faces and undisturbed travertine deposits.


Specimens: Bull Creek, 5 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4283 (TEX-LL). Additional specimens were cited by Correll (1956). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Dryopteris patens). References: Correll, 1956; Smith, 1993c.


ASPLENIACEAE SPLEENWORT FAMILY


Asplenium resiliens Kunze. LITTLE EBONY SPLEENWORT. Native perennial. Uncommon, usually epipetric on dry solution-pitted rimrock along wooded limestone ravines, often with Cheilanthes alabamensis and Cheilanthes horridula.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Correll, 1956; Wagner, Moran & Werth, 1993.


DRYOPTERIDACEAE WOOD FERN FAMILY


Cyrtomium falcatum (L. f.) Presl. ASIAN HOLLYFERN. Introduced perennial. An ornamental widely utilized in Austin landscapes, locally naturalized in shaded rock shelters of Stillhouse Hollow in the Bull Creek watershed, where it occurs in large numbers on moist limestone boulders fallen from rimrock, a habitat normally occupied by Aquilegia canadensis, Adiantum capillus-veneris, Thelypteris ovata var. lindheimeri, etc. No other naturalized populations are presently known from our area.


Specimens: Apparently naturalized on moist limestone boulders in rock shelter at springs, Stillhouse Hollow, Bull Creek, 31 Oct 1982, W. R. Carr 4492 (UVST) and 14 Apr 1984, W. R. Carr 6019 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Smith, 1993a.


Woodsia obtusa (Spreng.) Torr. COMMON WOODSIA. Native perennial. Common in sandy to loamy soils in mesic woodlands to the east, and on intermittently wet outcrops of granite and gneiss in the Llano Uplift to the northwest, but apparently rare in Travis County. No recent reports or specimens.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL in Mar 1996. Correll (1956) cited one specimen from Travis County: Palmer 12140 (disposition not provided; date probably 1919). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Correll, 1956; Smith, 1993a.


POLYPODIACEAE POLYPODY FAMILY


Polypodium polypodioides (L.) Watt. var. michauxianum Weath. RESURRECTION FERN. Native perennial. An epiphytic fern of the southeastern United States, here at the southwestern limit of its distribution. There are apparently no recent specimens from our area, but Tom Patterson (pers. comm., 11 May 1996) reported seeing a large population in trees along a stretch of Bee Creek near Toro Canyon Road during the 1980's.


Specimens: On oak, Pease Park, Austin, 15 Dec 1901, W. H. Long, Jr. s.n. (TEX-LL); near dam, Austin, 13 Feb 1916, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Correll, 1956; Smith, 1993b.


MARSILEACEAE WATER-CLOVER FAMILY


Marsilea macropoda A. Braun. BIGFOOT WATER-CLOVER. Native perennial. Apparently rare in wet soils of creekbottoms and riverbanks.


Specimens: material at TEX-LL was on loan in Mar 1996 and was not examined. However, Johnson (1986) cited two specimens: Shoal Creek, Austin, 15 Apr 1901, Long s.n. (GH, MO, NY, TAES, TEX-LL); Austin, Colorado River floodplain, 11 Mar 1928, B. C. Tharp s.n. (B, NY, PH, US). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Correll, 1956; Johnson, 1986; Johnson, 1993.


Marsilea vestita Hook. & Grev. Marsilea mucronata A. Braun.; Marsilea uncinata A. Braun.; Marsilea tenuifolia Kunze. WATER-CLOVER. Native perennial. Common in ephemerally or perennially wet clayey soils along margins of creeks, rivers, stock tanks and other impoundments.


Specimens: Material at TEX-LL was on loan in Mar 1996 and was not examined. However, Johnson (1986) cited three specimens: along Onion Creek, 8.5 mi S of Colorado River in Austin, D. S. Correll & H. B. Correll 29940 (TEX-LL, MO, UC); Austin, banks of the Colorado River, Hall 860 (BM, F, G, GH, K, MO, NY, US); Manchaca, E. J. Palmer 12148 (GH, MO, US). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Correll, 1956; Johnson, 1986; Johnson, 1993.


AZOLLACEAE AZOLLA FAMILY


Azolla caroliniana Willd. MOSQUITO-FERN. Native perennial. Rare, presently known only from the surface of quiet water near the shoreline of Lake Walter E. Long; these plants may represent a recent introduction to the Travis County flora. Its occurrence on shallow backwaters of other reservoirs should be expected.


Specimens: Floating on shallow still water among tule stems, etc., S shoreline of Lake Walter E. Long, 500-1000 ft. W of boat ramp, 25 Dec 1984, W. R. Carr et al. 6188 (BRIT/SMU, SEU). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Correll, 1956; Lumpkin, 1993.



DIVISION 2. SPERMATOPHYTA


CLASS 1. GYMNOSPERMAE


CUPRESSACEAE CYPRESS FAMILY


Juniperus ashei Buchh. Sabina sabinoides (H.B.K.) Nees. ASHE JUNIPER, CEDAR. Native tree or large shrub. Abundant, perhaps the most characteristic woody plant species of limestone uplands in the western half of the county.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Correll, 1966; Watson & Eckenwalder, 1993.


Juniperus virginiana L. Sabina virginiana (L.) Ant. EASTERN RED CEDAR. Native tree. Common, replacing Juniperus ashei to some extent in various soils in the eastern half of the county, but occurring with it at Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, 1996) and in some mesic limestone canyons (Bro. D. Lynch, pers. comm.).


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Correll, 1966; Watson & Eckenwalder, 1993.


EPHEDRACEAE JOINTFIR FAMILY


Ephedra antisyphilitica C. A. Mey. JOINTFIR. Native shrub. Rare on dry exposed limestone ledges and bluffs; more common to the south and west of Travis County. The population near Tom Miller Dam, represented by many of our early collections, is still extant, as is a cluster on the Rodgers Tract on the Balcones Canyonlands NWR (Sexton, 1996).


Specimens: Bluffs of Bee Creek, 2 Oct 1900, Long & Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); canyon below dam on Colorado, 13 Apr 1901, Long & Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); near dam, Austin, 22 Feb 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); bluff, Barton Creek, 30 Nov 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Feb 1934, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 5 Apr 1954, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); W bank of Colorado River just S of low water bridge (Red Bud Trail), 13 Nov 1960, J. D. Graham GA-10 (TEX-LL); limestone bluffs along Colorado River, one plant under the overhang immediately above the Town Lake [sic; actually Lake Austin] Dam at the Nature trail on Red Bud Lane, 10 Nov 1965, J. A. Mears 1033 (TEX-LL); bluffs along Pedernales River at rest area at St. Rt. 71 bridge, 2 May 1991, W. R. Carr 11128 (TEX-LL). Correll (1966) cited a specimen collected by Elihu Hall at Mt. Bonnell on 27 May 1872; the disposition of this specimen is unknown. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Ephedra nevadensis Wats., misapplied); Lynch, 1974. References: Correll, 1966; Stevenson, 1993.


TAXODIACEAE BALDCYPRESS FAMILY


Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. BALDCYPRESS. Native tree. Rare to locally frequent in gallery woodlands along major perennial creeks and along shorelines of impoundments of the Colorado River.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Correll, 1966; Watson & Eckenwalder, 1993.



CLASS 2. ANGIOSPERMAE


SUBCLASS 1. MONOCOTYLEDONEAE


TYPHACEAE CAT-TAIL FAMILY


Typha domingensis Pers. NARROWLEAF CAT-TAIL. Native perennial. The common cat-tail in our area, found in wet soils along reservoirs, stock tanks, rivers and streams, roadside ditches.


Specimens: Austin, below F. M. [Feeble-Minded] Colony, 6 Jun 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Dry Creek near Austin, 23 Jun 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TE-LL); dry creek on Bull Creek, 23 Jun 1924, B. C. Tharp 749 (TEX-LL); Austin Lake shore under Mt. Bonnell, 12 Aug 1943, F. A. Barkley 6085 (TEX-LL); Lake Long NE shoreline, 6 Jul 1984, F. R. Barrie 807 (TEX-LL); Town Lake at Johnson Creek, 18 May 1986, W. R. Carr & M. A. Wade 7463 (TEX-LL); Austin, Lake Long, inlet off bay of Lake Long, shallow water, 12 Aug 1988, Bro. D. Lynch, M. Campbell & J. Gee 9846 (SEU). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Typha latifolia L. BROADLEAF CAT-TAIL. Native perennial. The current status of this species in our area is unclear. Unvouchered older reports, such as "in ponds of the Insane Asylum and of the University campus" (Young, 1920), may be based on Typha domingensis.


Specimens: Swale, wet black soil, St. Edwards University campus, 4 Jun 1954, Bro. D. Lynch C.S.C. s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


ZANNICHELLIACEAE HORNED PONDWEED FAMILY


Zannichellia palustris L. COMMON POOLMAT. Native submersed aquatic. Occasional in clear water of streams and rivers. Reported by Young (1920) as "abundant in Barton Creek and the Asylum ponds."


Specimens: Barton Creek, Austin, 12 Sep 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (SEU); Lake Walter E. Long, 2 Sep 1987, C. W. Sexton & N. McClintock s.n. (COA); shallow water near N shoreline of Lake Austin at Selma Hughes Park, 1 airmile NE of Lakeland Park, 22 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4232 (BRIT/SMU) and 20 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr 9159; NW Austin, Loop 360 at Balcones Fault Historical Marker N of Spicewood Springs Rd., submersed in clear water of stream [Bull Creek], 23 Apr 1983, B. Ertter 4769 (TEX-LL); pond, Barnes Hollow, Webster Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 9 Jan 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR); intermittent pond in gravel, Shaw Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 15 Jun 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR); Barton Springs Pool, Zilker Park, 15 Sep 1997, D. A. Chamberlain s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. Other reports: Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, 1996).


POTAMOGETONACEAE PONDWEED FAMILY


Potamogeton crispus L. CURLY PONDWEED. Naturalized submersed aquatic. Rare in flowing water of Colorado River. Introduced from the Old World, curly pondweed has proliferated to nuisance proportions in lakes and ponds in the northeastern United States. At present, it is rather rare in Travis County.


Specimens: [To county only], 15 Jun 1942, B. C. Tharp s.n. (SEU, TEX-LL); growing in rapid current about three feet deep, forming dense colonies in Colorado River about 5 miles below Austin, 1 Jun 1943, F. A. Barkley 13310 (TEX-LL); from shallow water along the edge of Lake Austin, 25 Aug 1944, L. Taylor and F. A. Barkley 14651 (TEX-LL); in shallow water near N shoreline of Lake Austin at Selma Hughes Park, 20 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 9157 (BRIT/SMU); rare, with Myriophyllum sp., submersed in normally clear water in quiet western side-channel of Colorado River, ca. 500 ft. N of Red Bud Trail bridge below Tom Miller Dam, Austin, 5 Jun 1994, W. R. Carr, P. McNeal & J. Gleason 13886 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Ogden, 1966.


Potamogeton diversifolius Raf. THREADLEAF PONDWEED. Native aquatic perennial. Rather common in eastern half of Texas but rare in our area, known from a single collection from a small stock tank.


Specimens: locally frequent with Najas guadalupensis in small stock tank in clearing in live oak - juniper woodland on Glen Rose caliche flat, E side of main entrance road on Baker Tract (a Prop 2 tract) at 90o turn ca. 0.6 mi S of gate on R. M. 1826, ca. 1.0 airmiles SSW of R. M. 1826 bridge over Slaughter Creek, 19 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 18851 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Ogden, 1966.


Potamogeton illinoensis Morong. Potamogeton lucens L. ILLINOIS PONDWEED. Native submersed aquatic perennial. Common in perennial streams and pools over limestone in western half of county; also in both impounded and free-flowing stretches of Colorado River.


Specimens: Barton Creek Springs in swift flowing water, 15 Jan 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL) and Dec 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 Oct 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, Austin, fall 1920, B. C. Tharp 2181 (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, Austin, 12 Sep 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL) and 20 Aug 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (SEU, TEX-LL); from shallow water along the edge of Lake Austin, 24 Aug 1944, L. Taylor and F. A. Barkley 14547 (TEX-LL); in pool of clear water with limestone bottom, lower Bull Creek, 18 May 1946, J. Adamcik, C. M. Rowell, and F. A. Barkley 16T221 (TEX-LL); Barton Creek downstream from Barton Springs, submerged aquatic, 10 May 1970, Bro. D. Lynch 9459 (SEU); quiet water under baldcypress, spring run below Hamilton Pool, 28 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4256 (UVST); in shallow water near north shoreline of Lake Austin at Selma Hughes Park, 20 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 9158 (BRIT/SMU, TEX-LL); Colorado River behind National Wildflower Research Center, 11 Sep 1988, K. D. Cleveland s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Ogden, 1966.


Potamogeton nodosus Poir. THICKLEAF PONDWEED. Native aquatic perennial. Occasional in ponds, reservoirs, and slow-moving water of perennial or nearly perennial streams.


Specimens: From shallow water along the edge of Lake Austin, 25 Aug 1944, L. Taylor and F. A. Barkley 14646 (TEX-LL); SEU farm, pond, 4 Jul 1962, Bro. D. Lynch 9457 (SEU); 1/2 mi S of Mt. Bonnell, shallow water, W side of Lake Austin, 16 Sep 1962, Bro. D. Lynch 9458 (SEU); Lake Long, NE shoreline, abundant, 6 Jul 1984, F. R. Barrie 819 (TEX-LL); shaded backwater along W bank of Colorado River ca. 100 ft. N of Red Bud Trail, 2 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4273 (UVST, TEX-LL); shallow water along unshaded S shoreline of Lake Walter E. Long ca. 1 mi W of dam, 25 Oct 1986, W. R. Carr & E. A. Kutac 7294 (BRIT/SMU); margin of small lake on N side of Bloor Rd., 27 Sep 1987, W. R. Carr 8730 (TEX-LL); Austin, Lake Long, shallow water, light shade to unshaded, 12 Aug 1988, Bro. D. Lynch, M. Campbell & J. Gee 9847 (SEU) and 23 Aug 1988, Bro. D. Lynch & Bro. D. Steffer 7828 (SEU); Colorado River behind National Wildflower Research Center, 11 Sep 1988, K. D. Cleveland s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Ogden, 1966.


Potamogeton pectinatus L. SAGO PONDWEED. Native submersed aquatic. Occasional in ponds, reservoirs, and slow-moving water of perennial or nearly perennial streams.


Specimens: From shallow water along the edge of Lake Austin, 25 Aug 1944, L. Taylor and F. A. Barkley 14648 (TEX-LL); Lake Walter E. Long, 2 Sep 1987, C. W. Sexton & N. McClintock s.n. (COA); Colorado River behind National Wildflower Research Center, 11 Sep 1988, K. D. Cleveland s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Ogden, 1966.


Potamogeton pusillus L. subsp. pusillus. BABY PONDWEED. Native submersed aquatic. Occasional in ponds, reservoirs, and slow-moving water of perennial or nearly perennial streams.


Specimens: Barton Creek, 12 Sep 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); cold water about 2 feet deep in Barton Springs NW of Austin, 5 Aug 1944, G. Arroyos G. 102 (TEX-LL); deep water of Barton Spring NW of Austin, 6 Aug 1944, M. Thurlow 1 (TEX-LL); forming dense colonies in Colorado River about 5 miles below Austin, 1 Jun 1943, F. A. Barkley 13313 (TEX-LL); rare, with Zannichellia palustris in sandy bottom, clear cool shallow water along N bank of Lake Austin at Selma Hughes Park, 25 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr, M. L. Price & T. Gonzalez 9161 (TEX-LL) and 22 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr 15630 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Haynes, 1974; Ogden, 1966.


NAJADACEAE WATER-NYMPH FAMILY


Najas guadalupensis (Spreng.) Magnus. var. guadalupensis. GUADALUPE WATER-NAIAD. Native submersed aquatic. Perhaps the most common submersed aquatic vascular plant in our area, in flowing water of the Colorado River and all major creeks as well as in quiet water of ponds and stock tanks.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Haynes, 1979.


Najas marina L. HOLLY-LEAF WATER-NAIAD, SPINY WATER-NAIAD. Native submersed aquatic. Rare in Texas and in our area as well. No recent specimens or reports.


Specimens: From shallow water along the edge of Lake Austin, 25 Aug 1944, L. Taylor and F. A. Barkley 14649 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Haynes, 1979; Stuckey, 1985.


ALISMACEAE WATER-PLANTAIN FAMILY


Echinodorus berteroi (Spreng.) Fassett. Echinodorus rostratus (Nutt.) Engelm., incl. var. lanceolatus Engelm. BURHEAD. Native annual. Occasional in wet soils of sandy alluvial bars and mudflats along perennial streams.


Specimens: Walnut Creek, Watters Station, 22 Apr 1901, Long & Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); ditch along I & GN RR S of Feeble-Minded Colony, Austin, 25 Jun 1920, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 May 1933, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); water of small pool near Barton Springs Creek, 23 Jul 1943, F. A. Barkley 13551 (TEX-LL); Onion Creek, 20 Jul 1948, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL); McKinney Falls, jct. of Onion & Williamson creeks, in marly and sandy soil in pothole in bed of Onion Creek, 5 Jul 1954, Bro. D. Lynch 9460 (SEU); along Onion Creek, 8.5 mi S of Colorado River in Austin, in mud at edge of water, 21 Jul 1964, D. S. Correll & H. B. Correll 29938 (TEX-LL); Wilbarger Creek, 31 Jul 1987, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA); sandy soil on flats exposed on unshaded strand along Lake Travis at S end of Shaw Rd., Turkey Bend Resource Area, 30 Jul 1991, W. R. Carr & D. Hernandez 11328 (TEX-LL); Slaughter Creek at Kingfisher Creek Lane, 25 Jun 1993, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 12848 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. Other reports: Walnut Creek Park (Turner, 1996) and McKinney Falls State Park (Johnston & Riskind, 1975).


Sagittaria graminea Michx. subsp. graminea. GRASSY ARROWHEAD. Native perennial. Apparently rare in our area. No recent reports, but perhaps persistent along Lake Austin.


Specimens: shallow water along edge of Lake Austin, 25 Aug 1945, L. Taylor & F. A. Barkley 14645 (TEX-LL; ann. R. Haynes, 1995). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Bogin, 1955.


Sagittaria montividensis Cham. & Schlect. subsp. calycina (Engelm.) Bogin. Sagittaria calycina Engelm. ARROWHEAD. Native perennial. Like the preceding, apparently rare in our area but perhaps persistent along Lake Austin.


Specimens: Lake Austin, 29 Nov 1921, B. C. Tharp 1023 (TEX-LL); silt, Lake Austin, fall 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin Lake shore under Mt. Bonnell, 12 Aug 1943, F. A. Barkley 13451 (TEX-LL). All of these TEX-LL specimens were annotated in 1995 by R. Haynes. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Bogin, 1955.


Sagittaria platyphylla (Engelm.) J. G. Smith. DELTA ARROWHEAD. Native perennial. Apparently the common arrowhead in our area, with specimens from wet soils along Barton Creek, Onion Creek, Shoal Creek, Lake Austin, and various ponds.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, annotated in 1995 by R. Haynes. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Bogin, 1955.


HYDROCHARITACEAE FROG'S-BIT FAMILY


Egeria densa Planch. WATERWEED, EGERIA. Naturalized submersed aquatic; native of South America, widely naturalized in still or slow-moving water in the United States. Similar to Hydrilla verticillata, but in Egeria the leaves have entire margins, lack an elevated midrib on the lower surface, and are smooth to the touch. Said to occur with Hydrilla verticillata at Lake Walter E. Long; no voucher seen.


Specimens of most genera of Hydrocharitaceae were on loan from TEX-LL in Mar 1996 and were not examined. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Caspary. HYDRILLA. Naturalized submersed aquatic; native of the Old World, rapidly becoming naturalized across the southeastern United States where it is considered a serious noxious weed of navigable waterways. A relatively recent introduction to the aquatic flora of central Texas, but by 1975 it was so abundant in the San Marcos River that it was being harvested commercially for sale in the aquarium trade (Flook, 1975). Abundant in Lake Walter E. Long and in portions of Lake Austin.


Specimens: Lake Long, abundant submerged aquatic, inlet at N end of lake, 12 Aug 1988, Bro. D. Lynch, M. Campbell & J. Gee 9855 (SEU); Wells Branch Creek at Walnut Creek Park, 25 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & J. Wright 10778 (TEX-LL). Specimens of most genera of Hydrocharitaceae were on loan from TEX-LL in Mar 1996 and were not examined. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Flook, 1975; Solymosy, 1974.


POACEAE (GRAMINEAE) GRASS FAMILY


Aegilops cylindrica Host. Triticum cylindricum (Host.) Ces. JOINTED GOATGRASS. Adventive annual; native of Europe. Rare on disturbed roadsides; perhaps not a persistent member of our flora.


Specimens: Burnet highway 1 mi N of Allandale Village, Austin, 18 Apr 1953, B. C. Tharp 53-822 (TEX-LL); gravelly roadside, R. M. 2222 near Four Points, 3 May 1986, W. R. Carr & E. A. Kutac 7376 (UVST). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Agrostis elliottiana Schult. ELLIOTT BENTGRASS. Native annual. Reported from the Colorado River flood plain and Midway Sands (Higdon, 1948).


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, June 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) B.S.P. WINTER BENTGRASS. Native annual. Apparently rare in our area, collected only from alluvial deposits along the Colorado River; to be expected in post oak woodlands.


Specimens: Austin, Colorado River flood plain, 9 Apr 1929, A. Armer 5286 (TEX-LL) and 23 Apr 1929, A. Armer 5311 (TEX-LL); Colorado River, Austin, 30 Apr 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL) and 21 Apr 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Deep Eddy, Austin, 26 Apr 1936, B. C. Tharp 44466 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Alopecurus carolinianus Walt. Alopecurus ramosus Poir. CAROLINA FOXTAIL. Native annual. Widespread in North America but apparently rare in our area. The Tharp specimen may have been collected on the Colorado River floodplain, a location from which he collected other specimens on that date. No recent specimens or reports.


Specimens: Catholic Cemetery, 2 Apr 1901, Long s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 21 Apr 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Andropogon gerardii Vitman var. gerardii. Andropogon furcatus Muhl. BIG BLUESTEM. Native perennial. One of the principal components of North American tallgrass prairie communities, and one of the least tolerant of grazing. Uncommon in our area, perhaps most frequently encountered in clay loam over limestone in patches of ungrazed grassland along roadsides and in various nature preserves.


Specimens: Onion Creek, 27 Sep 1941, B. Moon 142 (TEX-LL); Austin, Oct 1941, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Rosehill Cemetery, Johnson Rd. off Loop 212, 17 Jul 1986, C. W. Sexton, N. McClintock, & K. Bear s.n. (COA); local in clay soils in unmown bar ditch on unshaded W side of North Turnersville Rd., 10 feet N of its jct. with Turnersville Rd., 8 Sep 1990, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10793 (TEX-LL); locally common in live oak savannah on shallow well drained calcareous silty loam over Glen Rose Limestone, E side of R. M. 1826 across from Sharl Drive, 2.0 roadmiles S of Slaughter Creek low water crossing, 26 Jul 1991, W. R. Carr, P. McNeal & M. Enquist 11300 (TAES, TEX-LL); locally common in dry honeycombed Edwards Limestone exposed on low banks and bluffs in bottom of canyon of Bear Creek, at waterfall and upstream in NW corner of Lancaster Tract (a Prop 2 tract), ca. 1.75 airmiles W of jct. F. M. 1626 and Manchaca Rd., 7 Dec 1999, W. R. Carr & S. Windhager 18658 (TEX-LL); occasional patches with little bluestem and Indiangrass in openings in live oak - cedar elm - Ashe juniper woodland on moderately steep, very cobbly Edwards Limestone slope, SE side of drainage running SW to NE across Reavley Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 4.0 airmiles SSE of R. M. 1826 bridge over Slaughter Creek, or 4.1 airmiles E of R. M. 1826 bridge over Bear Creek, 9 May 2000, W. R. Carr 18969 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Andropogon glomeratus (Walt.) B.S.P. BUSHY BLUESTEM. Native perennial. Common in moist loamy soils along creeks, in drainage ditches, and along margins of impoundments. According to Campbell (1983), our plants belong in var. pumilis Vasey.


Specimens: Barton Springs, 14 Jan 1913, F. McAllister s.n. (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 1 Nov 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 4 Nov 1922, R. H. Painter s.n. (TEX-LL); Capt. Aldrich Place, 15 Oct 1934, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); near Lake Travis, 2 mi S of Travis Peak, rather frequent in damp to moist soil, 8 Oct 1948, C. M. Rogers 6529 (TEX-LL); dry bed of Bee Creek W of Lake Austin, 24 Sep 1947, W. V. Brown 3401 (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch, cypress bog, 8 Oct 1948, Tharp et al. 49036 (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch, Lake Travis, NW corner of county, 14 Oct 1950, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-497 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958 (as Arthrolepis glomeratus); Lynch, 1974. References: Campbell, 1983.


Andropogon virginicus L. BROOMSEDGE BLUESTEM. Native perennial. Common to abundant in grasslands and open woodlands in moist sandy to loamy soils just to the east but apparently rare within Travis County. Known only from a small population in a seasonally moist area under a power transmission line at Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, but to be expected in post oak woodlands in the eastern part of the county. According to Campbell (1983), our plants belong in var. virginicus.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park (P. Turner, 1996). References: Campbell, 1983.


Aristida oligantha Michx. OLDFIELD THREEAWN. Native annual. A common weed of overgrazed pastures in other parts of the state, but relatively rare in our area where it occurs primarily in early successional or disturbed grasslands on sandy substrates.


Specimens: Golf Links, Austin, Nov 1925, B. C. Tharp 3956 (TEX-LL); Austin, 13 Oct 1928, B. C. Tharp 5123 (TEX-LL); rare in old field grassland on fine sandy loam, S end of Pace Bend Park, 27 Aug 1996, W. R. Carr 15664 (TEX-LL); occasional in grassland on shallow stony noncalcareous clay loam (Crawford and/or Speck series) in openings in Quercus fusiformis woodland on gently rolling upland underlain by Edwards Limestone, on southern (undeveloped) portion of Lady Bird Johnson National Wildflower Center, 10 Nov 2000, W. R. Carr & S. Windhager 19342 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958. References: Allred, 1985b.


Aristida longespica Poir. var. longespica. SLIMSPIKE THREEAWN. Native annual. Rare in sandy soils of post oak woodlands.


Specimens: Frequent in well drained, slightly acid, gravelly loamy sand over cherty Pleistocene fluviatile terrace deposits, open post oak woodland/pasture, Farquhar Farms SE of Manor, 22 Nov 1995, W. R. Carr, G. & N. Farquhar 15096 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Allred, 1985a; Allred, 1985b.


/Aristida longespica Poir. var. geniculata (Raf.) Fern. Aristida intermedia Scribn. & Ball. KEARNEY THREEAWN. Native annual. Abundant in disturbed sandy soils in a variety of situations on the coastal plain just east to the east, but apparently rare in our area. Our specimens seem to have come mostly from post oak woodlands on sandy to gravelly river deposits.


Specimens: Dry gravelly soils, Austin, 18 Oct 1920, B. C. Tharp 34 (TEX-LL); Westfield, Austin, 11 Nov 1928, B. C. Tharp 5204 (TEX-LL) and 13 Oct 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958 (not as to variety). Other reports: Brackenridge Field Lab (Anonymous, 1979). References: Allred, 1985a; Allred, 1985b.


Aristida purpurascens Poir. ARROWFEATHER THREEAWN. Native perennial. Doubtful in our area, included here solely on the basis of an unvouchered report from the Cortana subdivision (Mase, 1985).


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Allred, 1985b.


Aristida purpurea Nutt. var. longiseta (Steud.) Vasey. Aristida longiseta Steud. RED THREEAWN. Native perennial. Common in pastures and early successional grasslands on all substrates.


Specimens: Austin Chalk 10 mi N of Austin on Dessau Farm Rd. 200 yds. E of Dallas Hwy., 13 Jun 1950, Tharp & York 50-135 (TEX-LL); grassland opening on limestone ridgetop, Jester Estates area, 21 Jun 1982, W. R. Carr 4114 (TAES); dry open flat to slightly sloping limestone outcrop, in valley of Barton Creek, ca. 2 mi upstream from Barton Springs at Zilker Park, 0.5 mi NE of Loop 360 bridge, 31 May 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges 10209 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: Allred, 1984; Allred, 1985b.


Aristida purpurea Nutt. var. nealleyi (Vasey) Allred. Incl. Aristida glauca (Nees) Walp. BLUE THREEAWN. Native perennial. Common in grasslands on rocky limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: Rocky limestone slope, Bull Creek watershed, 23 Jun 1982, W. R. Carr 4124 (BRIT/SMU); dry rocky clay soil on limestone ridgetop, North Cat Mt., 11 Jul 1982, W. R. Carr 4152 (TAES); dry open flat to slightly sloping limestone outcrop, in valley of Barton Creek, ca. 2 mi upstream from Barton Springs at Zilker Park, 0.5 mi NE of Loop 360 bridge, 31 May 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges 10180 and 10205 (TEX-LL); occasional in grassland on shallow stony noncalcareous clay loam (Crawford and/or Speck series) in openings in Quercus fusiformis woodland on gently rolling upland underlain by Edwards Limestone, on southern (undeveloped) portion of Lady Bird Johnson National Wildflower Center, 10 Nov 2000, W. R. Carr & S. Windhager 19343 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. Other reports: Edwards Plateau Laboratory I (Lynch, 1975). References: Allred, 1984; Allred, 1985b.


Aristida purpurea Nutt. var. purpurea. Incl. Aristida roemeriana Scheele. PURPLE THREEAWN. Native perennial. Common in grasslands, particularly in grazed and early successional areas, on all substrates.


Specimens: Watkins Ranch in NW Travis County above Cow Creek on Lake Travis, 2 Jun 1951, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-932 (TEX-Ll); McKinney Falls State Park, near old mill site by Onion Creek, clay loam and alluvium, 3 Nov 1971, S. Oefinger, Jr. 317 (TEX-LL); rocky limestone slope, Bull Creek watershed, 23 Jun 1982, W. R. Carr 4123 (BRIT/SMU); Austin, Brackenridge Field Station, just W of Firefly Meadow, 22 Jul 1986, S. Ginzbarg 348 (TEX-LL); dry open flat to slightly sloping limestone outcrop, in valley of Barton Creek, ca. 2 mi upstream from Barton Springs at Zilker Park, 0.5 mi NE of Loop 360 bridge, 31 May 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges 10179 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: Allred, 1984; Allred, 1985b.


Aristida purpurea Nutt. var. wrightii (Nash) Allred. Aristida wrightii Nash. WRIGHT THREEAWN. Native perennial. Common in grasslands on rocky limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: Gravelly soil, Austin, June 1920, B. C. Tharp 35 (TEX-LL); Walnut Creek, Austin, 20 Oct 1928, B. C. Tharp 5117 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. Other reports: Edwards Plateau Laboratory I (Lynch, 1975). References: Allred, 1984; Allred, 1985b.


Arundo donax L. GIANT CANE. Naturalized perennial, native of the Old World. Relatively recently introduced in the southeastern United States, extensively planted for erosion control along highways. Gould (1975) reported that giant cane plants in Texas apparently don't produce fertile seed; nonetheless the species has escaped cultivation to become a weed of drainage ditches and riverbanks throughout our area.


Specimens: Austin at Red Bud Island, just W of Lake Austin Blvd. on Red Bud Trail, 25 Jul 1990, M. Bierner 90-118 (TEX-LL); Brackenridge Field Laboratory, Austin, 1 Dec 1990, L. K. Escobar 8869 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995.


Avena sativa L. Avena fatua L. var. sativa (L.) Hausskn. WILD OATS. Introduced annual; a crop plant of European origin. Uncommon in our area, mostly in old fields and along disturbed creekbanks, drainage ditches and roadsides.


Specimens: Rare in alluvial thicket, E bank of Shoal Creek between W. 40th and W. 45th Sts., Austin, 16 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4686 (TAES); with various weeds in disturbed clay in bed of Waller Creek at Shipe Park, SW corner of W. 45th and Avenue F, Austin, 3 May 1996. W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15253 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Bothriochloa barbinodis (Lag.) Herter var. barbinodis. CANE BLUESTEM. Native perennial. A common component of grasslands to the south and west, apparently rare or overlooked in our area.


Specimens: Campus D & D Institute, 10 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958 (as Amphilophis barbinodis).


Bothriochloa barbinodis (Lag.) Herter var. perforata (Fourn.) Gould. Andropogon perforatus Fourn. PINHOLE BLUESTEM. Native perennial. Rare or overlooked in early successional grasslands on a variety of substrates.


Specimens: Campus, 15 Oct 1908, F. A. Wolf s.n. (TEX-LL); local, one small patch on moderately moist silty clay loam on unmown curblawn shaded by oaks, NE corner of Bailey Lane and W. 39th St., Austin, 14 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7576; rare in fairly dry clay soil over limestone in openings in mixed uplands woods, ca. 500 ft. E of MoPac, 0.2-0.4 mi S of Barton Springs Rd. overpass, 26 Jun 1988, W. R. Carr 9006 (BRIT/SMU, TAES). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958 (as Amphilophis perforatus).


Bothriochloa hybrida (Gould) Gould. HYBRID BLUESTEM. Native perennial. Apparently arising from one or more hybrids between Bothriochloa edwardsiana and Bothriochloa laguroides subsp. torreyana (Gould, 1957). According to Gould (1975), found in open pastures and on roadsides, often abundant along mowed roadside ditches. Perhaps more common in our area than specimen records indicate.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, May 1996. Gould (1957) cited one specimen from Travis County: 20 mi NW of Oak Hill, F. W. Gould 5961 (TAES). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Gould, 1957.


Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng var. songarica (Rupr.) Celerier & Harlan. Andropogon ischaemum L. var. songaricus Ruprecht. KING RANCH BLUESTEM. Naturalized perennial. Relatively recently introduced from Asia to Texas, where it has been widely seeded as a forage grass in pastures and for erosion control along highways. Higdon (1948) reported that King Ranch bluestem "shows promise" and "has been introduced into Travis County for study." The results of that study are now in: King Ranch presently ranks among our most noxious weeds, having become thoroughly naturalized in grasslands and open areas on all substrates.


Specimens: Austin, weed in the University of Texas Grass Garden, 15 Nov 1956, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL); common in old field opening in juniper woodland on limestone upland, Lake Austin City Park, 1 Nov 1981, W. R. Carr 3625 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Bothriochloa laguroides (DC.) Herter subsp. torreyana (Steud.) Allred & Gould. Bothriochloa saccharoides (Sw.) Rydb. var. torreyana (Steud.) Gould; Andropogon saccharoides of some local auth., in part. SILVER BLUESTEM. Native perennial. A common component of midgrass grasslands, particularly over calcareous strata.


Specimens: 10 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958 (as Amphilophis saccharoides); Lynch, 1974. References: Allred & Gould, 1983.


Bothriochloa longipaniculata (Gould) Allred & Gould. Bothriochloa saccharoides (Sw.) Rydb. var. longipaniculata (Gould) Gould. Andropogon saccharoides of some local auth., in part. LONGSPIKE SILVER BLUESTEM. Native perennial. Frequent in grasslands over various strata, often with the preceding variety.


Specimens: McDonald Ranch, 1941-1942, D. Higdon 111 (TEX-LL); one block W of Guadalupe in alley off 29th St., dry calcareous soil, 6 Apr 1986, N. Snow 224 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948. Other reports: Edwards Plateau Laboratory I (Lynch, 1975). References: Allred & Gould, 1983.


Bouteloua aristidoides (H.B.K.) Griseb. NEEDLE GRAMA. Native annual. Rare in disturbed sandy soils. A species of the arid west, seldom encountered here at or near the eastern edge of its range.


Specimens: Austin, Nov 1974, G. Edwards s.n. (TEX-LL); loamy fine sand on old Colorado River terrace deposits, seldom used soccer field, level unshaded area on N side of W. First St., 0.3 mi. W of Lamar, Austin, 6 Sep 1991, W. R. Carr & W. C. Bergquist 11381 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Rydb. SIDEOATS GRAMA. Native perennial. Common in midgrass grasslands over a variety of substrates.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: Gould & Kapadia, 1962a; Gould & Kapadia, 1962b.


Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Steud. BLUE GRAMA. Native perennial. A common component of short- and midgrass grasslands to the north and west of our area. Doubtful in our area; reports from Travis County need confirmation.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, May 1996; none at SEU, Jan 1997. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Bouteloua hirsuta Lag. HAIRY GRAMA. Native perennial. Common in early successional grasslands, perhaps more common in sandy soils but also on shallow clay loam on limestone ridgetops.


Specimens: Campus D & D Institute, 10 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); I & GN RR, 12 Oct 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); McDonald Ranch, 1941-1942, D. Higdon 4 (TEX-LL); infrequent on limestone plateau 12 mi W of Austin, 12 Oct 1945, B. H. Warnock & C. C. Albers 45-70 (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch, Lake Travis, NW corner of county, 14 Oct 1950, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-501 (TEX-LL); relict grassland, thin soil over limestone, 28 Oct 1954, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL); in red sandy calcareous clay 4 mi NW of Pedernales River ferry on Marshall Ford Lake, 28 Jul 1946, F. A. Barkley & C. Rowell 57 (TEX-LL); McKinney Falls State Park, W of upper falls about 100-200 ft up hill, 3 Nov 1971, S. Oefinger 310 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Bouteloua pectinata Featherly. Bouteloua hirsuta Lag. var. pectinata (Featherly) Cory; Bouteloua hirsuta Lag. subsp. pectinata (Featherly) J. Wipff & S. D. Jones. TALL GRAMA. Native perennial. Abundant on open rocky limestone slopes, particularly those underlain by Glen Rose Limestone, often in association with Muhlenbergia reverchonii.


Specimens: 9 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958. Presumably included by Young (1920) and Lynch (1974) within Bouteloua hirsuta.


Bouteloua repens (Kunth) Scribn. & Merr. SLENDER GRAMA. Native perennial. Rare, one record from a degraded Blackland Prairie site. A species primarily of the South Texas Plains; our report would represent the northern limit of its range.


Specimens: Center Union Church cemetery on Houston Black clay, 16 Jul 1987, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA). No specimens at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Bouteloua rigidiseta (Steud.) Hitchc. var. rigidiseta. TEXAS GRAMA. Native perennial. Common in early successional grasslands and open woodlands on shallow sandy to clayey soils.


Specimens: 16 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Polyodon texanus Nash): Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Bouteloua trifida Thurb. Bouteloua trifida S. Wats. RED GRAMA. Native perennial. Frequent in early successional grasslands and open woodlands on shallow sandy to clayey soils.


Specimens: 11 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Briza minor L. LITTLE QUAKINGGRASS. Naturalized annual. Frequent in moist sandy soils in disturbed or early successional communities on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain, but apparently rare in Travis County.


Specimens: Limestone bluff S of Williamson Creek, E of I-35 in SE Austin, juniper woodland, along creek in shade, 25 May 1983, B. Ertter & J. E. Grimes 4849 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Bromus catharticus Vahl. Bromus unioloides H.B.K.; Bromus willdenowii Kunth. RESCUEGRASS. Naturalized annual. Native of South America, widely naturalized in southern North America. Common in disturbed situations on all soils, particularly along riparian woodlands and in urban lawns.


Specimens: 10 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Bromus diandrus Roth. RIPGUT BROME. Adventive annual. Apparently a rare weed in our area, persistent at the site vouchered below and at several spots along I-35.


Specimens: Abundant in partially shaded vacant lot on loamy urban soils, both sides of Tonkawa Trail at W. 38th St., Austin, 26 Mar 1995, W. R. Carr 14443 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Bromus japonicus Murr. Bromus japonicus L. JAPANESE BROME. Naturalized annual. Vernally abundant in grasslands and disturbed sites in all soil types.


Specimens: Austin, 1 May 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); relict grassland plot, Austin clay over Austin chalk, Aristida community, 3 May 1961, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL); abundant in open field on high creek terrace, E side of Bull Creek SE of jct. Loop 360 and Lakewood Dr., 14 May 1983, W. R. Carr 4870 (TAES). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Bromus pubescens Muhl. Bromus purgans of auth. HAIRY BROME. Native perennial. Occasional in and along margins of mesic woodlands on rocky limestone slopes and on creek and river terraces. The identity of this tall, graceful, seemingly perennial brome is not entirely clear. Wagnon (1952) treated our plants as Bromus nottowayanus Fern., a decision that was not followed by Gould (1975). More problematic is the relationship of Bromus pubescens to Bromus texensis, an endemic annual. Most of our material cannot be determined with certainty.


Specimens: Colorado River bluff, Deep Eddy, 19 Apr 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); rich moist shaded bluff near Austin, Apr 1921, B. C. Tharp 1069 (TEX-LL); Austin, 17 May 1941, B. C. Tharp 44410 (TEX-LL); floodplain of the Colorado River near Austin, 12 Apr 1946, B. C. Tharp & F. A. Barkley T16128 (TEX-LL); occasional along margin of oak-cedar woods, along vehicle trail N of residences on summit of Cat Mt., ca. 1500 ft. SE of jct. F. M. 2222 and Far West Blvd., W. R. Carr 4743 (TAES, TEX-LL); cedar-oak woods on rocky limestone slope at mouth of ravine, SE side of Bull Creek, SE side of Loop 360 ca. 0.6-0.7 mi NE of Lakewood Dr., 14 May 1983, W. R. Carr 4866 (BRIT/SMU); clay soils over Austin Chalk in riparian woodland above S bank of Tar Branch, Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, 4 May 1995, P. D. Turner 25 (TEX-LL); locally common in mesic deciduous woodland on alluvial terrace, E bank of Shoal Creek ca. 100 ft. N of W. 29th St. bridge, Austin, 27 Apr 1996, W. R. Carr 15179 (TEX-LL); occasional in mixed evergreen-deciduous riparian woodland or forest strip on narrow alluvial terrace and colluvial slope at foot of limestone bluff, NE bank of Bear Creek downstream from dam just N of house on Tabor Tract (a Prop 2 tract), ca. 3.7-3.8 airmiles SSE of R. M. 1826 bridge over Slaughter Creek, 24 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr 18893 (TEX-LL); rare in mostly deciduous riparian forest along banks of nearly perennial stretch of Bear Creek in canyon between steep limestone walls, E end of Lancaster Tract (a Prop 2 tract) ca. 1.2 airmiles W of jct. R. M. 1626 and Brodie Lane, ca. 0.4 mi upstream from R. M. 1626 bridge, 26 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr 18904 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. References: Wagnon, 1952.


Bromus secalinus L. Incl. Bromus commutatus Schrad., Bromus rigidus Roth. RYE BROME. Adventive annual. Native of the Old World, naturalized in parts of North America. Apparently an uncommon adventive in our area, but reported by Higdon (1948) from all ecological zones of Travis County.


Specimens: Austin, roadside, 4 May 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 9 May 1935, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); waste places, Austin, 29 Apr 1949, W. V. Brown 3515 (TEX-LL); rare in seasonally moist, poorly drained sandy clay loam, weed-dominated community on vacant land ca. 200-300 ft. E of N Lamar Blvd. ca. 1/4 mi N of W. 45th St., Austin, 5 May 1996, W. R. Carr 15290 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Bromus tectorum L. DOWNY BROME. Naturalized annual. Included by Brown (1958) without annotation, perhaps based on records from adjacent counties. To be expected in grazed pastures and mechanically disturbed upland sites.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Bromus texensis (Shear) Hitchc. TEXAS BROME. Native annual; a patchily-distributed endemic of the South Texas Plains and Edwards Plateau, with records from Aransas, Bexar, Duval, Goliad, Jim Wells, Karnes, Nueces, San Patricio and Travis counties (Wagnon, 1952; TEX-LL, 2001). Reported by Young (1920) from moist soil on bluffs of the Colorado River; however, her voucher specimen at TEX-LL was anonymously annotated to Bromus pubescens. Reported by Higdon (1948) from Blackland Prairies and the Colorado River floodplain, but no vouchers have come to light. The status of this endemic in our area, and its range-wide taxonomic relationship to Bromus pubescens, merits further study.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Lynch, 1974. References: Wagnon, 1952.


Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. BUFFALOGRASS. Native perennial. One of the dominant species of shortgrass communities in the western half of Texas, common in our area only where mowing or grazing reduces competition from taller grasses and forbs. Recently developed strains are finding increasing acceptance as alternative lawngrasses.


Specimens: 13 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Cenchrus spinifex Cav. Cenchrus incertus M. A. Curtis; Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth. SANDBURGRASS. Native annual or short-lived perennial. Locally common in pastures, early successional grasslands and in disturbed sites on sandy soils; rare in clays derived from limestone. Brown (1958) reported an additional sandbur, Cenchrus echinatus L., in his regional grass flora, perhaps on the basis of its occurrence in some adjacent county.


Specimens: University campus, 28 May 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); sandy soil, field beyond Montopolis bridge, Austin, 4 Jun 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); sandy soil, Colorado River, 2 Jul 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); floodplain, Onion Creek, Austin, 28 Nov 1921, E. A. Allen s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 9 Dec 1922, R. H. Painter 22 (SEU); 3610 Windsor Rd., 20 Oct 1948, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL); on lawn of University of Texas campus, Austin, 15 May 1955, M. C. Johnston & W. L. McCart 530 (TEX-LL); SEU campus, disturbed sandy soil, light shade, 3 Sep 1962, Bro. D. Lynch 9503 (SEU) and 27 Sep 1963, Bro. D. Lynch 9504 (SEU); flood plain at lower end of Town Lake, recently disturbed sandy loam, unshaded, 9 Jul 1969, Bro. D. Lynch 9502 (SEU). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Cenchrus tribuloides); Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Chasmanthium latifolium (Michx.) Yates. Uniola latifolia Michx. CREEKOATS. Native perennial. Common in alluvial soils in riparian woodlands, usually sharing ground-layer dominance with Elymus virginicus.


Specimens: 9 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1959; Lynch, 1974.


Chloris andropogonoides Fourn. Chloris tenuispica Nash. SLIMSPIKE WINDMILLGRASS. Native perennial of South Texas and northern Mexico. Rare in our area, or perhaps simply overlooked. According to Gould, this species hybridizes with Chloris cucullata and Chloris verticillata where their ranges overlap; such plants are presumably referred to Chloris subdolichostachya.


Specimens: University campus, 28 May 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Barton Springs, 13 Oct 1941, W. D. Higdon 5 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. References: Anderson, 1974; Varadarajan & Gilmartin, 1983.


Chloris ciliata Swartz. FRINGED CHLORIS. Perennial, native to various parts of the New World from Texas south to Uruguay (Gould, 1975), but probably adventive in our area. References: Anderson, 1974; Varadarajan & Gilmartin, 1983.


Specimens: Zilker Park, 6 Oct 1957, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958. References: Anderson, 1974; Varadarajan & Gilmartin, 1983.


Chloris cucullata Bisch. HOODED WINDMILLGRASS. Native perennial. Common in pastures, early successional grasslands and disturbed sites on sandy soils, occasional in clays of limestone uplands.


Specimens: 12 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: Anderson, 1974; Brown, 1969; Varadarajan & Gilmartin, 1983.


Chloris pluriflora (Fourn.) Clayt. Trichloris pluriflora Fourn. MANYFLOWERED FALSE-RHODESGRASS. Native perennial. Native of the New World, ranging from South Texas to South America. Frequent on the South Texas Plains, but somewhat anomalous in our area. The one known Travis County site supports other "southern" species, such as Castela erecta subsp. texana, Lycium berlandieri, and Ehretia anacua, for which Travis County may represent the northern limit of present distribution.


Specimens: Below S-facing bluff, N side of Colorado River just W of Loop 360 bridge, 19 Jun 1989, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA), 1 Oct 1989, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 10077 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Chloris subdolichostachya Muell. Chloris latisquamea Nash. SHORTSPIKE WINDMILLGRASS. Native perennial. According to Gould (1975), Chloris subdolichostachya "is made up largely or possibly entirely of hybrid derivatives of Chloris cucullata X Chloris verticillata crosses and Chloris cucullata X Chloris andropogonoides crosses." Occasional in our area, somewhat weedy in disturbed grasslands and ruderal areas.


Specimens: Waller Creek, 12 Oct 1908, Wolf s.n (TEX-LL); Austin, 22 Nov 1922, R. H. Painter 68 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. Other reports: Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, 1996). References: Anderson, 1974; Brown, 1969; Varadarajan & Gilmartin, 1983.


Chloris verticillata Nutt. TUMBLE WINDMILLGRASS. Native perennial. Occasional in grasslands on sandy to clayey substrates, particularly in grazed or other early successional areas.


Specimens: McKinney Falls State Park, W of upper falls about 100 ft. up the road, disturbed reek floodplain, gravelly with alluvium, 3 Nov 1971, S. Oefinger Jr. 306 (TEX-LL); site 10 on Shield Ranch, 1 Jul 1982, D. W. Dunlap 96 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. Other reports: Edwards Plateau Laboratory I (Lynch, 1975); plateau top, Webster Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 23 Jul 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). References: Anderson, 1974; Brown, 1969; Varadarajan & Gilmartin, 1983.


Chloris virgata Sw. SHOWY WINDMILLGRASS. Adventive perennial; native to tropical regions worldwide. Probably introduced into our area as a forage grass and perhaps not a persistent member of our flora.


Specimens: Locally abundant in moderately moist silty clay loam in former pasture on open alluvial terrace, park land on N side of Floral Park Rd. ca. 2 mi W of Jollyville Rd., 6 Dec 1986, W. R. Carr & E. A. Kutac 7969 (TEX-LL); common in dry stony clay and silt on terraces in formerly grazed (?) broad ravine bottom, 1000 ft. NNW of Floral Park & Raining Oaks Drs., 7 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 9215. Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958. References: Anderson, 1974; Varadarajan & Gilmartin, 1983.


Coelorachis cylindrica (Michx.) Nash. Manisuris cylindrica Michx. CAROLINA JOINTTAIL. Native perennial. Frequent in sandy to loamy soils in grasslands and open woodlands to the east of our area; less common in Travis County, mostly in openings in post oak woodlands on sandy to gravelly Pleistocene terrace deposits or in openings in live oak woodlands on Speck soils over Edwards Limestone.


Specimens: Austin, 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Park Springs Church cemetery, 29 Jun 1986, C. W. Sexton & M. K. Sexton s.n. (COA); live oak savanna on Speck soils over Edwards Limestone on karstic upland, Edwards 82 Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 8 May 2000, W. R. Carr 18947 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. BERMUDAGRASS. Naturalized perennial; native of tropical and subtropical Africa (Gould, 1975). Cultivated as a lawn and pasture grass, but also thoroughly naturalized as a weed of moist alluvial soils and, less commonly, in disturbed upland situations. As early as the second decade of this century, bermudagrass was "abundant everywhere" in the Austin area (Young, 1920), and this situation has changed little during the intervening decades. The dearth of Travis County specimens at TEX-LL is therefore inexplicable.


Specimens: University campus, 15 Dec 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Manor, 11 Oct 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Dactylis glomerata L. ORCHARDGRASS. Adventive perennial; native of temperate parts of the Old World. Introduced as a forage grass in northeastern North America, where it has become naturalized and something of a noxious weed. Apparently rare in our area and perhaps not a persistent member of our flora.


Specimens: Rare, local around pile of refuge on deep loamy soils in wooded valley bottom between limestone ridges, SE side of Loop 360 ca. 0.6 mi NE of Lakewood Dr., 7 May 1983, W. R. Carr 4824 (BRIT/SMU, UVST); rare in moderately moist disturbed clay loam and/or fill on curblawn in "business park" on SW edge of Colorado River terrace, ca. 500 ft. NW of Loop 360 bridge, 1 Mar 1987, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 7984 (TAES). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Beauv. DURBAN CROWFOOTGRASS. Naturalized annual. Rather common in disturbed sandy on the Gulf Coastal Plain of eastern Texas. Uncommon in our area, occurring as a weed of sidewalk cracks and disturbed dry sandy soils.


Specimens: Lakeside bluff, northwestern edge of county, J. B. Watkins Ranch, 29 Jul 1950, B. C. Tharp & C. S. York 50-26 (TEX-LL); disturbed alluvial sands in Colorado River bottom under US Rt. 183 bridges, 2 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3448. Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Desmazeria rigida (L.) Tutin. Catapodium rigidum (L.) C. E. Hubb.; Scleropoa rigida (L.) Griseb. CATAPODIUM. Naturalized annual. Occasional in clay soils of pastures, in siltier soils on alluvial bars, and in disturbed soils on roadsides.


Specimens: Lake Austin Dam, Austin, 20 May 1939, W. A. Silveus 7027 (TEX-LL) and 5 Jun 1939, W. A. Silveus 7022 (TEX-LL); beneath oaks at Travis Dam, Austin, 29 Apr 1941, B. H. Warnock 21666 (TEX-LL); Austin, 17 May 1944, Innes & Warnock s.n. (TEX-LL); infrequent around hills in limestone soil on Bee Cave Rd. about 10 mi W of Austin, 24 Mar 1946, B. H. Warnock 46049 (TEX-LL); top of bluff at W end of Austin Dam, Austin, 20 Apr 1957, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL); tight clay among rock rubble in dry bed of Shoal Creek just S of W. 45th St. bridge, Austin, 27 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4771 (UVST); abundant in clay in disturbed open area on trail across limestone ridgetop, North Cat Mt., 8 May 1983, W. R. Carr 4851 (BRIT/SMU); sandy gravel over Austin Chalk along Wells Branch in Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, 19 May 1995, P. D. Turner 28 (TEX-LL); rare in disturbed area around old homesite on summit of a Glen Rose hilltop on Hafif Tract (a Prop 2 tract), ca. 0.65 airmiles S to SSW of R. M. 1826 bridge over Slaughter Creek, ca. 2.25 airmiles S to SSW of jct. R. M. 1826 and US Rt. 290, 19 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 18863 (TEX-LL); rare in fairly dry sand and gravel on high bar in bed of intermittent creek, Bear Creek just above dam just N of house on Tabor Tract (a Prop 2 tract), ca. 3.6 airmiles S to SSE of R. M. 1826 bridge over Slaughter Creek, 24 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr 18894 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf. Andropogon annulatus Forssk. KLEBERG BLUESTEM. Introduced perennial; native of tropical and subtropical regions in the Old World (Gould, 1975). Introduced as a forage grass and now a noxious weed in much of the South Texas Plains. Apparently rare in our area, but possibly increasing.


Specimens: On long-deferred severally overgrazed rangeland with scattered Quercus fusiformis and Carya illinoinensis on clay soil over Austin Chalk in Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, 16 May 1995, P. D. Turner 37 (TEX-LL) and 8 Jul 1995, P. D. Turner 49 (TEX-LL); rare in gravel and silt among limestone rock rubble in frequently flood-scoured bed of Barton Creek, ca. 3/4 mi upstream from Barton Springs Pool, 16 Nov 1996, W. R. Carr, P. McNeal & P. Turner 15854 (TEX-LL); scattered patches in various habitats, N end of Southeast Metro County Park (undeveloped), 10 Nov 1998, Carr, Siegenthaler, Terpening & Chapman 17897 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Dichanthium aristatum (Poir.) C. E. Hubb. Andropogon nodosus (Willem.) Nash. ANGLETON BLUESTEM. Introduced perennial; native of subtropical China. Introduced as a forage grass and naturalized as a weed of moist soils of roadside ditches in much of South Texas. Rare in our area, perhaps persistent where seeded.


Specimens: Locally abundant in moderately moist silty clay loam in former pasture on open alluvial terrace, park land on N side of Floral Park Rd. ca. 2 mi W of Jollyville Rd., 6 Dec 1986, W. R. Carr & E. A. Kutac 7967 (TAES, TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Dichanthium sericeum (R. Br.) A. Camus. Andropogon sericeus R. Br. SILKY BLUESTEM. Naturalized perennial. Native of Australia (Gould, 1975); widely planted as a forage grass in South Texas and now naturalized in that region. Two recent collections suggest that the species has potential to become a noxious weed in our area.


Specimens: A few plants in eroding clay on fenceline road/clearing running NNE-SSW through Ulmus crassifolia-Juniperus ashei woodland on steep N-facing slope of Navarro Clay, N end of Southeast Metro County Park (undeveloped), 10 Nov 1998, Carr, Siegenthaler, Terpening & Chapman 17896 (TEX-LL); locally common in disturbed stony clay around unshaded E base of recently constructed hardware superstore, eastward to edge of juniper woodland on limestone upland, N side of Ben White Blvd. between Loop 360 and MoPac, south Austin, 22 May 1999, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 18244 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Digitaria californica (Benth.) Henr. Trichachne californica (Benth.) Chase. ARIZONA COTTONTOP. Native perennial. A species of the western United States and northern Mexico, apparently rare in our area. No recent specimens or reports, but likely to occur in small numbers in post oak woodlands on sandy gravelly alluvial terraces. Brown (1958) included two similar species, Digitaria patens (Swallen) Henr. and Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekmann, apparently on the basis of their potential occurrence in our area.


Specimens: Austin, 12 Oct 1934, B. C. Tharp 9142 (TEX-LL); Austin, 29 Oct 1942, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Tarrytown, 18 Jul 1948, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948.


Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel. Digitaria adscendens (H.B.K.) Henrard. SOUTHERN CRABGRASS. Annual, presumably native to the Old World, now widely naturalized in temperate and tropical America. Frequent in light-textured soils on disturbed alluvial terraces; also a weed of garden beds.


Specimens: N bank S of bridge, 2 Nov 1908, Heald, Wolf & York 427 (TEX-LL); sandy cultivated soil, 0 mi SE of Austin, 2 Jul 1920, B. C. Tharp 26 (TEX-LL); Austin, floodplain, 9 Nov 1922, R. H. Painter 25 (TEX-LL); McDonald Ranch, 1941-1942, D. Higdon 109 (TEX-LL); weed on lawn, Chemistry Building, University of Texas campus, 1 Jan 1955, W. L. McCart 5004 (TEX-LL); disturbed loamy/sandy soil on future home site, limestone ridgetop, North Cat Mt., 11 Jul 1982, W. R. Carr 4150 (TAES); common weed in garden in sandy loam over gravelly/sandy Pleistocene high terrace deposits, Farquhar Farms ca. 5 mi SE of Manor, 16 Jun 1996, W. R. Carr, M. L. Price, C. & N. Farquhar 15535 (TEX-LL); rare in dry silt and sand exposed in bed of Lake Travis during summer of low water level, S end of Sandy Creek Park, 2 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr 15587 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Gould, 1963; Webster, 1987; Webster & Hatch, 1981.


Digitaria cognata (Schult.) Pilger subsp. pubiflora (L. H. Dewey) Wipff. Leptoloma cognatum (Schult.) Chase; Panicum cognatum Schult. FALL WITCHGRASS. Native perennial. Frequent in grasslands and open woodlands on well drained, sandy to clayey soils on uplands and slopes.


Specimens: 17 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. Panicum sanguinale L.; Syntherisma sanguinalis (L.) Dulac. HAIRY CRABGRASS. Annual, presumably native of the Old World, now widely naturalized in temperate North America. Apparently an uncommon lawn weed in our area.


Specimens: On lawn, University of Texas campus, 15 May 1955, W. L. McCart 5431 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: Gould, 1963; Webster, 1987.


Echinochloa colona (L.) Link. Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link. JUNGLERICE. Annual, native to Old World tropics, naturalized in much of North America. A weed of moist disturbed soils and cultivated fields.


Specimens: 18 sheets at TEX-LL, Jun 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: Gould, Ali & Fairbrothers, 1972.


Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. BARNYARDGRASS. Naturalized annual. Occasional in clayey soils in creekbeds and other moist disturbed sites. Difficult to distinguish from the next two native taxa.


Specimens: Rare in moist clay and gravel in disturbed creekbed, Far West Blvd. on N side of Cat Mt., 1 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4171 (TAES); Lake Long, NE shoreline, occasional along shore and in up to 3 cm of water, 6 Jul 1984, F. R. Barrie 805 (TEX-LL); common in moist clay and clay in partially shaded bed of tributary of Bull Creek ca. 300 ft. S of Floral Park Drive bridge, 9 Sep. 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9234; gravel bar in Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, 24 Aug 1995, P. D. Turner 150 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: Gould, Ali & Fairbrothers, 1972.


Echinochloa crus-pavonis (H.B.K.) Schult. var. macera (Wiegand) Gould. BARNYARDGRASS. Native annual. Occasional in clayey soils in creekbeds and other moist disturbed sites.


Specimens: Austin, 15 Oct 1934, B. C. Tharp 20 (TEX-LL); Colorado River near Austin, 15 Jun 1936, B. C. Tharp 43083 (TEX-LL); base submerged in pond near Barton Springs Creek, 23 Jul 1943, F. A. Barkley 13484 (TEX-LL); seeping area at side of F. M. 969, 6.5 mi E of Webberville, near Travis-Bastrop county line, 5 Jun 1967, J. R. Crutchfield 2894 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Gould, Ali & Fairbrothers, 1972.


Echinochloa muricata (Beauv.) Fern. BARNYARDGRASS. Native annual. Occasional in clayey soils in creekbeds and other moist disturbed sites.


Specimens: Silt at water's edge, Bee Creek ravine, Austin, 2 Aug 1920, B. C. Tharp 21 (TEX-LL); Onion Creek, 27 Sep 1941, B. Moon 135 (TEX-LL); common in wet much along unshaded margin of lagoons at Hornsby Bend Sewage Treatment Plant, 25 Oct 1986, W. R. Carr & E. A. Kutac 7927 (BRIT/SMU); common along creek drainages in Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, 10 Jul 1995, P. D. Turner 118 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Gould, Ali & Fairbrothers, 1972.


Echinochloa walteri (Pursh) Heller. WALTER BARNYARDGRASS. Native annual. Rare in moist clayey soils along banks of the Colorado River.


Specimens: Below sewage plant, Austin, 28 May 1921, B. C. Tharp 1291 (TEX-LL); Austin, 7 Jul 1921, B. C. Tharp 38 (TEX-LL); common in wet clay on bank of Colorado River at Hornsby Bend Sewage Treatment Plant, 28 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 9189 (UVST); rare in wet clay on unshaded N bank of Colorado River at Precinct 1 Park, 1 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9193 (TAES). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Lynch, 1974. References: Gould, Ali & Fairbrothers, 1972.


Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. GOOSEGRASS. Naturalize annual; native of Eurasia, naturalized in much of the New World. Occasional in disturbed situations, perhaps most conspicuous as a weed of sidewalk cracks.


Specimens: Deep Eddy, Austin, 10 Oct 1908, Heald & Wolf s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 29 Oct 1941, W. D. Higdon s.n. (TEX-LL); black prairie, Payton farm, 7 mi N of Austin, 13 Oct 1944, R. B. Payton 7 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Elymus canadensis L. CANADA WILDRYE. Elymus villosus Muhl. Native perennial. Frequent in late successional mid- to tallgrass grasslands, perhaps more common along margins of upland live oak woodlands. Most of our plants belong to var. canadensis, but Brown (1958) indicated that var. interruptus (Buckl.) Church also occurs in the area.


Specimens: Shoal Creek, summer 1912, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 17 May 1941, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); West Lake Hills on W side of Austin, along Bee Creek and on rocky limestone hills with scrubby Quercus, Juniperus ashei woods, 30 May 1974, M. Nee & M. Whelan 11842 (TEX-LL); common on high open terrace of Bull Creek, 26 May 1982, W. R. Carr 3997 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Elymus virginicus L. VIRGINIA WILDRYE. Native perennial. One of the dominant species of the ground layer of deciduous woodlands on deep alluvial soils on terraces of intermittent and perennial streams.


Specimens: 10 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Eragrostis barrelieri Daveau. MEDITERRANEAN LOVEGRASS. Naturalized annual; native of the Mediterranean region, naturalized in much of the southwestern United States. In our area, a weed of sidewalk cracks and compacted soils of parking lots and roadsides.


Specimens: 10 sheets at TEX-LL, Jun 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Eragrostis capillaris Nees. LACEGRASS. Native annual. A species of the southeastern United States. Reported by Young (1920) from "dry woods," perhaps the post oak woodlands of the eastern half of the county.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Jun 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) E. Mosher. Eragrostis caroliniana (Spreng.) Scribn. STINKGRASS. Adventive annual; native of Europe, naturalized in ruderal areas in much of North America. A rare weed in our area.


Specimens: McDonald Ranch, 1941-1942, D. Higdon 125 (TEX-LL); in flower bed, on loan, University of Texas campus, M. C. Johnston & W. L. McCart 5426 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Eragrostis curtipedicellata Buckl. GUMMY LOVEGRASS. Native perennial. Rare, mostly in grasslands and disturbed open areas on sandy soils, often associated with Colorado River terrace deposits.


Specimens: Campus D & D Institute, 10 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson 527 (TEX-LL); gravelly soil E of the dam, Austin, 26 Jul 1920, B. C. Tharp 50 (TEX-LL); near Austin, 18 Apr 1921, B. C. Tharp 1309 (TEX-LL); Austin, airport, 12 Dec 1941, B. C. Tharp 43109 (TEX-LL); sandy alluvium on bars exposed along N bank of Colorado River W of US Rt. 183 bridges, Austin, 27 Apr 1982, W. R. Carr 3857 (BRIT/SMU); moist sand on unshaded alluvial bank, S bank of Colorado River 500 ft. E of Longhorn Dam, Austin, 12 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9244 (TAES); shallow gravelly clay loam over Austin Chalk, in disturbed grassland immediately E of Memorial Hill Cemetery on E side of IH-35 ca. 0.1 mi. N of Dessau Rd./Howard Lane exit, 2 Sep 1990, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 10786 (TEX-LL); loamy fine sand on old Colorado River terrace deposits, seldom used soccer field on level unshaded area on N side of W First St., 0.3 mi. W of Lamar, Austin, 6 Sep 1991, W. R. Carr & W. C. Bergquist 11388 (TEX-LL); Rodgers Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 14 Jun 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR); rare in partial shade of Juniperus ashei along trail in weedy grassland, Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, 7 Jul 1995, P. D. Turner 109 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Eragrostis intermedia Hitchc. Eragrostis lugens Nees, in part. PLAINS LOVEGRASS. Native perennial. The most common lovegrass of our area, occurring in grasslands and open woodlands on well drained sandy to clayey soils, increasing under light grazing regimes.


Specimens: 12 sheets at TEX-LL, Jun 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees ex Steud. var. pectinacea. Eragrostis diffusa Buckl.; Eragrostis arida Hitchc. SPREADING LOVEGRASS. Naturalized annual. Rare in our area, in early successional or disturbed sites on loose, light-textured soils.


Specimens: Dry limestone soil, Austin, Jun 1920, B. C. Tharp 7703 (TEX-LL); dry limestone soil, Austin, Jul 1920, B. C. Tharp 49 (TEX-LL); near Austin, below sewage plant, 15 Oct 1922, B. C. Tharp 1295 (TEX-LL); Austin, Colorado River flood plain, 13 Nov 1928, A. Armer 5295 (TEX-LL); Lake Austin, 13 Oct 1941, B. Moon 175 (TEX-LL); sandy alluvium along N bank of Colorado River just W of US Rt. 183 bridges, 1 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3432 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Eragrostis pilosa (L.) Beauv. INDIA LOVEGRASS. Adventive annual. Introduced from the Old World, adventive or naturalized in much of the New World. Reported by Young (1920) from Travis County, but no voucher specimen could be located at TEX-LL.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Jun 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Eragrostis reptans (Michx.) Nees. Neeragrostis reptans (Michx.) Nicora. CREEPING LOVEGRASS. Native annual. Abundant in silt, sand and gravel exposed in bed of Lake Travis during periods of low water levels.


Specimens: Manor, 8 Oct 1937, B. C. Tharp 44192 (TEX-LL); on silt and gravel beach exposed along Lake Travis at Turkey Bend LCRA Park, 3 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr 9109 (BRIT/SMU, UVST); rare in moist to dry silt and limestone gravel exposed in bed of Lake Travis during year of exceptionally low water level, mouth of Cypress Creek at Cypress Creek Park, 25 Jun 1996, W. R. Carr 15553 (TEX-LL); rare in silt and sand exposed in bed of Lake Travis during summer of low water level, inlet S of entrance road at Arkansas Bend County Park, 11 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr, C. Ladd & T. Siegenthaler 15599 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Eragrostis secundiflora Presl subsp. oxylepis (Torr.) S. D. Koch. Eragrostis oxylepis (Torr.) Torr.; Eragrostis beyrichii J. G. Smith. RED LOVEGRASS. Native perennial. Common in early successional grasslands, heavily grazed pastures, and open disturbed sites, usually on sandy soils.


Specimens: 14 sheets at TEX-LL, Jun 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. References: Koch, 1978.


Eragrostis sessilispica Buckl. TUMBLE LOVEGRASS. Native perennial. Common just to the east of our area in early successional grasslands and grazed pastures associated with post oak woodlands on sandy soils. Apparently rare in Travis County, but to be expected on ancient terraces of the Colorado River.


Specimens: Watkins Ranch in NW Travis County above Cow Creek on Lake Travis, 2 Jun 1951, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-927 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh) Steud. PURPLE LOVEGRASS. Native perennial. Rare, local in open post oak woodlands over sandy gravelly Pleistocene terrace deposits.


Specimens: Austin, 12 Aug 1926, B. C. Tharp 43203 (TEX-LL); locally common in open post oak-blackjack oak-Texas black hickory woodland in sandy loam Alfisols over Pleistocene high terrace deposits, highly impacted recreation area at Kate's and Johnson's coves, N end of Pace Bend Park, 19 Oct 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15803 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. Other reports: Easley Cemetery (Sexton, 1987).


Eragrostis superba Wawra & Peyr. WILLMANN LOVEGRASS. Introduced perennial; native of Africa. Rare, mostly where seeded for forage or erosion control. Apparently a recent introduction.


Specimens: Paleface Ranch, near jct. of Hwy 71 and Haynie Flat Rd., in large pasture on S side of Hwy 71, dry open hillside, 22 Jun 1988, N. Fowler 4898 (TEX-LL); locally common in partial shade of scattered Quercus fusiformis, Juniperus ashei, etc., in shallow stony clay on gentle slope underlain by Glen Rose Limestone, W end of picnic area on N side of entrance road to Mansfield Dam County Park, 25 Jun 1996, W. R. Carr 15559 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Eragrostis trichodes (Nutt.) Wood. Eragrostis pilifera Scheele. SAND LOVEGRASS. Native perennial. Rare in sandy soils of open post oak woodlands.


Specimens: Sandy soils, Hornsby's Bend, 12 Nov 1922, B. C. Tharp 3079 (TEX-LL); Austin, Westfield, 13 Oct 1928, B. C. Tharp 5130 (TEX-LL); Austin, Country Club, 19 Oct 1929, B. C. Tharp 7289 (TEX-LL); Country Club, Austin, 21 Nov 1941, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 27 Oct 1941, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); frequent in limestone soil pasture land NE of University of Texas campus about 8 blocks, 28 Oct 1944, B. H. Warnock W1081 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack. CENTIPEDEGRASS. Introduced perennial; native of southeast Asia. Occasionally utilized as a lawn grass in our area but rarely if ever escaping cultivation.


Specimens: Lawn grass, 3610 Windsor Rd., Austin, 1 Aug 1947, W. V. Brown 3458 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Eriochloa sericea (Scheele) Munro. SILKY CUPGRASS. Native perennial. Frequent in midgrass grasslands on a variety of strata, particularly on roadsides and in other areas in which grazing is restricted. Brown (1958) included prairie cupgrass, Eriochloa contracta Hitchc. in his regional grass flora, perhaps on the basis of its potential occurrence in our area; no specimens from Travis County have come to light.


Specimens: Perry's yard, upper Barton [Creek], 7 Oct 1922, R. H. Painter s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 27 Apr 1927, B. C. Tharp 4707 (TEX-LL); 3 mi S of Jollyville, roadside, 24 May 1949, W. V. Brown 3508 (TEX-LL); common in clay loam in abandoned pasture clearing on limestone upland, Lake Austin City Park, 2 May 1982, W. R. Carr 3892 (BRIT/SMU, UVST); site 15 on Shield Ranch, 12 Jul 1982, D. W. Dunlap 107 (TEX-LL); frequent in clay loam on unshaded roadside, NE side of Lake Walter E. Long, 25 Oct 1986, W. R. Carr & E. A. Kutac 7918 (TAES); dry open flat to slightly sloping limestone outcrop, in valley of Barton Creek, ca. 2 mi upstream from Barton Springs at Zilker Park, 0.5 mi NE of Loop 360 bridge, 31 May 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges 10163 (TEX-LL); frequent in opening in Ulmus crassifolia woodland in bottom of canyon on N-facing slope of Navarro Clay, alluvial flat at upper end of easternmost of three stock tanks at N end of Southeast Metro County Park (undeveloped), 10 Nov 1998, Carr, Siegenthaler, Terpening & Chapman 17899 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: Shaw & Webster, 1987.


Erioneuron pilosum (Buckl.) Nash. Tridens pilosus (Buckl.) Hitchc. HAIRY TRIDENS. Native perennial. Common in pastures and early successional grasslands in shallow clay soils on limestone uplands and on dry rocky slopes.


Specimens: 13 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Festuca elatior L. TALL FESCUE. Naturalized perennial. Native of Europe, a noxious weed in much of temperate North America. Seeded for erosion control along highways in our area, escaping and rapidly becoming naturalized in moist soils along watercourses. Apparently a recent introduction, not observed in Travis County by Higdon (1948) or Brown (1958).


Specimens: Moist banks of Shoal Creek between W. 38th and W. 45th Sts., Austin, 17 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4714 and 27 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4774; fairly common along creek drainages in Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, 31 Aug 1995, P. D. Turner 145 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Festuca versuta Beal. TEXAS FESCUE. Native perennial. A woodland species of rather limited distribution, ranging from Oklahoma and Arkansas south to central Texas, where it is known from Bandera, Bexar, Blanco, Fayette, Kendall and Travis counties. Rare to locally common in woodlands along creek terraces and in mesic limestone canyons.


Specimens: Austin, Shoal Creek, Sep 1917, M. S. Young 45 (TEX-LL); river bank below Travis Heights, spring 1921, B. C. Tharp 1072 (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, 14 May 1944, C. C. Albers #43Ph000 (TEX-LL); Bee Creek, rich rocky ravine, 16 May 1949, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL); water treatment plant #4 on Hwy 620, 14 May 1986, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA); rare in moderately moist humus and clay loam over limestone, in shade of Texas oak, Ashe juniper, cedar elm, etc., on lower slopes along ephemeral tributary of Walnut Creek, NE 1/4 of Balcones City Park, 14 Apr 1994, W. R. Carr, A. Price & R. Petkoff 13569-B (TAES, TEX-LL); rare in shade of Ulmus crassifolia, Ungnadia speciosa, Juniperus ashei, etc., on steep rocky colluvial W-facing slope ca. 20-60 ft. above bottom of intermittent creek, along N-draining tributary of Barton Creek roughly 0.9-1.0 airmiles SW of Loop 360 bridge over Barton Creek, 22 May 1999, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 18247 (TEX-LL); common in mostly deciduous riparian forest along banks of nearly perennial stretch of Bear Creek in canyon between steep limestone walls, E end of Lancaster Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 26 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr 18903 (TEX-LL); common in strip of cedar elm forest on silty alluvium in bottom of shallow drainage running SW to NE across Reavley Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 9 May 2000, W. R. Carr 18971 (TEX-LL); Brightleaf State Natural Area; rare (?) on property, 10 plants observed in mesic woodland on clayey to silty mix of alluvium and colluvium on gentle slope < 10 ft above normal flood channel of small stream, in rather deep shade on gentle slope along S side of Dry Creek 200-300 ft. SW of jct. R. M. 2222 and Mesa Dr., 8 May 2001, W. R. Carr & D. Price 19720 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. FOWL MANNA-GRASS. Native perennial. Rare in moist soils near springs and along perennial stretches of creeks.


Specimens: Rare in sedge mat on moist to saturated silty clay alluvium, shaded and ponded stretch of Bull Creek at St. Edward's Park, 10 Apr 1995, W. R. Carr & L. Stone 14451 (TEX-LL) and 30 Apr 1995, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 14550 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Hilaria belangeri (Steud.) Nash. CURLYMESQUITE. Native perennial. Frequent in grasslands on limestone uplands, becoming abundant in lightly grazed pastures on comparatively deep soils. According to Cory (1948), Hilaria belangeri on the Edwards Plateau rarely produces viable seed, its reproduction and spread being instead reliant on rooting of stolons.


Specimens: Openings in oak-cedar-persimmon woodland on clay soils on rocky limestone slope, Bull Creek watershed, 23 Jun 1982, W. R. Carr 4122 (TAES); occasional in grassland on shallow stony noncalcareous clay loam (Crawford and/or Speck series) in openings in Quercus fusiformis woodland on gently rolling upland underlain by Edwards Limestone, on southern (undeveloped) portion of Lady Bird Johnson National Wildflower Center, 10 Nov 2000, W. R. Carr & S. Windhager 19339 (TEX-LL). Specimens at TEX-LL on loan May 1996, not examined. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Hilaria texana); Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: Cory, 1948.


Hordeum murinum L. subsp. leporinum (Link) Arcang. Hordeum leporinum Link. HARE BARLEY. Native of North America, more common in western states than in the east. Rare, apparently not a permanent member of our flora.


Specimens: Austin, roadside near Balcones Research Center, 1 Apr 1967, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Hordeum pusillum Nutt. LITTLE BARLEY. Native annual. Common in grasslands and open areas, including disturbed sites, on all substrates.


Specimens: Austin, spring 1912, A. E. McWilliams 4638 (TEX-LL); Speedway, Austin, 9 Sep 1915, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); abundant, Austin, 8 Apr 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Camp Mabry, 21 Apr 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Hordeum vulgare L. BARLEY. Introduced annual; a crop plant native to the Old World. Rarely escaping cultivation in our area; not a persistent member of the local flora.


Specimens: Colorado River flood plain, Austin, 9 Apr 1929, A. Armer 5314 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Leersia hexandra Swartz. Homalocenchrus hexandrus Kuntze. CLUBHEAD CUTGRASS. Native perennial. A species of the Gulf Coastal plain of the southeastern United States, at or near the western limit of its distribution. Rare in our area, known from a single collection.


Specimens: Austin, Colorado River flood plain, 11 Nov 1928, A. Armer 5304 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. References: Pyrah, 1969.


Leersia monandra Swartz. BUNCH CUTGRASS. Native perennial. Rare in deep soils in juniper woodlands. A species largely restricted to extreme South Texas, previously reported as far north as New Braunfels.


Specimens: Locally abundant in deep loamy soil on flat under junipers, Barton Creek watershed, SuperBowl Sunday, Jan 1996, P. McNeal s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Pyrah, 1969.


Leersia oryzoides (L.) Swartz. RICE CUTGRASS. Native perennial. Rare, forming small colonies in wet silty to clayey soils on banks of perennial streams and along impoundments of the Colorado River, in full sun or more often in partial shade of riparian woodlands.


Specimens: Barton Creek at Austin, no date, W. V. Brown 332 (TEX-LL); Waller Creek, fall 1916, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Waller Creek, Nov 1920, B. C. Tharp 27 (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 20 Oct 1934, B. C. Tharp 52 (TEX-LL); shaded bank of Bull Creek, SE side of Loop 360 0.7 i NE of Lakewood Dr., 24 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3589 (UVST); Bull Creek, NW side of Loop 360 0.3 mi NE of Spicewood Springs Rd., 29 Sep 1984, W. R. Carr 6079 (BRIT/SMU); abundant in wet clay and silt along shaded bank of Bull Creek, NE side of RM 2222, 0.2 mi. NW of Loop 360, 23 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9259 (TAES); Onion Creek at mouth of Williamson Creek, McKinney Falls State Park, 1 Oct 1988, W. R. Carr & E. A. Kutac 9296 and 19 Oct 1995, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15035 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Homolocenchrus oryzoides); Higdon, 1948. References: Pyrah, 1969.


Leersia virginica Willd. WHITEGRASS, VIRGINIA CUTGRASS. Native perennial. Rare, in habitats similar to those of Leersia oryzoides but also in the understory of riparian woodlands. An eastern species near the southwestern limit of its range.


Specimens: bed of ephemeral tributary of Walnut Creek, ca. 100-200 ft. N of Duval Rd. culvert, S end of Balcones City Park, 28 Jul 1993, W. R. Carr, M. Candee & P. Turner 12944 (TAES, TEX-LL); rare on lowest terrace of Walnut Creek in vicinity of Walnut Creek and Well Branch, alluvial sand and clay over Walnut Formation, 8 Jul 1995, P. D. Turner 45 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Pyrah, 1969.


Leptochloa dubia (Kunth) Nees. Diplachne dubia (Kunth) Scribn. GREEN SPRANGLETOP. Native perennial. Common in openings and along margins of woodlands on dry rocky limestone slopes and sandy uplands.


Specimens: Onion Creek, 27 Sep 1941, B. Moon 134 (TEX-LL); McDonald Ranch, 1941-1942, D. Higdon 121 (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch, upland, 8 Oct 1948, Tharp et al. 49033 (TEX-LL); Austin, Mt. Bonnell, 1 Jun 1957, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL); fairly common at the grading 100 yds E of the Bull Creek Lodge on F. M. 2222, 25 yds. N of road, 30 Sep 1966, J. A. Mears 997 (TEX-LL); edge of juniper-oak woodland on limestone slope, North Cat Mt., 27 May 1982, W. R. Carr 4001 (TAES); rocky limestone slopes, West Lake Hills, 22 Nov 1984, W. R. Carr 6161 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. References: McNeill, 1979.


Leptochloa fascicularis (Lam.) Gray. Diplachne fascicularis (Lam.) Beauv. BEARDED SPRANGLETOP. Native annual. Rare in disturbed creek beds and on sandbars and mudflats exposed along the Colorado River and its impoundments.


Specimens: wet sand of Colorado River, Austin, 23 Aug 1922, B. C. Tharp 3085 (TEX-LL); Austin, Colorado River floodplain, 11 Nov 1928, A. Armer 5334 (SEU) and A. Armer 5301 (TEX-LL in part, mixed with Leptochloa dubia); rare in wet clay over disturbed limestone bed of Shoal Creek, 300 ft. N of Greenlawn Parkway, Austin, 5 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 9212 (TAES); occasional in silt and sand exposed in bed of Lake Travis during summer of low water level, Arkansas Bend Park, 11 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr, C. Ladd & T. Siegenthaler 15600 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. References: McNeill, 1979.


Leptochloa mucronata (Michx.) Kunth. Leptochloa filiformis (Lam.) Beauv; Leptochloa filiformis G. Meyer. RED SPRANGLETOP. Native annual. Rare in clayey soils in old fields, pastures, creekbottoms, mudflats and other open disturbed sites. A report of Leptochloa virgata (L.) Beauv. from Travis County by Higdon (1948) was apparently based on Higdon 122 (TEX-LL), determined in 1994 by N. Snow as Leptochloa mucronata.


Specimens: E of campus, 29 Sep 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); pasture E of campus, 15 Oct 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); vacant lot E of Speedway below Archway, Austin, 29 Jun 1920, B. C. Tharp 41 (TEX-LL); Austin, Colorado river flood plain, 11 Nov 1928, A. Armer 5296 (TEX-LL); Onion Creek, 27 Sep 1941, B. Moon 150 (TEX-LL); Barton Springs, Austin, 13 Oct 1941, W. D. Higdon 6 (TEX-LL); McDonald Ranch, 1941-1942, D. Higdon 122 (TEX-LL); abundant in vacant lot back of Texas Museum, Austin, 14 Sep 1944, B. H. Warnock 21730 (TEX-LL); disturbed clay, Bull Creek watershed, 18 Jul 1982, W. R. Carr 4160 (BRIT/SMU); clay loam on weedy upland, S edge of McKinney Falls State Park, 19 Oct 1985, W. R. Carr, E. Kutac and K. Kenka 7038 (SEU); rare in moist alluvial silt on unshaded mat of Justicia americana roots stranded on seasonally dry shore of small ponded area, Bull Creek, 23 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9257 (TAES); rare in dry silt and sand exposed in bed of Lake Travis during summer of low water level, N end of Sandy Creek Park, 2 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr 15589 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: McNeill, 1979.


Leptochloa uninervia (Presl) A. S. Hitchc. & Chase. Diplachne uninervia (Presl) Parodi. MEXICAN SPRANGLETOP. Native annual. Rare in moist clay in open disturbed areas.


Specimens: Wet clayey soil in channelized unshaded bed of small but virtually perennial stream, ca. 50-500 ft. N of W. 45th St., halfway between North Lamar Blvd. and Guadalupe Ave., Austin, 12 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10758 (TAES, TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Limnodea arkansana (Nutt.) L. H. Dew. OZARKGRASS. Native annual. Frequent, sometimes abundant during wetter years, in grasslands and open woodlands on all substrates.


Specimens: 13 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Lolium perenne L. Lolium multiflorum Lam. ITALIAN RYEGRASS. Naturalized annual or short-lived perennial; native of Europe, now widely naturalized in North America. Common to locally abundant in disturbed soils, particularly in clay. In the first account of the flora of our area, Young (1920) described this species as "rare here;" perhaps its use in erosion control has contributed to its subsequent proliferation.


Specimens: 8 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Lolium tementulum L. DARNEL RYEGRASS. Adventive annual; native of Europe, introduced in temperate North America. Described by Correll & Johnston (1970) as "apparently a repeated waif but not persistent" in Texas. Reported by Higdon (1948) from the Blackland Prairie portion of the county.


Specimens: Speedway above 27th St., May 1921, B. C. Tharp 1067 (TEX-LL); Austin, Aug 1921, B. C. Tharp 1311 (TEX-Ll). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Melica mutica Walt. TWOFLOWER MELIC. Native perennial. A species of the southeastern United States, frequent in East Texas but rare in or absent from Travis County. Some or perhaps all reports from our area are based on misidentified specimens of Melica nitens, e.g., Bee Creek, 15 May 1949, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL) and Deep Eddy, 19 Apr 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL).


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, May 1996; none at SEU, Jan 1997. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: Boyle, 1945.


Melica nitens (Scribn.) Piper. SHINING MELIC. Native perennial. Frequent along margins of woodlands on canyon slopes and mesic uplands, usually over limestone. Reports of Melica porteri Scribn. from our area (Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958) were apparently based on another misidentified specimen of Melica nitens, e.g., Barton Creek, 18 Apr 1923, R. H. Painter 297 (TEX-LL).


Specimens: 14 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: Boyle, 1945.


Muhlenbergia bushii Pohl. Muhlenbergia brachyphylla Bush. NODDING MUHLY. Native perennial. All three of our voucher specimens are poor and as a consequence have a confusing annotational history to which additional chapters may yet be added. One or another of these sheets has been variously determined as Muhlenbergia schreberi J. F. Gmel., Muhlenbergia frondosa (Poir.) Fern., Muhlenbergia sobolifera (Muhl.) Trin., and Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin. Painter 11 is presumably the source of the Travis County report by Higdon (1942). The apparently unvouchered report of Muhlenbergia sobolifera from McKinney Falls State Park (Johnston & Riskind, 1975), is tentatively attributed to this species. Muhlenbergia bushii ranges through central and northeastern United States; a population in Travis County would be somewhat disjunct from the balance.


Specimens: Upper slope A, Austin, 14 Apr 1922, R. H. Painter 11 (TEX-LL); Austin, 6 Oct 1923, R. H. Painter s.n. (TEX-LL); Oak Hill near Austin, 22 Oct 1923, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948. References: Pohl, 1969.


Muhlenbergia involuta Swall. CANYON MUHLY. Native perennial; endemic to the Edwards Plateau, with records from Bandera, Blanco, Burnet, Comal, Edwards, Hays, Kendall, Kerr, Medina and Travis counties. Occasional in shallow rocky calcareous soils on seasonally moist, at least partially open slopes of limestone canyons. Reported to be a fertile hybrid of Muhlenbergia lindheimeri and Muhlenbergia reverchonii.


Specimens: Austin, 24 Oct 1925, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Edwards Plateau, 25 Oct 1925, B. C. Tharp 5198 (TEX-LL); frequent at Oswald Wolf's Lodge 8 mi W of Austin, limestone soil, 30 Sep 1945, B. H. Warnock 45-27 (TEX-LL); rocky hillside 2 mi E of Hamilton Pool, 31 Oct 1948, G. L. Webster 1961 (TEX-LL); 8 mi W of Trading Post on cut off road to Pedernales bridge, 8 Dec 1949, W. V. Brown 50-323 (TEX-LL); Pedernales Road 8 mi W of Bee Cave, 12 Dec 1949, B. C. Tharp 53-250 (TEX-LL); Austin, 26 Oct 1974, G. Edwards s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. Other reports: Wild Basin (Walther, 1985). References: Swallen, 1932.


Muhlenbergia lindheimeri Hitchc. CREEK MUHLY, LINDHEIMER MUHLY. Native perennial. Common in gravelly creekbottoms and around seeps on limestone slopes.


Specimens: Infrequent along roadside at foot of Mt. Bonnell near bridge on E side, 17 Oct 1944, B. H. Warnock W1065 (TEX-LL); with live oak and juniper, along US 290 near Oak Hill, 1 Oct 1948, C. M. Rogers 6520 (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch, upland, 8 Oct 1948, B. C. Tharp et al. 49004 (TEX-LL) and 14 Oct 1950, B. C. Tharp 51-516 (TEX-LL); edge of Onion Creek near San Antonio Hwy. bridge, 14 Nov 1948, W. V. Brown 3487 (TEX-LL); Austin, 26 Oct 1974, G. Edwards s.n. (TEX-LL); Dry Creek Canyon, Austin, 21 Nov 1982, L. C. Barnett 5 (TEX-LL); gravelly creekbottoms, Lime Creek Rd. near Sandy Creek Park, 8 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3487 (BRIT/SMU, TAES); moist shallow alluvial clay and silt over limestone in bed of intermittent to nearly perennial stream between canyon slopes supporting Ashe juniper-oak woodland, ca. 2.1 airmiles NW of jct. St. Rt. 71 and R. M. 620, 23 Oct 1992, W. R. Carr, D. Keddy-Hector & P. Turner 12480 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Muhlenbergia reverchonii Vasey & Scribn. SEEP MUHLY. Native perennial. Common to locally abundant, often co-dominant with Bouteloua pectinata on somewhat eroded rocky Glen Rose limestone slopes, particularly in areas that are moistened in the spring by persistent seepage but become at least surficially xeric in summer and fall.


Specimens: 13 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Muhlenbergia rigens (Benth.) Hitch. DEERGRASS. Native perennial. A species of the southwestern US and adjacent Mexico; locally common on slopes on the southern part of the Edwards Plateau but apparently rare in our area. The report by Johnston (1990) is apparently based on the collection cited below, a sheet which merits critical examination.


Specimens: Above the pour-off in Wildcat Hollow, the farthest up-river corner of Lake Austin City Park, Juniperus ashei woods on limestone, this grass (ca. 200 tussocks) local in openings, ca. 0.5 m tall, tussocks ca. 0.5 m diameter, 26 Oct 1977, M. C. Johnston 12442 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Muhlenbergia schreberi J. F. Gmel. NIMBLEWILL. Native perennial. Rare in alluvial soils on wooded stream terraces.


Specimens: Stream terrace woodland, upstream from Upper Falls, McKinney Falls State Park, 19 Oct 1985, W. R. Carr, E. Kutac and K. Kenka 7037 (SEU); locally abundant on wet travertine deposits in shaded creekbottom, small wooded limestone box canyon near Barrow Preserve, W. R. Carr. M. Campbell & J. Gee 9320 (TEX-LL); common in sandy alluvial soil on Colorado River terrace, in partial shade of pecan, live oak, etc., ca. 100 ft. S of S bank of river, ca. 300 ft. E of mouth of creek that bisects Commons Ford Park, 7 Sep 1991, W. R. Carr 11392 (TEX-LL); very rare in Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, one patch on eroded clay terrace in dense shade along a NE-flowing branch of Walnut Creek in mainly deciduous Juglans nigra dominated woodland with a midstory of mainly Juniperus ashei, 30 Jul 1995, P. D. Turner 56 (TEX-LL); elm grove, Webster Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 23 Sep 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. Other reports: Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, 1996). References: Pohl, 1969.


Muhlenbergia utilis (Torr.) Hitchc. APAREJOGRASS. Native perennial. Rare around unshaded springs and seeps and on alluvial clay and silt in open limestone streambeds in the western part of the county. A report of the similar Muhlenbergia repens (Presl) Hitchc. from our area (Higdon, 1948) was apparently based on the original determination of the Tharp specimen cited below.


Specimens: Onion Creek, 27 Nov 1922, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); a few dozen plants on seep-moistened bench at foot of vertical S-facing bluff of Edwards Limestone, 2-4 ft. above N bank of Bear Creek, Tabor Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 24 Nov 1999, W. R. Carr & J. Maresh 18646 (TEX-LL); seasonally moist outcrops of Glen Rose Limestone exposed in unshaded bed of Slaughter Creek, ca. 1000 ft. downstream from (SE of) R. M. 1826 crossing, Hafif Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 2 Dec 1999, W. R. Carr 18653 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Nassella leucotricha (Trin. & Rupr.) Pohl. Stipa leucotricha Trin. & Rupr. SPEARGRASS, TEXAS WINTERGRASS. Native perennial. Probably our most common cool season perennial grass, occurring in grasslands and open areas on all soils but most abundantly on deep soils of river terraces; increasing in abundance under certain grazing regimes.


Specimens: 13 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1974; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: Barkworth, 1990; Barkworth, 1993.


Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) Beauv. subsp. setarius (Lam.) Mez. Oplismenus setarius (Lam.) R. & S. BASKETGRASS. Naturalized perennial; native of the New World tropics and subtropics (Gould, 1975). Occasional in alluvial soils on wooded stream terraces.


Specimens: Locally common in moist clay soil over limestone on shaded E bank of tributary of Bull Creek ca. 1000 ft. SE of jct. Spicewood Springs Rd. and Old Lampasas Trail, 16 Jul 1988, W. R. Carr 9064 (TEX-LL); common in fairly moist clay loam in mostly deciduous riparian woodland, S bank of unnamed branch of Bull Creek, 2.7 airmiles NE of jct. R. M. 2222 and R. M. 620, Hanks Tract, 25 Aug 1992, W. R. Carr, T. Cook & J. Davis 12232 (TAES); frequent in moist silty alluvium on partially shaded E bank of Bull Creek along N-S stretch at W edge of St. Edward's Park, ca. 1800 ft. W of Spicewood Springs Rd., 23 Sep 1995, W. R. Carr & M. Mayfield 14863 (BRCH). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Panicum acuminatum Sw. var. acuminatum. Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark var. acuminatum; Dichanthelium lanuginosum (Ell.) Gould var. lanuginosum; Panicum lanuginosum Ell. var. lanuginosum; Panicum tennessense Ashe; Panicum huachucae Ashe. Native perennial. Apparently rare; no recent specimens or reports.


Specimens: Onion Creek, 30 Jul 1922, B. C. Tharp 43233 (TEX-LL); Austin, Transect C seepage, 4 Nov 1922, R. H. Painter 91 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. References: Freckman, 1981.


Panicum acuminatum Sw. var. lindheimeri (Nash) Lelong. Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark var. lindheimeri (Nash) Gould & Clark; Dichanthelium lindheimeri (Nash) Gould; Panicum lindheimeri Nash. LINDHEIMER PANICGRASS. Native perennial. Common in moist clayey to sandy alluvial soils along shaded streams in limestone canyons; rare in other moist habitats.


Specimens: 21 sheets at TEX-LL, June 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Lynch, 1974. References: Freckman, 1981.


Panicum anceps Michx. BEAKED PANICUM. Native perennial. Rare in clay in mesic woodlands.


Specimens: Moist compacted clay in trail through mesic woodland in limestone canyon, Westcave Preserve, 26 Jul 1991, W. R. Carr, J. Ahrns, M. Enquist, & P. McNeal 11301 (TAES). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Panicum antidotale Retz. BLUE PANICGRASS. Introduced perennial; native of India. Introduced as a forage grass and, according to Correll & Johnston (1970), naturalized in Texas and Arizona. Rare in old pastures and in disturbed clayey to sandy soils.


Specimens: Frequent in clay loam in bulldozed, seeded pasture otherwise dominated by Bothriochloa ischaemum, in plateau live oak-cedar elm open woodland on limestone upland, ca. 1.4 airmiles ENE of Four Points (jct. R. M. 2222 and R. M. 620), 25 July 1990, W. R. Carr, P. McNeal & C. Sexton 10729 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Panicum capillare L. COMMON WITCHGRASS. Native annual. Rare in sandy clay and creekbottoms and disturbed upland sites. Higdon (1948) reported the similar Panicum philadelphicum Trin. from Blackland Prairie portions of Travis County, but no voucher specimen could be located at TEX-LL.


Specimens: Austin, Colorado River flood plain, Austin, 13 Nov 1928, A. Armer 5294 (TEX-LL); 2 Oct 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); McDonald Ranch, 1941-1942, D. Higdon 110B (TEX-LL); scattered in Zilker Park, 10 Sep 1944, B. H. Warnock 21620 (TEX-LL); moist creek bottom in limestone slope, N end of Mt. Bonnell, northwestern part of Austin, edge of Edwards Plateau, juniper-oak woods, 2 Sep 1954, M. C. Johnston 541326 (TEX-LL); mud-filled cracks in limestone exposed in scoured streambottom, Bull Creek, 4 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4175 (UVST); rare in reddish brown sandy clay loam along recently constructed sidewalk through upland live oak-juniper woodland, N side of Slaughter Creek at Mary Moore Searight Park, 25 Jun 1993, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 12853 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Panicum coloratum L. KLEINGRASS. Introduced perennial; native of Africa, sometimes seeded as a forage grass in our area. Occasional in old pastures and in disturbed clayey to sandy soils.


Specimens: Hawks Nest Hollow, Webster Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 3 Jul 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR); none at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Edwards Plateau Laboratory I (Lynch, 1975).


Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx. SPREADING WITCHGRASS. Native annual. Rare in moist soils along banks of the Colorado River and principal creeks.


Specimens: Austin, Colorado River flood plain, 11 Nov 1928, A. Armer 5308 (TEX-LL); moist soil on shaded N bank of Town Lake at Deep Eddy, 24 Oct 1982, W. R. Carr 4453 (TAES); rare on mudbank on N shore of Town Lake at Eilers Park, 14 Nov 1982, W. R. Carr 4516 (UVST); rare in moist silty to clayey alluvium on bank of Colorado River under powerlines at W edge of Webberville Park, 23 Oct 1996, W. R. Carr 15813 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Panicum dichotomum L. Dichanthelium dichotomum (L.) Gould var. dichotomum. PANICGRASS. Native perennial. Rare in a variety of open woodland situations, perhaps most frequently encountered in sandy soils over Colorado River terrace deposits. Sexton (1987) reported this species from a riparian woodland at Onion Creek Nature Preserve, from a wet grassland at Lake Walter E. Long, and from Park Springs Cemetery; specimens at COA not examined.


Specimens: Onion Creek, 6 Apr 1826, B. C. Tharp 43096 (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch in NW Travis County above Cow Creek on Lake Travis, 2 Jun 1951, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-921 (TEX-LL); rare in open post oak woodland on sandy soils over gravelly/sandy Pleistocene high terrace deposits, E side of Farquhar Farms 5 mi SE of Manor, 16 Jun 1996, W. R. Carr, M. L. Price, C. & N. Farquhar 15532 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Panicum diffusum Sw. SPREADING PANICUM. Native perennial. Extremely similar to and difficult to distinguish from Panicum hallii, but apparently common in a variety of upland grasslands.


Specimens: 10 sheets at TEX-LL, Jun 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, 1996).


Panicum hallii Vasey var. hallii. HALL PANICGRASS. Native perennial. Extremely similar to and difficult to distinguish from Panicum hallii var. filipes and Panicum diffusum, but apparently common in a variety of upland grasslands.


Specimens: 14 sheets at TEX-LL, Jun 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Panicum hallii Vasey var. filipes (Scribn.) Waller. Panicum filipes Scribn. FILLY PANICGRASS. Native perennial. Extremely similar to and difficult to distinguish from Panicum hallii var. hallii and Panicum diffusum, but apparently common in a variety of upland grasslands.


Specimens: Austin, 5 May 1942, B. H. Warnock s.n. (TEX-LL); low field, Austin, 27 Jul 1957, W. V. Brown 3258 (TEX-LL); Austin Chalk 10 mi N of Austin on Dessau Farm Rd. 200 yds E of Dallas Hwy., 13 Jun 1950, Tharp & York 50-131 (TEX-LL); Austin, roadside weed, 28 Apr 1974, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. Other reports: Edwards Plateau Laboratory I (Lynch, 1975).


Panicum hians Ell. GAPING PANICGRASS. Native perennial. Occasional in moist sandy soils on modern and Pleistocene deposits of the Colorado River in eastern half of county; scattered to west.


Specimens: Wet field in gravel, 3 May 1921, B. C. Tharp 1307 (TEX-LL); Austin, Colorado River floodplain, 11 Nov 1928, A. Armer 5298 (TEX-LL); 2 mi NE of Webberville, Midway Sand across road from church, 28 May 1950, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL); seeping area at side of F. M. 969, 6.5 mi E of Webberville, near Travis-Bastrop county line, 5 Jun 1967, J. R. Crutchfield 2895 (TEX-LL); locally abundant in seasonally moist sandy loam in shallow drain through post oak woodland on upland, Farquhar Farms, ca. 5 mi SE of Manor, 2 Nov 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15841 (TEX-LL); moist clay in broad karstic depression that ponds water after heavy rains, Speck soils over Edwards Limestone, Edwards 82 Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 8 May 2000, W. R. Carr 18953 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. Sexton (1986) reported this species from Park Springs Cemetery.


Panicum laxiflorum Lam. Dichanthelium laxiflorum (Lam.) Gould; Panicum xalapense H.B.K. OPENFLOWER PANICGRASS. Native perennial. Reported by Higdon (1948) from Blackland Prairie portions of Travis County.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Jun 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Lynch, 1974. Other reports: Edwards Plateau Laboratory I (Lynch, 1975).


Panicum linearifolium Scribn. Dichanthelium linearifolium (Scribn.) Gould; Panicum perlongum Nash.; Panicum werneri Scribn. SLIMLEAF PANICGRASS. Native perennial. A species of eastern North America, here near the southwestern limit of its range. Rare in post oak woodlands on sandy to gravelly substrates.


Specimens: Austin, 15 Jul 1935, B. C. Tharp 43224 (TEX-LL); Austin, 15 May 1938, J. Johnson 43-257 (TEX-LL); rare in sandy gravelly loam over Quaternary high gravel deposits on bladed and mown roadside through post oak woodland, N side of Hog Eye Rd., 0.6-0.7 mi SW of Lockwood Rd., or ca. 1.5 mi E of Blake Manor Rd., 30 Mar 1991, W. R. Carr 10986 (TAES, TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Panicum obtusum H.B.K. VINEMESQUITE. Native perennial. Frequent in grasslands on a variety of strata, often most common in seasonally moist or somewhat poorly drained sites.


Specimens: University campus, 23 Jul 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); along I & GN RR, 13 Oct 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); limestone soil, vacant lot, Austin, 15 Jun 1920, B. C. Tharp 23 (TEX-LL); dry limestone soil, Austin, Jul 1920, B. C. Tharp 10 (TEX-LL); low wet ground, edge of Lake Austin, 29 Aug 1947, W. V. Brown 3364 (TEX-LL); Austin Chalk, Brushy Creek vicinity near Hutto [Williamson County?], Jul 1949, J. E. Gordon 51-1758 (TEX-LL); Austin Chalk 10 mi N of Austin on Dessau Farm Rd. 200 yds. E of Dallas Hwy., 13 Jun 1950, Tharp & York 50-132 (TEX-LL); dry gravelly clay loam in open grazed field on old river terrace, Onion Creek Preserve 1.5 airmiles WSW of mouth of Onion Creek, 5 Oct 1988, W. R. Carr, M. Campbell & J. Gee 9306 (BRIT/SMU); McKinney Falls State Park, low edge of field being invaded by woody plants, partial shade to full sun, 13 Oct 1990, Bro. D. Lynch & E. A. Kutac 12110 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Lynch, 1974.


Panicum oligosanthes Schult. var. oligosanthes. Dichanthelium oligosanthes (Schult.) Gould var. oligosanthes. FEWFLOWER PANICGRASS. Native perennial. Doubtful in our area; both of our specimens might be referred to the next variety.


Specimens: Austin, 15 May 1938, J. Johnson 43-257 (TEX-LL); with Melica nitens in partial shade of cedar/oak woods on limestone ridgetop, North Cat Mt., 8 May 1983, W. R. Carr 4854 (TAES). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Panicum oligosanthes var. scribnerianum (Nash) Fern. Dichanthelium oligosanthes (Schult.) Gould var. scribnerianum (Nash) Gould; Panicum oligosanthes Schult. var. helleri (Nash) Fern.; Panicum helleri Nash. SCRIBNER PANICGRASS. Native perennial. Common in and along margins of woodlands, particularly in sandier substrates.


Specimens: 19 sheets at TEX-LL, Jun 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Lynch, 1974.


Panicum pedicellatum Vasey. Dichanthelium pedicellatum (Vasey) Gould. CEDAR PANICGRASS. Native perennial. Common in juniper-oak woodlands and associated grasslands on clay soils over limestone.


Specimens: 28 sheets at TEX-LL, Jun 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. Other reports: Edwards Plateau Laboratory I (Lynch, 1975).


Panicum rigidulum Nees. Panicum agrostoides Spreng. REDTOP PANICUM. Native perennial. Rare in wet soils around springs.


Specimens: Watkins Ranch, Lake Travis, NW corner of county, 14 Oct 1950, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-517 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Panicum sphaerocarpon Ell. Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon (Ell.) Gould. ROUNDSEED PANICGRASS. Native perennial. Rare in openings in post oak woodlands on sandy to gravelly Pleistocene terrace deposits.


Specimens: Westfield, no date, 4 Jul [year not provided], B. C. Tharp 2055 (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 May 1938, J. Johnson 43253 (TEX-LL); well drained gravelly acid fine sandy loam in early successional grassland among post oaks, 100-500 ft. W of Singleton Rd. ca. 0.7 mi. S of Post Oak Bend Cemetery, Gloster Bend Resource Area, 23 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 11104 (TAES, TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948.


Panicum virgatum L. SWITCHGRASS. Native perennial. In parts of its range, switchgrass is a common component of tallgrass prairie grasslands. In our area it is largely restricted to riparian communities on gravelly to silty alluvium on riverbanks and in beds of intermittent streams.


Specimens: Dry bed of Bee Creek, 2 Aug 1920, B. C. Tharp 22 (TEX-LL); creek bottom above Barton Springs, 10 Sep 1944, B. H. Warnock 20902 (TEX-LL); dry bed of Bee Creek W of Austin, 22 Sep 1947, W. V. Brown 3400 (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch in NW Travis County above Cow Creek on Lake Travis, 2 Jun 1951, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-930 (TEX-LL); alluvial bar along N side of Colorado River W of US Rt. 183 bridges, 15 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3558 (TAES); wet gravel on limestone bed of Bull Creek, E side of Lakewood Dr. S of Loop 360, 2 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4269 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Paspalum dilatatum Poir. DALLISGRASS. Perennial; native of South America, naturalized in parts of North America. A common lawn weed in our area, but also well established in riparian communities.


Specimens: Dry bottom near Waller Creek, 7 Jul 1943, F. A. Barkley 13095 (TEX-LL); moist sandy soil 15 mi NW of Austin, 18 Jul 1943, F. A. Barkley 13531 (TEX-LL); old field, low ground, black soil, 2 May 1954, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL); on lawn, University of Texas campus, 15 May 1955, M. C. Johnston and W. L. McCart 5427 (TEX-LL); Lake Austin City Park, 14 June 1981, W. R. Carr 3249 (BRIT/SMU); Lake Long, NE shoreline, occasional at shoreline and in water to 3 cm deep, 6 Jul 1984, F. R. Barrie 809 (TEX-LL); car wash next to Half Price Books, 3100 block of Guadalupe, Austin, 22 Feb 1986, N. Snow 179 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Paspalum distichum L. KNOTGRASS. Native perennial. Rare in moist alluvial soils in and along mostly unshaded perennial waterways.


Specimens: In water, edge of Lake Austin, 16 Aug 1947, W. V. Brown 3396 (TEX-LL); drainage ditch on N side of W. 45th St. between Lamar and Guadalupe, Austin, 12 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10756 (TEX-LL); wet clay in shallow, water-holding depressions in scoured limestone bedrock on low shelf above Slaughter Creek, upstream from utility access road at end of Kingfisher Creek Lane, 25 Jun 1993, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 12850 (TAES); common among large hummocks of Eleocharis rostellata on moist to wet silty alluvium in bed of unshaded ponded stretch of Bull Creek, St. Edward's Park, 30 Jul 1995, W. R. Carr, P. McNeal & P. Turner 14783 (BRCH). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Paspalum langei (Fourn.) Nash. RUSTYSEED PASPALUM. Native perennial. Rare in complete or partial shade of riparian woodlands.


Specimens: Creekbottom, Onion Creek Nature Preserve, 16 Sep 1986, C. W. Sexton & N. L. McClintock s.n. (COA); very rarely encountered in low eroded clay in dense shade along Wells Branch in Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, 20 Jul 1995, P. D. Turner 59 (TEX-LL); moist silty to sandy alluvial soil on shaded creekbank, Bull Creek at St. Edward's Park, 30 Jul 1995, W. R. Carr, P. McNeal & P. Turner 14781 (TEX-LL); rare in park but locally common in opening in Ulmus crassifolia woodland in bottom of canyon on N-facing slope of Navarro Clay, alluvial flat at upper end of easternmost of three stock tanks at N end of Southeast Metro County Park (undeveloped), 10 Nov 1998, Carr, Siegenthaler, Terpening & Chapman 17898 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Walnut Creek Park (Turner, 1996).


Paspalum lividum Trin. LONGTOM. Introduced perennial. Native of the southeastern United States, including the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas where it is common in moist sandy to loamy soils. Introduced with St. Augustine grass sod in at least one lawn in South Austin (C. Sexton, pers. comm.), otherwise rare in moist soils along streambanks and in woodlands on sandy loam. Probably not a persistent member of our flora.


Specimens: Shade of live oak motte on sandy soils, Pace Bend Park, 5 Sep 1996, W. R. Carr 15673 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Paspalum plicatulum Michx. BROWNSEED PASPALUM. Native perennial. A common component of midgrass grasslands on sandy to loamy soils on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain immediately east of our area, but apparently rare within Travis County. Included here on the basis of a report from McKinney Falls State Park (Johnston & Riskind, 1975).


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Paspalum pubiflorum Rupr. ex Fourn. HAIRYSEED PASPALUM. Native perennial. In a number of habitats but most commonly encountered in moist clayey soils in open areas along perennial and intermittent streams, on banks of impoundments, and in moist ruderal areas. Higdon (1948) reported Paspalum dissectum (L.) L. and Paspalum praecox Walt. (Paspalum lentiferum Lam.) from Travis County, apparently on the basis of Barkley 13412 (TEX-LL) and Higdon 127 (TEX-LL) respectively. Both sheets were later annotated Paspalum pubiflorum.


Specimens: 28 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Paspalum setaceum Michx. var. ciliatifolium (Michx.) Vasey. Paspalum ciliatifolium Michx. FRINGELEAF PASPALUM. Native perennial. Rare in upland grasslands, mostly on sandy soils.


Specimens: occasional in dry sand on unshaded river terrace, NE bank of Lake Austin (Colorado River) at S end of Lake Austin (Emma Long) Metro Park, ca. 0.6-0.7 river miles upstream from mouth of Turkey Creek, 24 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10073 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. Other reports: Sexton, 1986 (Park Springs Cemetery). References: Banks, 1966.


Paspalum setaceum Michx. var. muhlenbergii (Nash) D. Banks. Paspalum pubescens Muhl. THIN PASPALUM. Native perennial. Reported by Higdon (1948) as rare to frequent in all ecological zones of the county.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948. References: Banks, 1966.


Paspalum setaceum Michx. var. stramineum (Nash) D. Banks. THIN PASPALUM. Native perennial. A frequent component of grasslands on various soils on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain east of our area, but uncommon in Travis County.


Specimens: 10 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Young, 1920. References: Banks, 1966.


Paspalum urvillei Steud. VASEYGRASS. Naturalized perennial; native of South America. Common in moist clayey or sandy soils along unshaded streambanks, roadside ditches, and impoundments.


Specimens: Austin, Colorado River, 22 Nov 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); wet edge of Lake Austin, 16 Aug 1947, W. V. Brown 3262 (TEX-LL); bank of Barton Creek near its mouth, 1 Oct 1949, B. C. Tharp 49-1259 (TEX-LL); bank of Bull Creek under Loop 360 bridges, 9 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3515 (TAES); wet clayey soil on seep zone on open grassy slope, W bank of Shoal Creek just S of 45th St. bridge, 16 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7589 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Pennisetum villosum R. Br. Cenchrus longisetus M. C. Johnston. FEATHERTOP. Native of Africa; introduced in Texas as a garden ornamental and "occasionally persisting for a short time as an escape from cultivation" (Gould, 1975). Clearly not a member of our naturalized flora.


Specimens: Barton Springs, Austin, 31 Oct 1941, D. Higdon 4 (TEX-LL); dry sandy soil at edge of lawn just W of University of Texas campus, 9 Jun 1964, D. G. DeLisle 1148 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown 1958.


Phalaris angusta Trin. TIMOTHY CANARYGRASS. Native annual. Lynch (1974) reported this species from "wet soil at the edge of Blunn Creek." Apparently rare in our area, but difficult to distinguish with certainty from robust specimens of Phalaris caroliniana.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Lynch, 1974.


Phal­aris caro­lini­ana Walt. CAROLINA CANARYGRASS. Native annual. Wet clayey to sandy soils on shaded to unshaded stream and river terraces as well as in and along ephemeral puddles and roadside ditches. Young (1920) found Phalaris caroliniana to be "abundant in the floodplain of Waller Creek," but presently it seems to occur in small numbers and is never terribly conspicuous among the more common sedges, rushes and other hydrophytes with which it associates.


Specimens: Waller Creek, 7 May 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, wet flat, spring 1921, B. C. Tharp 1064 (TEX-LL); Colorado River flood plain, 29 Apr 1929, A. Armer 5291 (TEX-LL); gravel sandbar 5 mi NW of Austin, 12 Jul 1943, J. Cohn & F. A. Barkley 13162 (TEX-LL); 4 mi S of Austin on old Lockhart Rd., edge of pasture tank, black soil on limestone of Cretaceous age, 9 May 1946, F. A. Barkley & H. V. Copeland 58 (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 2 May 1948, W. V. Brown 3277 (TEX-LL); black soil derived from basalt, Pilot Knob, 5 Apr 1954, S. Ely s.n. (TEX-LL); common in wet clay or caliche in unshaded depression on roadside, S side of Lime Creek road 4.0 roadmiles N of F. M. 2769, 25 Apr 1982, W. R. Carr 3841 (TEX-LL); common in moist sandy soil in unshaded roadside ditch, N side of F. M. 969 at jct. with Webberwood Way, 22 Apr 1986, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 7321 (TAES); frequent in moist sandy loam on unshaded roadside, both sides of Loyola Lane, 0.2-0.3 mi E of Blue Bluff Lane, 22 Apr 1986, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 7334 (BRIT/SM­U); Rodgers Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 2 May 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


A third member of this genus, Phalaris canariensis L., was reported by Higdon (1948) and Brown (1958). No Travis County specimens were found at TEX-LL in June 1996. One sheet, Cohn & Barkley 13162 (TEX-LL), annotated by M. C. Johnston in 1962 to Phalaris caroliniana, was originally determined as Phalaris canariensis and may be the source of these reports.


Phyllostachys aurea Riv. YELLOW BAMBOO. Introduced woody perennial, native of China. Widely cultivated, particularly in older neighborhoods in Austin; colonies persistent, often expanding via rhizomes far from point of original planting and essentially replacing native vegetation. Common along the lower half of Shoal Creek, in Zilker Park, and elsewhere.


Specimens: huge colony spreading from Zilker Gardens downslope onto roadside, W side of Rollingwood Drive 200-1000 ft. N of Barton Springs Rd., W part of Zilker Park, Austin, 11 May 1996, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 15337 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. Reference: Borowski, Holmes & Singhurst, 1996.


Poa annua L. ANNUAL BLUEGRASS. Naturalized annual. Common in lawns and in open riparian woodlands; weedy but less frequent in a variety of other situations.


Specimens: Austin, Apr 1927, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Colorado River flood plain, 2 May 1929, A. Armer 5305 (TEX-LL); Colorado River, 21 Apr 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); frequent in unshaded seepage area on gentle slope, W bank of Shoal Creek 100 yds S of W. 34th St. bridge, 30 Mar 1983, W. R. Carr 4618 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Poa arachnifera Torr. TEXAS BLUEGRASS. Native perennial. A species primarily of the Great Plains, where it occurs in a variety of upland grassland types. Our plants, however, are found primarily along the margins of riparian woodlands in alluvial soils on creek terraces.


Specimens: Shoal Creek, spring 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL) and 15 Apr 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, spring 1921, B. C. Tharp 1063 (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 Apr 1927, B. C. Tharp 857ERB (TEX-LL); Austin, 8 May 1931, W. A. Silveus 117-A (TEX-LL); Shoal Creek, Austin, 26 Mar 1930, B. C. Tharp s.n. (BRIT/SMU) and 25 Apr 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); E. 46th St., Austin, C. C. Albers 44Ph019 (TEX-LL); E. 46th St., Austin, 2 Apr 1944, C. C. Albers 44Ph019 (BRIT/SMU); S of Camp Mabry about 1/2 mi along Scenic Drive, 9 Mar 1950, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL); along Shoal Creek W of Lamar St. in West Austin, May 1974, P. A. Amerson 2053 (BRIT/SMU); rare in moist clayey soil on wooded stream terrace, W bank of Shoal Creek ca. 200-300 ft. S of W 45th St. bridge, Austin, 31 Mar 1985, W. R. Carr 6238 (TAES, TEX-LL); Onion Creek Nature Preserve, 1 Apr 1987, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA); Hamilton Pool, 1988-1995, T. Siegenthaler s.n. (TCTNRD). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Poa bigelovii Vasey & Scribn. BIGELOW BLUEGRASS. Native annual. A delicate, short-lived species not uncommon during wet years in juniper-oak woodlands on rocky limestone slopes on the Edwards Plateau and Lampasas Cutplain, but apparently rare in our area.


Specimens: Austin, 14 Apr 1938, B. C. Tharp 4-38-120 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948.


Poa chapmaniana Scribn. CHAPMAN BLUEGRASS. Native annual. Exceeding similar to but, according to Brown (1958), less weedy than Poa annua. Rare or more likely overlooked in our area.


Specimens: Curly mesquite range, Manchaca Rd., Austin, 4 Apr 1955, W. V. Brown 4234 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Poa pratensis L. KENTUCKY BLUEGRASS. Adventive perennial. Native of the Old World, naturalized and weedy in much of temperate North America. Rare in our area, reported long from Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, 1996). Perhaps not a persistent member of our weed flora.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Jun 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. RABBITFOOT. Naturalized annual. Native of Europe, widely naturalized in North America (Gould, 1975). Occasional in our area, in moist alluvium along streams and on strands around impoundments.


Specimens: Austin, 26 Apr 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River bed below dam, Austin, C. C. Albers s.n. (TEX-LL); temporary pool at roadside on mountain at upper end of Lake Travis, 18 May 1946, M. Wheeler, C. M. Rowell & F. A. Barkley 16T230 (TEX-LL); unshaded mud and gravel bar along NE shoreline of Town Lake at mouth of Johnson Creek, just SE of MoPac bridges, Austin, 18 May 1986, W. R. Carr & M. A. Wade 7562 (TAES). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Polypogon viridis (Gouan) Breistr. Agrostis semiverticillata (Forsk.) C. Chr. WATER BENTGRASS. Native annual. Frequent in wet silty to clayey soils in limestone creekbeds, on riverbanks, and in other wet spots.


Specimens: Bull Creek, 30 May 1936, E. R. Bogusch 489 (TEX-LL); Colorado River, Austin, 21 Apr 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River near Austin, 19 May 1938, B. C. Tharp 43200 (TEX-LL); hills ca. 6 mi NW of Austin, 24 May 1940, C. L. Lundell & A. A. Lundell 9095 (TEX-LL); Barton Springs Creek, 23 Jul 1943, F. A. Barkley 13679 (TEX-LL); Barton Spring, 5 Aug 1944, G. Arroyos G. & F. A. Barkley 14545B (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 20 Apr 1948, W. V. Brown GR-331 (TEX-LL); Bee Creek, 30 May 1974, M. Nee & M. Whelan 11823 (TEX-LL); riffle in Bull Creek at Loop 360 and Spicewood Springs Rd., 14 May 1983, W. R. Carr 4876 (BRIT/SMU); sand and silt deposits along Wells Branch in Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, 6 May 1995, P. D. Turner 149 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948.


Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Trel. TUMBLEGRASS. Native perennial. Uncommon in early successional spots in midgrass grasslands, usually in pockets of sandier soils derived from limestone but occasionally in heavier clays; also, at least formerly, on Colorado River alluvium.


Specimens: Austin, floodplain, 18 Apr 1923, R. H. Painter s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Colorado River flood plain, 16 Nov 1929, A. Armer s.n. (TEX-LL); Camp Mabry, 27 Apr 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); NE edge of Austin, Apr 1946, C. L. York 46036 (TEX-LL); Austin Chalk 10 mi N of Austin on Dessau Farm Rd. 200 yds. E of Dallas Hwy., 13 Jun 1950, Tharp & York 50-139 (TEX-LL); sandy clay loam in old pasture on limestone upland on N side of City Park Rd. between Turkey Creek and Lake Austin, 25 Jun 1981, W. R. Carr 3330 (BRIT/SMU); sandy clay loam in rocky upland cattle pasture, Wheless Tract, Lime Creek Rd. S of Sandy Creek Park, 16 Apr 1982, W. R. Carr 3793 (UVST); site 10 on Shield Ranch, 1 Jul 1982, D. W. Dunlap 97 (TEX-LL); occasional in mown areas of Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, 25 Aug 1995, P. D. Turner 62 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. Other reports: Edwards Plateau Laboratory I (Lynch, 1975).


Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash. Andropogon scoparius Michx. LITTLE BLUESTEM. Native perennial. One of the principal constituents of mid- to tallgrass prairies in our area, still abundant today in ungrazed and/or unplowed upland grasslands and open woodlands on all substrates. Our specimens have been attributed to a number of subspecific taxa by various authorities.


Specimens: 10 sheets at TEX-LL, Jun 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Setaria adhaerans (Forsk.) Chiov. Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv. HOOKED BRISTLEGRASS. Native (?) annual. Rare, known in our area from a single collection.


Specimens: Waller Creek, Austin, 9 Oct 1920, B. C. Tharp 2 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Chaetochloa verticillata); Higdon, 1948. References: Webster, 1993.


Setaria leucopila (Scribn. & Merr.) K. Schum. WESTERN BRISTLEGRASS. Native perennial. Rare in grasslands on loamy soils of bottomlands and somewhat sandy soils of uplands.


Specimens: Cemetery on Post Oak Rd., 0.25 mi E of Taylor Lane, 29 June 1986, C. W. Sexton & M. K. Sexton s.n. (COA); Onion Creek Nature Preserve, 1 Jul 1987, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA); moist clayey soil in bottom of cattle guard at unshaded entrance to Onion Creek Preserve, ca. 1.5 airmiles WSW of mouth of Onion Creek at Colorado River, 5 Oct 1988, W. R. Carr, M. Campbell & J. Gee 9307 (TAES). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958. References: Webster, 1993.


Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguelen. Setaria geniculata (Lam.) Beauv. KNOTSTEM BRISTLEGRASS. Native perennial. Common in moist soils along stream and river banks, drainage ditches, etc.


Specimens: 8 sheets at TEX-LL, Jun 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: Webster, 1993.


Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roemer & Schultes. Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. YELLOW BRISTLEGRASS. Native annual. A weed of dry disturbed soils, rare or overlooked due to its similarity to Setaria parviflora.


Specimens: University campus, fall 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); roadside ca. 5 mi SW of Austin, shade of Celtis, 18 Jun 1957, F. W. Gould 7622 (TEX-LL); University of Texas campus, fenceline near parking area around construction site, weedy lot, bare soil of flower beds, 1 Jul 1992, G. Nesom s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Chaetochloa glauca). References: Webster, 1993.


Setaria reverchonii (Vasey) Pilger. Panicum reverchonii Vasey. REVERCHON BRISTLEGRASS. Native perennial. Occasional in grasslands on limestone uplands and creek terraces.


Specimens: Grassland and oak-juniper woodlands on limestone ridgetop, Lake Austin City Park, between Turkey Creek and Lake Austin, 25 Apr 1982, W. R. Carr 3850 (TAES); rare in silty clay loam in openings in woods on bluff along E bank of Onion Creek, ca. 0.7 airmiles ESE of jct. North Bluff Dr. and Nuckles Crossing Rd., 25 May 1986, W. R. Carr & J. Wright 7483 (BRIT/SMU, UVST); hills W of Austin, Commons Ford Rd. ca. 1 mi N of Bee Cave Rd., juniper and oak woodland on limestone, shallow soil of roadside, B. Ertter with M. Baker 4817 (TEX-LL); rare in thin fairly dry clay loam in opening in cedar woods on top of limestone bluff, N side of Colorado River ca. 1000 ft. NW of Loop 360 bridge, 16 Jun 1988, W. R. Carr 8976 (TEX-LL); very rare on shallow clay soils over Austin Chalk in Juniperus ashei, Quercus sinuata and Quercus buckleyi dominated woodland, Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, 9 May 1995, P. D. Turner 31 (TEX-LL); Webster Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 16 May 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Setaria scheelei (Steud.) Hitchc. SOUTHWESTERN BRISTLEGRASS. Native perennial. Common along woodland margins throughout our area.


Specimens: 15 sheets at TEX-LL, Jun 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: Emery, 1957; Webster, 1993.


Higdon (1948) reported Setaria vulpiseta (Lam.) Roemer & Schultes (as Setaria macrostachya H.B.K.) from all ecological zones of Travis County. According to Emery (1957), the Texas range of this species is limited to a handful of counties in extreme South Texas. In the absence of voucher specimens, it should be assumed that Higdon's report is based on Setaria scheelei.


Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. Setaria lutescens (Weigel.) Hubb. GREEN BRISTLEGRASS. Naturalized annual. Rare in disturbed grasslands.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958. Other reports: Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, 1996). References: Webster, 1993.


Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash. Sorghastrum avenaceum (Michx.) Nash. INDIANGRASS. Native perennial. One of the principal components of North American tallgrass prairie communities and, like Andropogon gerardii, one of the least tolerant of grazing. Nonetheless still rather frequently encountered in our area on roadside grasslands and other refugia on all substrates; often encountered in the bottom of intermittent drainages on limestone uplands.


Specimens: Manor near RR track, 9 Oct 1929, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); frequent along bois d'arc hedge, 3 mi N of Austin on Cameron Rd., 13 Oct 1944, R. B. Payton 11 (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch, Lake Travis, NW corner of county, 14 Oct 1950, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-521 (TEX-LL); locally frequent in gravelly bottom of Bull Creek N of Loop 360 bridge at Lakewood Dr., 18 Oct 1982, W. R. Carr 4387 (TAES); occasional with little bluestem and big bluestem in openings in live oak - cedar elm - Ashe juniper woodland on moderately steep, very cobbly Edwards Limestone slope, SE side of drainage running SW to NE across Reavley Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 4.0 airmiles SSE of R. M. 1826 bridge over Slaughter Creek, or 4.1 airmiles E of R. M. 1826 bridge over Bear Creek, 9 May 2000, W. R. Carr 18970 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Sorghum vulgare Pers. GRAIN SORGHUM, MILO. Introduced annual; a cultivated grain crop, probably of African origin. Persistent in cultivated fields, occasionally spontaneous as a weed of disturbed sites.


Specimens: meadow NW of Highland Mall, between Middle Fiskville Rd., Highland Mall Blvd., and E. Huntland Dr., full of wildflowers, shallow soil on limestone, 30 Apr 1983, B. Ertter 4773 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Holcus halapensis L. JOHNSONGRASS. Naturalized perennial, apparently native to southern Europe (Gould, 1975). Introduced as a forage grass and now, like many introduced grasses, a noxious weed. Young (1920) reported Johnsongrass as "abundant everywhere in fields and waste places." Today it is particularly common in roadside ditches, disturbed floodplains and creekbotttoms, and in recently turned soils.


Specimens: Campus, no date [1910s], M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); B. [sic] Creek bottom, Austin, 14 Dec 1922, R. H. Painter s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 9 May 1935, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); near Waller Creek in Austin, 20 Aug 1943, G. Waldorf 74 (TEX-LL); Pilot Knob, 30 May 1951, B. C. Tharp & F. A. Barkley 51-834 (TEX-LL); along Red Bud Rd. just W of Colorado River, scrubby rocky limestone woods on Juniperus ashei, Quercus on power company tract, 30 May 1974, M. Nee & M. Whelan 11794 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958 Lynch, 1974.


Sphenopholis obtusata (Michx.) Scribn. PRAIRIE WEDGESCALE. Native annual. Occasional in moist sandy to clayey soils, often in creekbeds.


Specimens: Austin, summer 1920, B. C. Tharp 51 (TEX-LL); Austin, no date, B. C. Tharp 1306 (TEX-LL); Austin, marsh along RR, 22 Apr 1921, B. C. Tharp 1066 (TEX-LL); I & GN RR culvert below F. M. [Feeble-Minded] Colony, 22 Apr 1921, B. C. Tharp 1066 (TEX-LL); Austin, 21 Apr 1938, B. C. Tharp 44-10 (TEX-LL); Austin, Colorado River flood plain, 23 Apr 1929, A. Armer 5320 (TEX-LL); Austin, low grounds, 25 Apr 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River near Austin, 19 May 1939, B. C. Tharp 43187 (TEX-LL); W edge of Barton Creek, 22 Apr 1948, W. V. Brown 3490 (TEX-LL); occasional in sandy alluvium in unshaded to partially shaded riverbottom, N bank of Colorado River 100-2000 ft. NW of US Rt. 183 bridges, 27 Apr 1982, W. R. Carr 3861 (TEX-LL); local in calcareous mud in bulldozed depression on vehicle trail in cedar brake, 200 ft. SE of jct. City Park Rd. and Oak Shores Rd., 2 May 1982, W. R. Carr 3893 (TEX-LL); rare in fairly dry sand and gravel on high bar in bed of intermittent creek, Bear Creek just above dam just N of house on Tabor Tract (a Prop 2 tract), ca. 3.6 airmiles S to SSE of R. M. 1826 bridge over Slaughter Creek, 20 April 2000, W. R. Carr 18868 (TEX-LL); occasional in moist alluvial silt and limestone gravel in shaded bed of intermittent Grape Creek, ca. 200-500 ft. S of fenceline at N edge of Morgan C Tract (a Prop 2 tract), ca. 2.35 airmiles W to WNW of jct. St. Rt. 71 and Thomas Springs Rd., ca. 2.5 airmiles S of jct. St. Rt. 71 and R. M. 2244, 24 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr 18879 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1948. Other reports: Walnut Creek Park (Turner, 1996).


Sporobolus compositus (Poir.) Merr. var. compositus. Sporobolus asper (Michx.) Kunth var. asper. TALL DROPSEED. Native perennial. Rare in disturbed grasslands on clayey soils.


Specimens: Local in weedy grassland in comparatively deep clay loam on level valley bottom, around old homesites (now transient camps), ca. 500 ft. SE of jct. R. M. 2222 and Mesa Blvd., NE corner of Brightleaf State Natural Area, 6 Oct 1995, W. R. Carr, D. Diamond, & D. Keddy-Hector 14917 (BRCH). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Riggins, 1977.


Sporobolus compositus (Poir.) Merr. var. drummondii (Trin.) Kartesz & Gandhi. Sporobolus asper (Michx.) Kunth var. drummondii (Trin.) Vasey; Sporobolus asper (Michx.) Kunth var. hookeri (Trin.) Vasey. MEADOW DROPSEED. Native perennial. Common in grasslands on shallow clay loam of limestone uplands and on rocky slopes.


Specimens: Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, 5 Aug 1995, P. D. Turner 57 (TEX-LL); clay loam along bottom of intermittent drain on limestone slope, Bull Creek watershed, 17 Oct 1982, W. R. Carr 4424 (TAES); clay loam in openings in cedar-oak woods on limestone upland, West Lake Hills, 22 Nov 1984, W. R. Carr 6160 (BRIT/SMU, UVST, TAES). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958 (not as to variety); Lynch, 1974. References: Riggins, 1977.


Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray. SAND DROPSEED. Native perennial. Locally common in grasslands and open woodlands on sandy soils, but generally rare in or absent from heavier clay soils.


Specimens: Woods W of I & GN RR, Austin, 12 Oct 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 3 Jun 1920, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 21 Apr 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River, Austin, 24 Oct 1941, W. D. Higdon 9 (TEX-LL); McDonald Ranch, 1941-1942, D. Higdon 113 (TEX-LL); sand across road from church 2 mi NE of Webberville, 28 May 1950, W. V. Brown 53-295 (TEX-LL); Site 6 on Shield Ranch, 26 Jun 1982, D. W. Dunlap 84 (TEX-LL); loose sandy soil on mown roadside, S side of F. M. 969 ca. 0.2-0.3 mi W of Hornsby-Dunlap School, ca. 1.5 roadmiles SE of jct. F. M. 973, 14 Sep 1991, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 11411 (TEX-LL); rare in open post oak woodland on sandy soils over gravelly/sandy Pleistocene high terrace deposits, Farquhar Farms ca. 5 mi SE of Manor, 16 Jun 1996, W. R. Carr, M. L. Price, C. & N. Farquhar 15534 (TEX-LL); rare in occasionally mown lawn or grassland in deep, well drained, calcareous fine sandy loam over Pleistocene terrace deposits, Selma Hughes Park, 25 Sep 1996, W. R. Carr 15744 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


The Travis County report of Sporobolus flexuosus (Thurb.) Rydb. by Higdon (1948) was probably based on Higdon 113, which was later annotated to Sporobolus cryptandrus.


Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. Sporobolus poiretii (Roem. & Schult.) Hitchc. RAT-TAIL SMUTGRASS. Naturalized perennial. Apparently introduced from tropical Asia and now widely naturalized in North America (Gould, 1975). A common weed of coastal prairies in Texas; rare in our area.


Specimens: Abundant in well drained sandy soil in open post oak woodland on sandy-gravelly Pleistocene high terrace deposits, NE corner of Pace Bend County Park, 17 July 1996, W. R. Carr, C. Ladd, T. Siegenthaler & P. Koepp 15623 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Clayton, 1965.


Sporobolus neglectus Nash. Sporobolus vaginiflorus (Torr.) Wood var. neglectus (Nash) Scribn. POVERTY DROPSEED. Native annual. Included here on the basis of a report by Lynch (1974). Extremely similar to what has traditionally been called Sporobolus vaginiflorus (now, at least in part according to some authorities, Sporobolus ozarkanus) and thus possibly overlooked by most collectors.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Dec 1990. Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Lynch, 1974.


Sporobolus ozarkanus Fern. OZARK DROPSEED. Native annual. Scarcely distinguishable from and formerly included by Texas authors within Sporobolus vaginiflorus. Presumably abundant in disturbed grasslands on clays and clay loams of limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: [To county only], 18 Oct 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); near Fiskville, 21 Oct 1921, E. A. Allen s.n. (TEX-LL); Lake Austin, 13 Oct 1941, B. Moon 172 (TEX-LL); frequent on limestone soil at Harthaven, 6 Oct 1944, B. H. Warnock W1028 (TEX-LL); Saint Edward's University campus, becoming a dominant grass in the Aristida community, relict grassland plot, Austin clay over Austin chalk, 9 Nov 1960, Bro. D. L. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL). All of the specimens at TEX-LL were annotated as Sporobolus vaginiflorus by R. Riggins in 1969 and then annotated to Sporobolus ozarkanus by R. L. McGregor in 1988. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Sporobolus vaginiflorus (Torr.) Wood. POVERTY DROPSEED. Native annual. Apparently abundant in disturbed grasslands on clays and clay loams of limestone slopes and uplands; however, some of the plants traditionally referred to this species are now recognized as Sporobolus ozarkanus.


Specimens: Dry bed of Bee Creek, 24 Sep 1947, W. V. Brown 3402 (TEX-LL); with live oak and juniper, along US 290 near Oak Hill, rather infrequent, 3 Oct 1948, C. M. Rogers 6521 (TEX-LL); oak-juniper openings on rolling hills, Edwards Plateau, 3/4 mi E of Cedar Valley, F. W. Gould 5334 (TEX-LL). All of these TEX-LL specimens were annotated as Sporobolus vaginiflorus by R. Riggins in 1969 and again by R. L. McGregor in 1988. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Stenotaphrum secundatum (Nutt.) O. Ktze. ST. AUGUSTINE GRASS. Introduced perennial; native of tropical America. Perhaps the most extensively used lawn grass in our area, seldom escaping cultivation except into moist to wet soils of drainage ditches and riverbanks.


Specimens: Lawn at 3610 Windsor, Austin, in garden, 18 Jun 1949, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL); in drainage ditch between Service Bldg. and Drama Bldg. on University of Texas campus, Austin, 18 Jul 1966, J. A. Mears 567 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974. References: Sauer, 1972.


Tragus berteronianus Schultes. SPIKE BURGRASS, PRICKLEGRASS. Naturalized annual; native of the Old World and reported by Gould (1975) to be well established in Texas. Found by Young (1920) in waste places and along railroad tracks. Apparently rare in our area, with no recent specimens or reports.


Specimens: tight gravelly sandy soil W of Austin, 3 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young (1920) as Nazia aliena Scribn.; Brown, 1958. References: Hitchcock, 1950.


Tridens albescens (Vasey) Woot. & Standl. Triodia albescens Vasey. WHITE TRIDENS. Native perennial. Frequent in moist alluvium in streambottoms and various moist disturbed sites.


Specimens: Campus D & D Institute, 10 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson 520 (TEX-LL); swamp along I & GN RR, 10 Oct 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); low ground along railroad, Austin, 10 Apr 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Colorado River flood plain, 11 Nov 1928, A. Armer 5319 (TEX-LL); Austin, 15 Aug 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); NW of Austin, 5 Aug 1941, B. C. Tharp 43012 (TEX-LL); McDonald Ranch, 1941-1942, D. Higdon s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 26 Oct 1974, G. Edwards s.n. (TEX-LL); wet clay in bulldozed clearing in cedar woods, Lake Austin City Park, 1 Nov 1981, W. R. Carr 3630 (TAES); clayey soil in fractures of bedrock exposed on high but occasionally flooded creek terrace, N side of Onion Creek, just upstream from mouth of Williamson Creek, McKinney Falls State Park, 19 Oct 1995, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15032 (BRCH). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Tridens buckleyanus (L.H. Dew.) Nash. Triodia buckleyana (L. H. Dewey) Vasey. BUCKLEY TRIDENS. Native perennial; endemic to the southern and eastern Edwards Plateau, with records from Bandera, Bexar, Comal, Hays, Kendall, Kinney, Lampasas, Medina, Real, San Saba and Travis counties. Common in and along margins of juniper-oak woodlands on limestone slopes and uplands, occasionally in gravelly beds of intermittent streams.


Specimens: Bluffs above the Colorado River just below the chapel at St. Stephens School, 10 Nov 1965, M. C. Johnston 7301 (TEX-LL); Austin, 26 Oct 1974, G. Edwards s.n. (TEX-LL); Davenport Ranch, south knoll, just N of Wild Basin property line, with Juniperus ashei, Quercus fusiformis, etc., 1 Oct 1980, M. C. Johnston s.n. (TEX-LL); Lake Austin City Park, 16 Oct 1980, M. C. Johnston s.n. (TEX-LL); about 8 mi N of University of Texas campus on the cuesta of Austin Chalk formation just in front of the Walnut Creek Baptist Church, oak-juniper scrub, uncommon, 7 Oct 1981, M. C. Johnston & A. McDonald s.n. (TEX-LL); rare, 2 plants seen, on SW facing hillside in drainage of Dry Creek between Ridge Oak Dr., Mt. Barker, Mt. Barker Rd., and R. R. 2222, limestone ledge with Juniperus ashei and Quercus virginiana, 19 Oct 1982, M. C. Johnston s.n. (TEX-LL); Walnut Creek Baptist Church, 30 Nov 1982, L. J. Dorr 2623 (TEX-LL); occasional in thin dry clayey soil on steep slope above roadcut through limestone, NW side of Loop 360, 0.4-0.5 mi SW of Lakewood Dr., 18 Nov 1984, W. R. Carr 6150 (TAES, TEX-LL); occasional in clayey loam over calcareous bedrock, in opening in cedar/oak woods near top of E- and N-facing slopes, ca. 1.5 airmiles due N of W end of Tom Miller Dam in West Lake Hills, 22 Nov 1984, W. R. Carr 6162 (TAES) and W. R. Carr 6164 (TAES, TEX-LL); under Ungnadia speciosa and Quercus, moderately moist clay loam on N-facing limestone slope, E side of Weston Dr., N of Bee Caves Rd., o.7 mi SE of River Hills Rd., 9 Dec 1984, W. R. Carr 6182 (TAES) and with Bouteloua curtipendula in ridgetop opening, same area, date, W. R. Carr 6183 (TAES); one clump seen in dry powdery marl ca. 75 ft. E of E end of rock shelter at base of S-facing Glen Rose Limestone cliff, N side of Colorado River ca. 2000 ft. WNW of Loop 360 bridge, 26 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr 11121 (TEX-LL); locally common in Ashe juniper-oak woodland in comparatively deep well drained stony clay, alluvial silt, and duff on narrow terrace at junction of two canyons bottoms and adjacent lower slopes, ca. 2.1 airmiles NW of jct. St. Rt. 71 and R.M. 620, 23 Oct 1992, W. R. Carr, D. Keddy-Hector & P. Turner 12479 (TEX-LL); common, visual dominant more common than Schizachyrium scoparium or Bouteloua curtipendula, in shallow stony clay soils on steep rocky slope underlain by Upper Glen Rose Formation limestone, in open juniper-oak woodland from which much of juniper has been cut, upper half of S to W facing slope on N side of Barton Creek ca. 0.5 airmiles SW of jct. Loop 360 and Scottish Woods Trail, 12 Nov 1992, W. R. Carr & D. Zippin 12494 (TEX-LL); at old shed, Rathgeber Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 12 Jul 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR); common in shallow stony clay loam (Brackett Series) in oak-juniper forest on steep sides of small canyon on N-facing slope of Glen Rose Limestone, S side of Little Barton Creek, ca. 0.3 mi E of mouth of Spillman Hollow, ca. 1.8 airmiles WSW of jct. St. Rt. 71 and R. M. 620 (at Bee Cave), Little Barton Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 29 Nov 1999, W. R. Carr 18648 (TEX-LL); occasional in juniper-oak woodland on shallow stony clay on lower part of steep, fairly dry, W-facing slope of Glen Rose Limestone just above floodplain of perennial creek, lower slope on E bank of Bull Creek ca. 500 ft. E of Spicewood Springs Rd. ca. 0.15-0.3 airmiles N of Loop 360 bridge, Stenis Tract (City of Austin), 12 Oct 2000, W. R. Carr 19166 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948.


Tridens congestus (L. H. Dew.) Nash. PINK TRIDENS. Native perennial; endemic to the Texas Blackland and Coastal Prairies, with records from Calhoun, Dallas, Kleberg, Leon, McLennan, Navarro, Nueces, San Patricio, Tarrant and Travis counties. Rare, known in our area from a single specimen from a cemetery on sandy loam over Pleistocene terrace deposits.


Specimens: Park Springs Church cemetery, Post Oak Road 0.25 mi E of Taylor Lane, 29 Jun 1986, C. W. Sexton & M. K. Sexton s.n. (COA). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Tridens eragrostoides (Vasey & Scribn.) Nash. LOVEGRASS TRIDENS. Native perennial. A common species of the South Texas Brush County; rare in our area and, like several other "southern" species found to date only on steep dry slopes along the Colorado River in the vicinity of Mt. Bonnell and the Loop 360 bridge.


Specimens: W face of Mt. Bonnell in bushes along cave, Austin, 20 Oct 1950, B. C. Tharp 3072 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Tridens flavus (L.) Hitchc. var. flavus. Triodia flava (L.) Hitchc. PURPLETOP, GREASEGRASS. Native perennial. Occasional in and along margins of deciduous riparian woodlands, mesic juniper-oak woodlands on lower slopes, and post oak woodlands over Pleistocene terrace deposits.


Specimens: Hornsby's Bend, 12 Nov 1922, B. C. Tharp 3072 (TEX-LL); infrequent near edge of woods along upper Bull Creek, limestone soil, 3 Oct 1945, B. H. Warnock 45-45 (TEX-LL); rare in disturbed clay soil on old limestone roadbed, Bull Creek drainage, 18 Oct 1982, W. R. Carr 4433 (TAES). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Tridens muticus (Torr.) Nash. Incl. var. muticus and var. elongatus (Buckl.) Shinners. Triodia mutica (Torr.) Scribn. SLIM TRIDENS. Native perennial. Common in grasslands and open juniper-oak woodlands on rocky limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: 16 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Tridens texanus (Wats.) Nash. TEXAS TRIDENS. Native perennial. Occasional in grasslands and open juniper-oak woodlands on loamy soils over limestone on uplands and rocky slopes.


Specimens: Near Lake Travis, 2 mi S of Travis Peak, rather frequent, 8 Oct 19448, C. M. Rogers 6531 (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch, upland, 8 Oct 1948, Tharp, Rogers et al. s.n. (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch, Lake Travis, NW corner of county, 14 Oct 1950, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-502 (TEX-LL); compacted sandy soil on vehicle trail through grazed pasture, Pace Bend Park, SE side of R. M. 2322 ca. 4 mi NE of St. Rt. 71, 20 Jun 1981, W. R. Carr 3306 (TAES); clay on disturbed trailbed through cedar-oak woods, limestone upland on N side of City Park Rd. between Turkey Creek and Lake Austin, 25 Jun 1981, W. R. Carr 3328 (TAES); rare in dry rocky clay soil on top of openly wooded limestone bluff on NE side of Lake Austin, 200-1000 ft. NW of Loop 360 bridge, 12 Jun 1988, W. R. Carr 8958 (TEX-LL); locally common in midgrass openings in Quercus fusiformis woodland, slightly sandy loam probably derived from Hensell Sand but resting on top of Cow Creek Limestone, Pace Bend Park, 26 Jun 1996, W. R. Carr & T. Siegenthaler 15563 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Triplasis purpurea (Walt.) Chapm. PURPLE SANDGRASS. Native annual. Rare in our area, probably restricted to deep loose sands of ancient and modern Colorado River deposits.


Specimens: Deep Eddy, Austin, 2 Oct 1937, D. Higdon s.n. (TEX-LL); occasional in deep dry sand on unshaded river terrace, NE bank of Lake Austin at S end of Emma Long Metro Park, 24 Sep 1989, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10070 (TEX-LL); sandy soils of ancient river deposits, abandoned pasture on S side of Westall St., Hornsby Bend housing development, 14 Sep 1991, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 11406 (TAES, TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Tripogon spicatus (Nees) Ekman. AMERICAN TRIPOGON. Native perennial. Most Texas records of this interesting grass are from shallow sandy to gravelly soils on outcrops of granite and gneiss in the Llano Uplift region. Our single record is from Pleistocene deposits derived, at least in part, from rocks of that region.


Specimens: Slightly acid, gravelly loamy sand Aquic Paleustalfs (Hornsby Series) over cherty Pleistocene fluviatile terrace deposits, in open post oak woodland/ pasture grazed until mid 1995, +/- level ridgetop on S side of Dry Creek, ca. 500 ft. E of E end of Galilee Lane, ca. 1.6 airmiles SSE of jct. Lockwood Rd. and Hog Eye Rd., ca. 5.0 airmiles S of jct. US Rt. 290 and F. M. 1100, 22 Nov 1995, W. R. Carr, C. & N. Farquhar 15096 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L. EASTERN GAMAGRASS. Native perennial. Occasional in prairie grasslands on all substrates; west of the Balcones Escarpment found mostly in riparian situations.


Specimens: Barton Creek, 4 Jul 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); in drainage ditch between Service Bldg. and Drama Bldg. on University of Texas campus, Austin, 18 Jul 1966, J. A. Mears 570 (TEX-LL); West Lake Hills on W side of Austin, along Bee Creek and on rocky limestone hills with scrubby Quercus, Juniperus ashei woods, 30 May 1974, M. Nee & M. Whelan 11827 (TEX-LL); bank of Bull Creek on SE side of Loop 360, 7 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4178 (BRIT/SMU); two clumps in deep silty to clayey alluvium on partially shaded E bank of Shoal Creek, 300-400 ft. N of W. 38th St. bridge, Austin, 11 May 1996, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 15340 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Trisetum interruptum Buckl. PRAIRIE TRISETUM. Native annual. Short-lived and somewhat inconspicuous spring-blooming species; common in grasslands on a variety of strata but perhaps more frequent over limestone.


Specimens: Clay loam on limestone ridgetop, Wheless Tract, 16 Apr 1982, W. R. Carr 3792 (TAES); clay loam on limestone ridgetop, Lake Austin City Park, 27 Apr 1982, W. R. Carr 3852 (BRIT/SMU); sandy loam on unshaded roadside, Loyola Lane 0.2-0.3 mi E of Blue Bluff Lane, 22 Apr 1986, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 7333b (UVST); rare in formerly grazed grassland openings in live oak savanna on Speck soils over Edwards Limestone on karstic upland, ca. 1000 ft. SW of gate at W end of Green Emerald Terrace, ca. 3.8-3.9 airmiles SSE of R. M. 1826 bridge over Slaughter Creek, ca. 4.6 airmiles E of R. M. 1826 bridge over Bear Creek, 8 May 2000, W. R. Carr 18957 (TEX-LL). Specimens at TEX-LL on loan May 1996, not examined. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


Urochloa ciliatissima (Buckl.) R. D. Webster. Brachiaria ciliatissima (Buckl.) Chase. FRINGED SIGNALGRASS. Native perennial. Rare in loose sandy soils in open, disturbed situations.


Specimens: Austin, 14 Oct 1922, R. H. Painter 3 (SEU); gravelly soil, Austin, 16 Oct 1930, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River, Austin, 21 Apr 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); hills ca. 5 mi E of Austin, 13 May 1940, C. L. Lundell & A. A. Lundell 8811 (TEX-LL); in loose sand near Town Lake, at Animal Shelter, 24 Oct 1974, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL); loose sandy soil on mown roadside, S side of F. M. 969 ca. 0.2-0.3 mi W of Hornsby-Dunlap School, ca. 1.5 roadmiles SE of jct. F. M. 973, 14 Sep 1991, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 11410 (TEX-LL); forming small colonies in old field grassland dominated by Aristida purpurea and Sporobolus cryptandrus, in deep, well drained, noncalcareous, mildly alkaline fine sandy loam over Hensell Sand, SE 1/4 of Pace Bend Park, 19 Oct 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15802 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1959.


Urochloa fasciculata (Sw.) R. D. Webster. Brachiaria fasciculata (Sw.) S. T. Blake; Panicum fasciculatum Sw. BROWNTOP SIGNALGRASS. Native annual. Occasional weed of disturbed clayey to sandy soils.


Specimens: Onion Creek, 27 Sep 1941, B. Moon 139 (TEX-LL); common at the City Park at the corner of 45th St. and Ave. G. by the tennis courts, 24 Jul 1966, J. A. Mears 607 (TEX-LL); vehicle trails and disturbed areas in open field on sandy clay of high stream terrace, SE side of Loop 360 ca. 0.8 mi NW of Lakewood Dr., 13 Jun 1982, W. R. Carr 4090 (UVST); clay loam in weedy areas in upland oak-cedar-mesquite savanna, along hiking trail in S edge of McKinney Falls State Park, 19 Oct 1985, W. R. Carr, E. A. Kutac & K. Kenka 7039 (SEU); fairly common in disturbed and mown areas of Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, 5 Aug 1995, P. D. Turner 64 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Urochloa reptans (L.) Stapf. Brachiaria reptans (L.) Gard. & C. E. Hubb.; Panicum reptans L. CREEPING SIGNALGRASS. Introduced annual. An uncommon weed or lawns and garden beds.


Specimens: Weed in watered garden, UT campus, 12 Sep 1947, W. V. Brown 3465 (TEX-LL); garden weed, 3610 Windsor Rd., 10 Aug 1948, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL); weed in garden in front of Walnut Creek Baptist Church, W side of N Lamar S of Walnut Creek Park, 9 Oct 1982, W. R. Carr 4382 (BRIT/SMU); abundant weedy grass out-competing other non-native grasses on partially shaded lawn of back yard, 1809 Treadwell St., Travis Heights neighborhood, Austin, W. R. Carr 17151 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Brown, 1958.


Urochloa texana (Buckl.) R. D. Webster. Brachiaria texana (Buckl.) S. T. Blake; Panicum texanum Buckl. TEXAS SIGNALGRASS. Native annual. Weedy in sandy soils.


Specimens: Corn field, Waller Creek, 18 Oct 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); corn field, sandy soil, Hornsby Bend near Austin, 12 Jul 1920, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); McDonald Ranch, 1941-1942, D. Higdon 118 (TEX-LL); Colorado River, Austin, W. D. Higdon 8 (TEX-LL); abundant on vacant tract behind Texas Museum, Austin, 14 Sep 1944, B. H. Warnock 21729 (TEX-LL); locally common on bulldozed pile of sand and gravel around power transformers at SE end of Mansfield Dam, 9 Nov 1985, W. R. Carr & E. A. Kutac 7058 (TEX-LL); sandy loam along fenceline near soccer field W of Humane Center, Austin, 2 Nov 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15829 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958; Lynch, 1974.


Vulpia octoflora (Walt.) Rydb. Festuca octoflora Walt. SIXWEEKSGRASS. Native annual. Occasional in disturbed area and early successional grasslands on all substrates. According to some authorities more than one subspecific taxon is present in Travis County.


Specimens: 20 sheets at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Higdon, 1948; Lynch, 1974. References: Lonard & Gould, 1974.


Vulpia myuros (L.) K. C. Gmel. Festuca myuros L. RAT-TAIL SIXWEEKSGRASS. Adventive annual. Rare, known in our area from a single collection.


Specimens: Roadside of Enfield at golf course, Austin, 28 Mar 1949, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Lonard & Gould, 1974.


Zizaniopsis miliacea (Michx.) Doell. & Asch. MARSHMILLET. Native perennial. A species of the southeastern United States, in our area near the southwestern limit of its distribution. All of our specimens are from the banks of impoundments on the Colorado River.


Specimens: Colorado River, 19 Dec 1921, E. A. Allen s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Colorado River flood plain, 23 Apr 1929, A. Armer 5317 (TEX-LL); lake shore under Mt. Bonnell, plentiful but mostly eaten off by cattle, 12 Aug 1943, F. A. Barkley 13464 (TEX-LL); in water at edge of Lake Austin, 18 Aug 1947, W. V. Brown 3363 (TEX-LL); Zilker Park, along margin of Colorado River, 6 Jun 1964, D. G. DeLisle 1145 (TEX-LL); occasional along N bank of Town Lake between Mopac and N. Lamar Blvd., Austin, 5 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4295 (BRIT/SMU); rare on moist N bank of Town Lake ca. 0.2 mi E of IH-35 bridges, Austin, 3 May 1996, W. R. Carr & P. D. Turner 15285 (TEX-LL); rare, a few clumps in wet silty alluvium shaded in PM by riparian woodland, W bank of channel of along W side of Colorado River (Town Lake) ca. 100-200 ft. N of Red Bud Trail bridge, S of Tom Miller Dam, Austin, 13 Oct 2000, W. R. Carr 19170 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Higdon, 1948; Brown, 1958.


CYPERACEAE SEDGE FAMILY


Carex austrina (Small) Mack. SOUTHERN WOODSEDGE. Native perennial. Apparently rare in riparian woodlands.


Specimens: Walnut Creek on Manor Rd., spring 1921, B. C. Tharp 1029 (TEX-LL; ann. S. D. Jones); Austin, Colorado River floodplain, 9 Apr 1929, A. Armer 5628 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Jones, 1994.


Carex blanda Dew. WOODLAND SEDGE. Native perennial. Occasional in loamy soils of wooded alluvial terraces.


Specimens: Upper Barton Creek just W of Loop 360, shade of cedar and oak woodland, loam on limestone, 13 Apr 1985, B. Ertter & L. Vorobik 5681 (TEX-LL); wet clay around seeps in limestone on canyon slope, in shade of a few baldcypress, sycamore, and numerous Ilex decidua, N side of E end of Thurman Cove, Pace Bend Park 16 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr 11071 (TAES, ann. S. D. Jones); moist silty clay on terrace of ephemeral stream above fishing tank, Camp Mabry, 22 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr 11091 (TAES; ann. S. D. Jones); loamy alluvium on forested terrace of Dry Creek, foot of limestone slopes, ca. 200-300 ft. downstream from intersection of R. M. 2222 and Mesa Blvd., Brightleaf State Natural Area, 13 Apr 1995, W. R. Carr 14491 (BRCH, ann. S. D. Jones); pecan-elm-hackberry woodland on silty clay loam on high but occasionally inundated creek terrace, N bank of Onion Creek, W of westernmost softball field at Richard Moya Park, 21 Apr 1996, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 15173 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Carex bulbostylis Mackenzie. Carex amphibola of auth., in part. NARROW-LEAF SEDGE. Native perennial. Frequent in loamy soils of wooded alluvial terraces and colluvial slopes.


Specimens: Walnut Creek, Manor Rd., 27 Mar 1921, B. C. Tharp 1030 (TEX-LL; ann. R. F. C. Naczi, 1992); Austin, Onion Creek, 26 Apr 1929, B. C. Tharp 6202 (TEX-LL; ann. R. F. C. Naczi, 1992); locally common in moist silty clay loam on pecan-shaded alluvial terrace, W bank of Waller Creek in back yard at 4519 Avenue D, Austin, 22 Apr 1989, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9596 (TAES; det. S. D. Jones); rare in moderately moist humus and clay loam over limestone, in shade of Texas oak, Ashe juniper, cedar elm, etc., on lower slopes along ephemeral tributary of Walnut Creek, NE 1/4 of Balcones City Park, 14 Apr 1994, W. R. Carr, A. Price & R. Petkoff 13568-B (TAES, TEX-LL; ann. S. D. Jones). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Carex cherokeensis Schwein. CHEROKEE SEDGE. Native perennial. Locally abundant in sandy to loamy soils in moist woodlands in counties to the east but apparently rare in our area.


Specimens: [To county only], 20 May 1938, B. C. Tharp 43285 (TEX-LL); seep on creekbank, Williamson Creek, 0.5 mi downstream from Nuchols Crossing Road, 3 Apr 1987, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA); rare, a few plants in riparian forest strip on narrow alluvial terrace and colluvial slope at foot of limestone bluff, NE bank of Bear Creek downstream from dam just N of house on Tabor Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 24 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr 18892 (TEX-LL); rare in silty alluvial soil on bank of intermittent stream in bottom of broad, shallow valley between moderately steep limestone slopes, in shade of cedar elm woodland with dense Ashe juniper understory, Brodie Tract (a Prop 2 tract), ca. 0.4 airmiles WNW of center of MoPac - Ben White cloverleaf, 27 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 18909 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. Other reports: Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, 1996).


Carex complanata T. & H. FLAT-FRUIT WOODSEDGE. Native perennial. A common sedge in the post oak belt east of Travis County, in our area probably restricted to those few areas of similar habitat found largely on Pleistocene terrace deposits.


Specimens: Common in sandy gravelly loam over Quaternary high gravel deposits on bladed and mown roadside through post oak woodland, N side of Hog Eye Rd., 0.6-0.7 mi SW of Lockwood Rd., or ca. 1.5 mi E of Blake-Manor Rd., 30 Mar 1991, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 10984 (TAES; ann. S. D. Jones). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Carex crus-corvi Kunze. CROWFOOT SEDGE. Native perennial. Apparently rare in our area, near the southwestern limit of its range. To the east Carex crus-corvi is found in moist loamy or sandy soils in mixed woodlands, in seasonally wet marsh-like grasslands, and in alluvium along watercourses.


Specimens: Colorado River floodplain, Austin, 23 Apr 1929, A. Armer 5273 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Carex edwardsiana Bridges & Orzell. Carex oligocarpa of auth., in part, not Schkuhr. CANYON SEDGE. Native perennial; endemic to the Edwards Plateau, with records from Bandera, Bell, Bexar, Blanco, Comal, Coryell, Hays, Kendall, Medina, Real, Travis and Uvalde counties. Locally abundant in rich humus over clay loam in oak-juniper woodlands in mesic limestone canyons. Keys in Correll & Johnston to Carex oligocarpa, which as interpreted by Bridges and Orzell (1989) does not occur in our area.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL; see Orzell & Bridges, 1989. Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Balcones Canyonlands NWR (Sexton, 1996). References: Bridges & Orzell, 1989; Naczi & Bryson, 1990.


Carex emoryi Dew. EMORY SEDGE. Native perennial. Occasional, forming colonies in moist alluvial soils on banks of Colorado River and perennial streams (e.g., Onion Creek at McKinney Falls State Park).


Specimens: Colorado River, seepy soil, Austin, Bray 9175 (TEX-LL); Colorado River floodplain, Austin, 21 Mar 1929, A. Armer 5276 (TEX-LL); Town Lake at Johnston Creek, 2 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4622 (BRIT/SMU). Reports: Lynch, 1974.


Carex frankii Kunth. FRANK SEDGE. Native perennial. Rare in moist silty alluvial soils on banks of perennial streams, usually in partial shade of riparian woodlands. A report of Carex hystericina Willd. from our area (Mase, 1985) is probably based on this species.


Specimens: Locally frequent in moist silty alluvial soil among limestone rocks on riverbank shaded by baldcypress, W side of Colorado River (upper end of Town Lake), ca. 1000 ft. S of Red Bud Trail bridge below Tom Miller Dam, Austin, 5 Jun 1994, W. R. Carr, P. McNeal & J. Gleason 13887 (TAES; ann. S. D. Jones), 11 Jun 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15516 (TEX-LL); frequent in moist somewhat sandy soil on partially shaded bank of Lake Austin (Colorado River), W edge of Fritz Hughes County Park, 3 July 1996, W. R. Carr 15594 (TEX-LL); local on Ruth P. M. Lehmann Preserve (TNC), noted only in moist silt around mostly shaded spring or strong seep emanating from base of Edwards Limestone, bottom of mesic wooded canyon in SE 1/4 of preserve, ca. 2.7 airmiles W to WNW of jct. R. M. 620 and R. M. 2769, ca. 1.6-1.7 airmiles N of jct. R. M. 2769 and Bullick Hollow Rd., 19 Jun 2000, W. R. Carr & T. Ettel 19067 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, 1996).


Carex leavenworthii Dew. Carex cephalophora Willd. var. angustifolia Boott. NARROWLEAF SEDGE. Native perennial. A weed of shaded lawns in old residential neighborhoods just W of the University of Texas campus. Our few records suggest that this sedge, while native to eastern North America, may be adventive to our flora.


Specimens: E side of Nueces, 1/2 block S of 24th St., 23 Mar 1982, Austin, W. R. Carr 3708 (TAES, ann. S. D. Jones); in lawn of fraternity at NW corner of 23rd and Nueces, Austin, 23 Mar 1983, W. R. Carr 4600 (TAES, ann. S. D. Jones). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Jones, 1994.


Carex microdonta T. & H. SMALLTOOTH SEDGE. Native perennial. Frequent in wet clay soils around seasonal seeps on open Glen Rose Limestone benches and along streambottoms in limestone canyons; also in moist spots in Blackland Prairie grasslands.


Specimens: Bee Creek, 21 Apr 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Shoal Creek, Pease Park, 19 Mar 1921, B. C. Tharp 1027 (TEX-LL); wet seep in cracks in limestone rock, creek 2 mi E of Pedernales River bridge on St. Hwy. 71, 11 Apr 1966, J. R. Crutchfield 1267 (TEX-LL); abundant in moist clay on stream terrace at edge of woods, W side of Bull Creek near waterfall on N side of Loop 360 SW of Spicewood Springs Rd., 14 Apr 1982, W. R. Carr 3826-B (TEX-LL); wet clay at seep on Glen Rose slope, Wheless Tract, S side of Lime Creek Rd. 4.0-4.1 roadmiles N of jct. F. M. 2769, 25 Apr 1982, W. R. Carr 3844 (TEX-LL); W of intersection of W. Duval Rd. and W. Cow Path, W of Hwy 183 ca. 2 mi N of Loop 360, moist soil of swale, 23 Apr 1983, B. Ertter 4744 (TEX-LL); seep at N foot of Cat Mt., 1 May 1983, W. R. Carr 4790 (TAES, ann. S. D. Jones; TEX-LL); heavy black clay of roadside in farmland, jct. Johnny Morris Lane at Daffon Lane, NE side of Austin, 1 Apr 1984, B. Ertter 5261 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Carex muhlenbergii Schkuhr. var. enervis Boott. MUHLENBERG SEDGE. Native perennial. Frequent in open post oak woodlands on sandy gravelly soils of Colorado River terraces and along margins of deciduous woodlands on silty alluvium on terraces of major streams.


Specimens: Austin, Colorado River floodplain, 9 Apr 1929, A. Armer 5270 (TEX-LL; ann. S. D. Jones); sandy/silty alluvial soil in open deciduous woods on creekbank, Precinct One Park, 13 April 1985, W. R. Carr 6294 (TAES; ann. S. D. Jones) and W. R. Carr 6296 (TAES, ann. S. D. Jones); sandy gravelly loam over Quaternary high gravel deposits on bladed and mown roadside through post oak woodland, N side of Hog Eye Rd., 0.6-0.7 mi SW of Lockwood Rd., 30 Mar 1991, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 10985 (TAES; ann. S. D. Jones); fine sandy loam Alfisols in shade of post oak, blackjack oak, Texas hickory on gently sloping former river terrace, picnic area at N end of road to Kates Cove, Pace Bend Park, 16 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr 11067 (TAES; ann. S. D. Jones); with Stipa leucotricha, Verbesina virginica, etc. in reddish brown clay loam in partial shade of live oak, cedar elm, Texas persimmon, and mesquite in formerly grazed pasture, ca. 1000 ft. E of road on W side of Pace Bend Park, opposite Thurman Cove, 16 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr 11070 (TAES; ann. S. D. Jones); gravelly well drained acid fine sandy loam Alfisols in early successional grassland in shade of post oaks, 100-500 ft. W of Singleton Rd. ca. 0.7 mi. S of Post Oak Bend Cemetery (Travis Peak Cemetery), Gloster Bend Resource Area (LCRA), 23 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 11105 & 11106 (TAES; ann. S. D. Jones). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974 (not to variety). References: Jones, 1994.


Carex perdentata S. D. Jones. Carex triangularis of local auth., misapplied. Native perennial. A recently described species, closely allied to Carex leavenworthii and Carex muhlenbergii. The status of the various species of Carex sect. Phaestoglochin within Travis County awaits serious study in light of recent and continuing revisionary work by Jones. Apparently common in openings in juniper-oak woodlands on rocky limestone slopes.


Specimens: Shoal Creek, 17 Apr 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL; ann S. D. Jones); Austin, 9 May 1935, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL; ann S. D. Jones); common in thin moderately moist soil on disturbed rocky slope, under partial shade of Celtis and Ungnadia, W side of ravine ca. 0.6 mi WNW of Spicewood Springs Rd. and Mesa Blvd., 11 Apr 1984, W. R. Carr 6015 (TEX-LL; ann. S. D. Jones). In his description of this species, Jones (1994) cited an additional specimen from Travis County: 0.2 mi SW on the Andrandok Trail with its jct. with Loop 390 [360] in Bull Creek Park, Austin, S side of Bull Creek on N-facing slope of a juniper-oak woodland, 7 Apr 1990, S. & G. Jones 4225 (BRIT/SMU, TAES, and other herbaria). Other specimens: rare in bed of foot-trail on shallow, well drained, calcareous, moderately alkaline gravelly clay loam over Glen Rose Limestone, in mostly deciduous woodland on most mesic portion of lower, N-facing slope, trail above Dry Creek, ca. 500 ft. SW of jct. R. M. 2222 and Mesa Blvd., Brightleaf State Natural Area, Austin, 11 May 1995, W. R. Carr & L. Kissock 14628 (BRCH, ann. S. D. Jones). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Carex triangularis Boeckl.) Other reports: Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, 1996). References: Jones, 1994.


Carex planostachys Kunze. CEDAR SEDGE. Native perennial. Probably the most common sedge in Travis County. Abundant in juniper-dominated woodlands on shallow clayey soils over limestone; also present but less conspicuous in open prairie sites on Austin Chalk and to be expected in post oak woodlands over Pleistocene gravel and sand deposits. References: Jones & Jones, 1993.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Jones & Jones, 1993.


Carex reniformis (Bailey) Small. KIDNEY SEDGE. Native perennial. Lynch (1974) found this species "growing on a mud flat at the edge of Bull Creek." The voucher specimen, which probably resides at SEU, should be compared to Carex tetrastachya.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Carex tetrastachya Scheele. Carex brittoniana Bailey. BRITTON SEDGE. Native perennial. Common in various moist to wet open situations, mostly on clayey soils.


Specimens: Colorado River floodplain, 11 Dec 1928, A. A. Armer 5274 (TEX-LL) and 23 Apr 1929, A. A. Armer 5269 (TEX-LL); low wet ground along I & GN RR below FMC [Feeble-minded Colony], 22 Apr 1921, B. C. Tharp 1044 (TEX-LL); New Waverly, 25 Apr 1938, S. R. Warner 19 (TEX-LL); wet roadside ditch, NW corner of F. M. 969 and Webberwood Way, 3.2 mi W. of F. M. 1704, 13 Apr 1985, W. R. Carr 6298 (TAES, ann. S. D. Jones). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Cladium mariscus (L.) Pohl subsp. jamaicense (Crantz) Kukenthal. Cladium jamaicense Crantz. SAWGRASS. Native perennial. Uncommon in wet alluvial soils along shaded to unshaded banks of the Colorado River (Lake Austin and Town Lake), occurring as isolated but conspicuous clumps or sometimes, as just below the W end of Tom Miller Dam, in large colonies. Not reported but to expected from perennial stretches of Bull Creek, Barton Creek, and other major streams.


Specimens: Moist soil on seep-fed limestone shelf along W bank of Colorado River just S of Red Bud Trail, 7 Jul 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9054 (BRIT/SMU); locally common on wet, partially shaded travertine outcrop in 100-foot-long spring run from springhead at top of ravine in Cow Creek Limestone, Naumann Cove, Pace Bend Park, 31 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr 15647 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Cyperus acuminatus T. & H. TAPERLEAF UMBRELLASEDGE. Native annual. Common in at least temporarily wet clay in roadside ditches, on scoured limestone creekbeds, along margins of ponds, and in a variety of moist unshaded disturbed habitats.


Specimens: wet clay in unshaded roadside ditch over limestone, 18 Jun 1981, W. R. Carr 3283 (VSC; ann. R. Carter); in clay of dried puddle on unshaded limestone upland, Lake Austin City Park, 25 Jun 1981, W. R. Carr 3332 (VSC; ann. R. Carter); clay in creek bottom between Cat Mt. and North Cat Mt., 25 Oct 1982, W. R. Carr 4465 (BRIT/SMU); common in clay mud in shallow water in vernal pool in depression in Edwards Limestone exposed in pasture on level, ridgetop, Post Oak Ridge, 15 May 1991, W. R. Carr & J. M. Poole 11157 (VSC; ann. R. Carter). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Carter, 1990; Denton, 1978; Denton, 1983.


Cyperus articulatus L. JOINTED UMBRELLASEDGE. Native perennial. A distinctive sedge of the New World tropics; fairly common in wet clayey soils the South Texas Plains and ranging as far north as the Waco area. Rare in Travis County; no recent reports.


Specimens: Swamp near Country Club, 30 Oct 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, summer 1920, B. C. Tharp 131 (TEX-LL); Austin, spring 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL).


Cyperus croceus Vahl. Cyperus globulosus of auth., not Aubl. BALDWIN UMBRELLASEDGE. Native perennial. To be expected in sandy soils of post oak woodlands.


Specimens: On loan from TEX-LL, not examined. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Carter & Kral, 1990.


Cyperus difformis L. Naturalized annual. A recently introduced Asiatic sedge, established in shallow wet clay and silt over limestone in disturbed creekbeds throughout most of Travis County.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL. Previous Travis County floras: None. Other reports: Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, 1996). References: Carr, 1988; Lipscomb, 1980.


Cyperus digitatus Roxb. FINGER UMBRELLASEDGE. Native perennial. A tropical species of unclear status in our area. Included here solely on the basis of a report from Brackenridge Field Lab (Anonymous, 1979).


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: none.


Cyperus echinatus (L.) Wood. Cyperus ovularis Torr., incl. var. cylindricus (Ell.) Torr.; Cyperus retrorsus Chapm. Native perennial. To be expected in sandy soils of post oak woodlands.


Specimens: On loan from TEX-LL, not examined. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Carter & Kral, 1990.


Cyperus elegans L. STICKY UMBRELLASEDGE. Native perennial. An elegant sedge of ruderal moist clayey habitats, rare in our area.


Specimens: Wet clay around puddle on unshaded roadside, SE side of Loop 360, 1/2 mi N of F. M. 2222, 18 Nov 1981, W. R. Carr 3663 (BRIT/SMU, TEX-LL); common in wet soil along unshaded margin of stilling basin below spillway at Lake Walter E. Long, 14 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9251 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Cyperus entrerianus Böeckler. ENTRE RIOS UMBRELLASEDGE. Adventive perennial. A species of South America, recently introduced in North America (Carter, 1990) and now thoroughly naturalized on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Rare at present in our area, with recent collections from the Barton Creek watershed (P. Turner, pers. comm.).


Specimens: At least one sheet in Paul Turner Herbarium. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl. REDROOT UMBRELLASEDGE. Native annual. Rare in moist alluvium along unshaded perennial streams.


Specimens: Colorado River at Austin, 15 May 1937, B. C. Tharp 43347 (TEX-LL); abundant in moist silt on banks of Cypress Creek channel in area normally submerged under Lake Travis but exposed during drought, Cypress Creek Park, 19 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr 15628 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Cyperus esculentus L. YELLOW NUTSEDGE, CHUFA. Native perennial. Occasional in moist disturbed soils in creek bottoms and ruderal urban settings.


Specimens: Onion Creek, 30 July 1922, B. C. Tharp 2120 (TEX-LL); drainage ditch on edge of parking lot, W side of Burnet Rd. ca. 2000 ft. N of Anderson Lane, Austin, 4 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4278 (TEX-LL); Shoal Creek at 38th St, Austin, 3 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4275 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Cyperus flavescens L. YELLOW UMBRELLASEDGE. Native annual. Rare in moist sandy to silty alluvium in unshaded areas.


Specimens: Sandpile on Colorado River terrace at S end of Emma Long Metro Park, 10 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3534 (BRIT/SMU); rare in wet silt in solution pits and fractures in limestone bed of Bull Creek ca. 750 ft. S of Loop 360 bridge at Lakewood Drive, 15 Sep 1989, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 10054 (VSC). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Cyperus involucratus Rottb. Cyperus alternifolius of auth. UMBRELLA PLANT. Introduced perennial; native of Africa or Madagascar (Correll & Johnston, 1970), occasionally cultivated for its attractive foliage and habit. It is unclear whether the occurrences of this species within Travis County represent escapes from cultivation or persistent deliberate plantings.


Specimens: One clump, shallow wet clay over limestone, shaded stretch of Waller Creek, 200 ft. N of E. 38th St, Austin, 30 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9244. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Cyperus iria L. RICEFIELD UMBRELLASEDGE. Naturalized annual; native of Asia. Uncommon in disturbed moist alluvium.


Specimens: Northwest Park, 10 Aug 1987, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA); wet clay in disturbed unshaded limestone bed of Shoal Creek 300 ft. S of Greenlawn Parkway, Austin, 5 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 9213; wet clay over limestone in bed of Little Walnut Creek 300 ft. S of Loyola Lane bridge, Austin, 14 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9248 (TEX-LL); drainage ditch on N side of W. 45th St. between Lamar and Guadalupe, Austin, 12 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10757 (TAES; ann. S. D. Jones; VSC, ann. R. Carter). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Cyperus lupulinus (Spreng.) Marcks subsp. lupulinus. Cyperus filiculmis of auth. SLENDER UMBRELLASEDGE. Native perennial. Rare in openings in post oak woodlands over sandy Pleistocene terrace deposits.


Specimens: Woods W of I & GN [RR], 12 Oct 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); C. C. Goldflinck's, Austin, 26 May 1922, B. C. Tharp 2127 (TEX-LL); occasional in sandy/gravelly soil in early successional grassland in open post oak-blackjack oak woodland recently cleared of invading juniper; ca. 100-1000 ft. NW of Singleton Rd. near its S end at S end of Gloster Bend Resource Area, 30 Jul 1991, W. R. Carr & D. Hernandez 11324 (VSC; ann. R. Carter). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Cyperus ochraceus Vahl. UMBRELLASEDGE. Native perennial. Frequent in wet soils along unshaded banks of perennial streams and edges of various impoundments. The most common representative of Section Luzuloidei in our area.


Specimens: Wet soils along N bank of Colorado River under US Rt. 183 bridges, 1 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3441 (VSC; ann. R. Carter); Wet clay in and along streambed, Shoal Creek 50 ft. N of W. 38th St. bridge, Austin, 15 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7578 (VSC; ann. R. Carter). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Carter, 1990; Denton, 1978; Denton, 1983.


Cyperus odoratus L. Cyperus ferax Vahl. FRAGRANT UMBRELLASEDGE. Native annual. Frequent in wet soils along unshaded banks of perennial streams and edges of various impoundments.


Specimens: Wet clayey soil on limestone bed of Bull Creek, under Loop 360 bridges 0.6 mi NE of Lakewood Drive, 9 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3514 (BRIT/SMU); common in moist clay and clay in partially shaded bed of tributary of Bull Creek ca. 300 ft. S of Floral Park Drive bridge, 9 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9232; common in moist silt on banks of Cypress Creek channel in area normally submerged under Lake Travis but exposed during drought, Cypress Creek Park, 19 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr 15629 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974; Young, 1920. References: Tucker, 1984.


Cyperus pseudovegetus Steud. var. pseudovegetus. UMBRELLASEDGE. Native perennial. Rare in our area, known from a single specimen taken presumably from wet sand or silt.


Specimens: Austin, no date, B. C. Tharp 142 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Carter, 1990; Denton, 1978; Denton, 1983.


Cyperus retroflexus Buckl. Cyperus uniflorus T. & H. ONEFLOWER UMBRELLASEDGE. Native perennial. Frequent in upland grasslands on various substrates, mostly in sand of Colorado River terrace deposits but also in clay loam over limestone.


Specimens: Sandpile on Colorado River terrace at S end of Emma Long Metro Park, 15 Oct 1991, W. R. Carr 3550 (BRIT/SMU); gravelly well drained acid fine sandy loam in early successional grassland among post oaks, 100-500 ft. W of Singleton Rd. ca. 0.7 mi. S of Post Oak Bend Cemetery, Gloster Bend Resource Area 23 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 11114 (TAES; annotated by S. D. Jones); locally frequent in loamy fine sand on old Colorado River terrace deposits, in soccer field on level unshaded area, N side of W. First St., 0.3 mi. W of Lamar, Austin, 6 Sep 1991, W. R. Carr & W. C. Bergquist 11389 (VSC; ann. R. Carter); frequent in sand and gravel on levelled area on old Colorado River terrace deposits, S side of access road to E-bound W First St., ca. 100 ft. E of entrance to Austin High School parking lot, N side of Colorado River about halfway between Lamar and MoPac bridges, Austin, 6 Sep 1991, W. R. Carr & W. C. Bergquist 11391 (VSC; ann. R. Carter); common in loose sandy soil on unshaded, regularly mown, level roadside, S side of F. M. 969 ca. 0.2-0.3 mi W of Hornsby-Dunlap School, i.e., ca. 1.5 roadmiles SE of jct. F. M. 973, 14 Sep 1991, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 11408 (VSC; ann. R. Carter). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Cyperus rotundus L. PURPLE NUTGRASS. Naturalized perennial. Frequent in disturbed alluvium in unshaded creekbottoms but also a weed of ruderal urban areas. Even 75 years ago, Cyperus rotundus was considered a "serious pest" of lawns (Young, 1920).


Specimens: Sand drifts above I & GN bridge on Colorado, 1 Dec 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); University campus, 15 Dec 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); sand hills near Montopolis, 14 Oct 1901, C. H. Winkler s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River floodplain, 28 Mar 1921, B. C. Tharp 1024 (TEX-LL); Lake Austin, 2 Aug 1936, B. C. Tharp 43446 (TEX-Ll); SEU campus, lawn, unshaded, 4 Jun 1954, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL); UT campus, 1 Oct 1954, W. L. McCart 4004 and 4005 (TEX-LL). Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Cyperus setigerus T. & H. Native perennial. Rare, presumably in moist clay soils. No recent collections or reports.


Specimens: Onion Creek, 30 Apr 1921, B. C. Tharp 2101 (TEX-LL), summer 1922, B. C. Tharp 2108 (TEX-LL); Lake Austin, 2 Aug 1936, B. C. Tharp 43342 (BRIT/SMU, TEX). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Cyperus squarrosus L. Cyperus aristatus Rottb. BEARDED UMBRELLASEDGE. Native annual. Frequent in gravel, sand and silt bars exposed in beds of streams, occasionally around nondescript puddles.


Specimens: Austin, 1 Jul 1920, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, 23 Jun 1921, B. C. Tharp 875 (TEX-LL); Austin, 4 Aug 1922, R. H. Painter 97 (TEX-LL); silt, Lake Austin, 12 Aug 1922, B. C. Tharp 2126 (TEX-LL); Austin, May 1931, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Aug 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); silty mudflat on Lake Travis at Sandy Creek Park, 8 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3502 (VSC, ann. R. Carter); sand and silt on flats seasonally exposed along Lake Travis, S end of Shaw Rd., S end of Gloster Bend Resource Area, 3 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9104 (BRIT/SMU); occasional in silt and sand exposed in bed of Lake Travis during summer of low water level, Arkansas Bend Park, 11 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr, C. Ladd & T. Siegenthaler 15601 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Cyperus strigosus L. FALSE NUTGRASS. Native perennial. Occasional in moist soils on gravel, sand and silt bars and along banks of streams.


Specimens: Austin, SE of Hyde Park, 11 Oct 1920, B. C. Tharp 1066 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Cyperus surinamensis Rottb. TROPICAL UMBRELLASEDGE. Native annual. Rare in moist alluvium seasonally exposed in bed of Lake Travis; to be expected in disturbed creekbottoms.


Specimens: Common in sandy alluvial soil in band of riparian vegetation at high water line, unshaded shoreline of Lake Travis at S end of Shaw Rd., Turkey Bend Resource Area, 30 Jul 1991, W. R. Carr & D. Hernandez 11327 (VSC; ann. R. Carter); rare in sand and gravel exposed on sloping beach exposed during drought along shoreline of Lake Travis at Kate's and Johnson's coves, N end of Pace Bend Park, 19 Oct 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15805 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Carter, 1990; Denton, 1978; Denton, 1983.


Cyperus thyrsiflorus Schlecht. & Cham. Cyperus hermaphroditus of auth. Native perennial. Rare in grassland openings in woodlands on alluvial terraces.


Specimens: Bottomland at Onion Creek Preserve, 10 Jul 1986, K. A. Bear, L. Stone, & J. McEwen s.n. (COA); rare, local in sandy/gravelly alluvium under pecans on upper edge of creek terrace, near park bench in shade of woodland at E edge of large sloping limestone exposure between lower falls and parking lot, McKinney Falls State Park, 19 Oct 1995, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15037 (BRCH, ann. S. D. Jones). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R. & S. NEEDLE SPIKESEDGE. Native perennial. Rare in moist sand or silt exposed along shoreline of Lake Travis and in beds of perennial creeks.


Specimens: Mud hole, Shoal Creek, 17 Apr 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Apr 1927, E. R. Bogusch s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 15 Mar 1929, B. C. Tharp 6244 (TEX-LL); Country Club, Austin, 15 Mar 1929, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, wet meadow, 12 Apr 1942, B. C. Tharp 42149 (TEX-LL); locally abundant in moist silty alluvium on seasonally submersed terrace, E end of small arm of Lake Travis, NE of Sandy Creek LCRA Park, SE of mouth of Lime Creek, 7 Sep 1987, W. R. Carr 8726 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Eleocharis acutisquamata Buckl. SPLITSCALE SPIKESEDGE. Native perennial. Common in wet clay in seasonal seeps on open Glen Rose slopes, often forming large colonies on flat benches. (Taxonomic note: Smith (2001) treated this taxon as Eleocharis compresa var. acutisquamata (Buckl.) S. G. Smith, but placed most (or all?) of our material in a separate species, E. occulta S. G. Smith. It is unclear whether E. compresa var. acutisquamata also occurs in our area.)


Specimens: Ravine between Cypress and Sandy Creeks up the Colorado River [near] Austin, 24 Apr 1921, Tharp 998 (TEX-LL); W of Austin near Bee Caves in cedar brakes, 12 Apr 1941, C. L. and A. A. Lundell 10298 (TEX-LL); seepage along upper Bull Creek, 18 May 1946, J. Adamcik & F. A. Barkley 16T205 (TEX-LL); temporary pool at roadside on mountain at upper end of Lake Travis, 18 May 1946, M. Wheeler, C. M. Rowell, & F. A. Barkley 16T229 (TEX-LL); abundant in wet clay on open upland seep, ridgetop at NE corner of Loop 360 and Spicewood Springs Rd., 11 Apr 1982, W. R. Carr 3761 (BRIT/SMU); hills W of Austin, Commons Ford Rd. ca. 1 mi N of Bee Cave Rd., juniper and oak woodland on limestone, shallow soil of dried swale, 1983, B. Ertter & M. Baker 4807 (TEX-LL); Glen Rose upland, Rathgeber Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 1 May 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR 419). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Eleocharis atropurpurea (Retz.) J. & C. Presl. PURPLE SPIKESEDGE. Native annual. Apparently rare; included in our flora on the basis of a report by Lynch (1974) who found this tiny sedge along Bull Creek.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Eleocharis geniculata (L.) Roem. & Schult. Eleocharis caribaea of auth.; Eleocharis capitata (L.) R. Br. ANNUAL SPIKESEDGE. Native annual. Common in moist soils in creekbeds, on gravel bars and mudflats, and around ephemeral puddles.


Specimens: Common in moist clay and silty alluvium on strand exposed along unshaded bank of Barton Creek ca. 1.8 airmiles S of jct. Loop 360 and FM 2244, 16 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9253 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Eleocharis microcarpa Torr. SMALLSEED SPIKESEDGE. Native perennial. A tiny mat-forming annual spikesedge, frequent in moist sandy soils on the coastal plain to the east of Travis County but apparently rare here. Reported from silt at the edge of Lake Austin (Lynch, 1974).


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Eleocharis montividensis Kunth. SAND SPIKESEDGE. Native perennial. Our common perennial spikesedge, forming small to large colonies in moist soils along creek and riverbanks, around seeps, etc.


Specimens: Not examined. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) Schult. Eleocharis engelmannii Steud. BLUNT SPIKESEDGE. Native annual. Apparently rare in our area, but perhaps merely overlooked due to its similarity to Eleocharis geniculata, our more common tufted annual spikesedge.


Specimens: Mudflat, 6 Jul 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 8 Aug 1931, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Eleocharis palustris (L.) R. & S. Eleocharis macrostachya Britt. BIGSTEM SPIKESEDGE. Native perennial. Frequent in moist clayey to sandy soils on riverbanks, along perennial streams, and at the margins of ponds and reservoirs.


Specimens: Austin, 21 Mar 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Lake Long, NE shoreline, occasional along shore in spots of deep mud, 6 Jul 1984, F. R. Barrie 812 (TEX-Ll); damp soil by pond, Hwy 71 at entrance to Onion Creek Nature Preserve, 3 Jul 1986, C. W. Sexton, K. A. Bear, & N. McClintock s.n. (COA); artificial wetland behind terrace, Onion Creek Nature Preserve, 1 Apr 1987, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA); clay overflow, Carter Ranch, 28 Jul 1987, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA); wet exposed soil and in shallow water along S shoreline of Lake Walter E. Long ca. 1000 ft. W of boat ramp, 14 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9250; forming colonies in sandy alluvial soil along band of riparian vegetation at high water line, unshaded shoreline of Lake Travis at S end of Shaw Rd., Turkey Bend Resource Area, 30 Jul 1991, W. R. Carr & D. R. Hernandez 11326 (TAES; ann. S. D. Jones). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Eleocharis parvula (R. & S.) Link. DWARF SPIKESEDGE. Native annual. Rare on sand and mudflats along Colorado River.


Specimens: Mudflat on Colorado River bed, 2 Jun 1921, B. C. Tharp 992 (TEX-LL); Lake Austin, spring 1928, B. C. Tharp 43391 (TEX-LL); sandy alluvium along unshaded strand on Lake Travis at Turkey Bend Resource Area, 26 July 1991, W. R. Carr & D. R. Hernandez 11329 (TAES). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Eleocharis quadrangulata (Michx.) R. & S. SQUARESTEM SPIKESEDGE. Native perennial. An unmistakable species forming large conspicuous colonies rooted in shallow water and extending onto low banks of reservoirs. Ranging across the southeastern United States but rare in our area.


Specimens: Decker Lake [Lake Walter E. Long], 13 Nov 1981, A. McDonald & M. C. Johnston s.n. (TEX-LL); margin of Lake Walter E. Long, 15 May 1985, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA); locally common in wet soil sand in shallow water along margin of tule thicket on unshaded shoreline of water along shoreline of Lake Walter E. Long ca. 1000 ft. W of boat ramp, 14 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9249. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Eleocharis rostellata (Torr.) Torr. BEAKED SPIKESEDGE. Native perennial. A massive, clump-forming perennial with long arching culms that take root when the tips reach ground, thus forming large colonies. Rare in our area, in shallow water along the shorelines of creek impoundments and around perennial seeps and springs.


Specimens: Lakeside bluff, J. B. Watkins Ranch, 29 Jul 1950, B. C. Tharp & C. L. York 50-49 (TEX-LL); cypress bog on Watkins Ranch above Cow Creek, 12 Oct 1950, Tharp et al. 51-552 (TEX-LL), 2 June 1951, Tharp et al. 51-553 (TEX-LL); abundant, forming extensive hummocky mat on moist to wet silty alluvium in bed of unshaded ponded stretch of Bull Creek, St. Edward's Park, 30 Jul 1995, W. R. Carr, P. McNeal & P. Turner 14785 (BRCH, ann. S. D. Jones); common to locally abundant, forming huge colonies in moist clay around seeps and in spring runs on open grassy slope of Glen Rose Limestone, upland E of Hamilton Pool, 18 Sep 1996, W. R. Carr, T. Siegenthaler & A. Ahrns 15730 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Northwest Park (pers. obs., 1991); Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary (Lyter, 1986).


Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.) R. & S. SLENDER FIMBRY. Native annual. Occasional in moist alluvium in and along beds of perennial streams and on flats exposed in Lake Travis and other impoundments.


Specimens: Austin, 7 Oct 1922, R. H. Painter 98 (TEX-LL); Colorado River, Austin, 9 Jun 1928, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 29 Jul 1941, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); mudflat along Bull Creek, SE side of Loop 360, 0.7-0.8 mi NE of Lakewood Dr., 4 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3463 (BRIT/SMU); wet clay and gravel in partially shaded bed of Onion Creek under Burleson Rd. bridge, Precinct 4 Park, 12 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9241 (TEX-LL); occasional in moist clay and silt seasonally exposed in bed of Barton Creek ca. 1.8 airmiles S of jct. Loop 360 and FM 2244, 16 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9252; occasional in moist silt on banks of Cypress Creek channel in area normally submerged under Lake Travis but exposed during drought, Cypress Creek Park, 19 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr 15625 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Kral, 1971.


Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl. GLOBE FIMBRY. Native annual. Rare in moist alluvium in and along beds of perennial streams.


Specimens: Sandy to silty alluvium, partly shaded E bank of Shoal Creek 100 ft. S of Allendale Dr., Austin, 5 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4289 (BRIT/SMU); common in wet clay and gravel in partially shaded bed of Onion Creek under Burleson Rd. bridge, Precinct 4 Park, 12 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9240 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Kral, 1971.


Fimbristylis puberula (Michx.) Vahl var. interior (Britt.) Kral. INLAND FIMBRY. Native perennial. Rare in grasslands on seasonally moist clayey soils on Glen Rose Limestone slopes, perhaps more frequent in openings in post oak woodlands on sandy soils.


Specimens: Lakeside bluff, J. B. Watkins Ranch, 29 Jul 1950, B. C. Tharp & C. S. York 50-37 and 51-1108 (TEX-LL); marly seep on Glen Rose slope, Bull Creek, 25 July 1990, W. R. Carr, P. McNeal & C. Sexton 10728 (TAES; ann. S. D. Jones); rare, one clump in fine sandy loam Alfisols in shade of post oak, blackjack oak, Texas black hickory on gently sloping former river terrace, in picnic area at N end of road to Kates Cove, Pace Bend Park, 16 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr 11068 (TAES; ann. S. D. Jones); in seep muhly on upper Glen Rose, Shaw Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 12 May 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Kral, 1971.


Fimbristylis vahlii (Lam.) Link. VAHL FIMBRY. Native annual. Common to abundant in sandy to silty alluvium exposed in bed of Lake Travis during periods of low water; frequent in similar situations along perennial streams and around stock tanks and small impoundments.


Specimens: Colorado River floodplain, 11 Nov 1928, A. A. Armer 5277 (TEX-LL), 3 Nov 1928, B. C. Tharp 9169 (TEX-LL), and March 1931, B. C. Tharp 6001 (TEX-LL); Lake Austin, 24 Nov 1928, B. C. Tharp 9211 (TEX-LL); island in Lake Travis, July 1963, L. Milliger 1 (TEX-LL); silt and gravel beach exposed along Lake Travis at Turkey Bend LCRA Park, 3 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr 9111 (BRIT/SMU); common in silt and sand exposed in bed of Lake Travis during summer of low water level, Arkansas Bend Park, 11 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr, C. Ladd & T. Siegenthaler 15602 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Kral, 1971.


Fuirena simplex Vahl. PORCUPINE SEDGE. Native annual or perennial. Common in moist soils in and along creekbottoms, at seeps on limestone slopes, and along banks of impoundments. Represented in our area by the perennial var. simplex and the annual var. aristulata (Torr.) Kral.


Specimens: 15 sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Kral, 1978.


Isolepis carinata Hook. & Arn. ex Torr. Scirpus koilolepis (Steud.) Gleason. ANNUAL BULRUSH. Native annual. Rare in our area, with no recent specimens or reports. To the east of Travis County this tiny annual sedge is common in moist sandy soils along margins of ponds, in tire track depressions in sandy pastures, and in other early successional habitats.


Specimens: Austin, 15 May 1932, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Lake Austin silt, Oct 1932, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb. Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk. SHORTLEAF UMBRELLASEDGE. Native annual. Uncommon or, due to its diminutive habit, overlooked in a number of moist to wet unshaded situations.


Specimens: Mudflat along N shore of Town Lake at mouth of Johnson Creek, 6 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4291 (BRIT/SMU); IH-35, S of Ben White, 8 Sep 1987, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA); rare in shallow wet clay in depression at E base of IH-35 bridge pier on S bank of Onion Creek, Austin, 1 Sep 1990, W. R. Carr 10784 (VSC; ann. R. Carter); moist to wet clay in depressional area receiving seepage from stock tank on slope above, heavily utilized pasture area at mouth of limestone canyon, Post Oak Ridge, 14 Oct 1992, W. R. Carr, J. Siegel & D. R. Hernandez 12447 (TAES). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Delahoussaye & Thieret, 1967.


Kyllinga odorata Vahl var. odorata. Cyperus sesquiflorus (Torr.) Mattf. & Kukenth. Annual, native to the coastal plain of East Texas but probably adventive in our area. Introduced with Saint Augustine grass sod at home of Chuck Sexton in South Austin, August 1979 (Sexton, 1987). No other specimens or reports.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Delahoussaye & Thieret (1967).


Liphocarpha aristulata (Cov.) G. C. Tucker. Hemicarpha aristulata (Cov.) Smyth. HEMICARPHA. Native annual. Apparently rare in our area, known from a single specimen.


Specimens: Colorado River floodplain, Austin, 11 Nov 1928, A. Armer 5279 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: None. References: Friedland, 1941.


Liphocarpha drummondii (Nees) G. C. Tucker. Hemicarpha micrantha (Vahl.) Pax var. drummondii (Nees) Friedl. COMMON HEMICARPHA. Native annual. Difficult to distinguish from the preceding and equally rare in our area. To be sought in alluvium on flats exposed along the Colorado River below Longhorn Dam and in moist sandy soil in openings in post oak woodlands on Pleistocene terrace deposits.


Specimens: Mud bank, Lake Austin, 23 Nov 1921, B. C. Tharp 1050 (TEX-LL); silt, Lake Austin, 12 Aug 1922, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Friedland, 1941.


Rhynchospora colorata (L.) Pfeifer. Dichromena colorata (L.) Hitchc. WHITETOP SEDGE. Native perennial. An unmistakable sedge found sparingly on wet clay over limestone exposed in beds of perennial or nearly perennial streams. Thomas (1985) demonstrated that, unlike most of our sedges, Rhynchospora colorata and Rhynchospora nivea are bee-pollinated.


Specimens: Lakeside bluff, NW edge of county, J. B. Watkins Ranch, 29 Jul 1950, B. C. Tharp & C. L. York 50-32 (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch above Cow Creek on Lake Travis, 2 Jun 1951, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-937 (TEX-LL); wet gravel at edge of creek, Hamilton Pool, 8 Jul 1966, J. R. Crutchfield 1804 (TEX-LL); F. M. 2769 SW of Cypress Creek, 17 Jun 1981, W. R. Carr 3264 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Thomas, 1985.


Rhynchospora globularis (Chapm.) Small. GLOBE BEAKSEDGE. Native perennial. A species of the southeastern United States, occurring in moist to seasonally dry sandy habitats. Apparently rare in our area, known from a single collection.


Specimens: On C. C. road, Country Club, Austin, 21 Jun 1923, B. C. Tharp 2140 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Gale, 1944.


Rhynchospora nivea Boeck. Dichromena nivea (Boeckl.) Britt. LITTLE WHITETOP SEDGE. Native perennial. A striking sedge with a fairly narrow distribution, ranging from central Oklahoma south to the Edwards Plateau of central Texas. Occasional in wet clay in pits in limestone bedrock exposed in scoured creekbeds, less often on creekbanks, mostly west of the Balcones Escarpment but extending east along Onion Creek to McKinney Falls.


Specimens: Anderson's Mill, 11 Jun 1939, C. C. Albers s.n. (TEX-LL); Onion Creek about 4 mi S of Drippings Springs, 27 Jul 1946, B. H. Warnock & W. Korde 46513 (TEX-LL); 3 mi NW of Oak Hill, 12 Aug 1946, G. Webster 10 (TEX-LL); lakeside bluff, NW edge of county, J. B. Watkins Ranch, 29 Jul 1950, B. C. Tharp & C. L. York 50-44 (TEX-LL); cypress bog on Watkins Ranch above Cow Creek, 12 Oct 1950, Tharp et al. 51-126 (TEX-LL), Watkins Ranch above Cow Creek on Lake Travis, 2 Jun 1951, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-947 (TEX-LL); drainage on W side of Loop 360, ca. 2 mi N of Rt. 2244, just N of Wild Basin, wet sand along creek in woodland of oak, juniper, and mixed shrubs on limestone hills, 14 May 1983, B. Ertter & J. Saunders 4824 (TEX-LL); moist clay below seep in open area in bottom of unnamed intermittent creek draining SE into Long Hollow Creek, SE 1/4 of Wheless Tract, 23 May 1991, W. R. Carr 11170 (TAES; ann. S. D. Jones); common in moist clay around seeps and in spring runs on open grassy slope of Glen Rose Limestone, upland E of Hamilton Pool, 18 Sep 1996, W. R. Carr, T. Siegenthaler & A. Ahrns 15731 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974; Young, 1920. References: Thomas, 1985.


Schoenoplectus californicus (C. A. Mey.) Sojak. Scirpus californicus (C. A. Mey.) Steud. TULE. Native perennial. The tallest of our sedges, forming large dense colonies, vaguely reminiscent of those of cat-tails, in shallow to fairly deep water just offshore in many parts of Lake Austin, Town Lake, and Lake Walter E. Long.


Specimens: Austin, summer 1920, B. C. Tharp 139 (TEX-LL); Lake Austin shore under Mt. Bonnell, 12 Aug 1943, F. A. Barkley 13465 (TEX-LL); edge of Lake Austin, 16 Aug 1947, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL); Lake Austin at Laguna Gloria, 4 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4279; Lake Long NE shoreline, abundant in dense stands along shore in water 0.1-1 m deep, 6 Jul 1984, F. A. Barrie 808 (TEX-LL), 12 Aug 1988, Bro. D. Lynch, M. Campbell & J. Gee 9854 (SEU), and 23 Aug 1988, Bro. D. Lynch & Bro. D. Steffer 9877 (SEU); W side of Colorado River, between Red Bud Trail bridge and Tom Miller Dam, 12 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10753 (TAES; ann. S. D. Jones). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Schoenoplectus pungens (Vahl) Palla. Scirpus pungens Vahl var. longispicatus (Britt.) Cronquist. Scirpus americanus Pers. var. longispicatus Britt. AMERICAN BULRUSH. Native perennial. Apparently rare in moist soils along banks of the Colorado River.


Specimens: Wet sandy soil in depression on unshaded terrace, E bank Colorado River at Lake Austin (Emma Long) City Park, 21 Apr 1985, W. R. Carr 6353 (TAES, BRIT/SMU); Austin, Town Lake, bank of small stream flowing into Town Lake, unshaded, 1/3 mi W of I-35, 18 Apr 1990, Bro. D. Lynch & R. Powell 9896 (SEU). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Smith, 1995.


Schoenoplectus saximontanus (Fern.) J. Raynal. Scirpus saximontanus Fern. ROCKY MOUNTAIN BULRUSH. Native annual. Apparently rare in our area, known from a single collection.


Specimens: In moist clay in standing water in spring-fed stock tank near SE corner of Onion Creek and Slaughter Lane, Austin, 21 Jul 1997, M. Lyday s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Smith, 1995.


Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (Gmelin) Palla. Scirpus validus Vahl.; Scirpus tabernaemontani Gmelin. SOFTSTEM BULRUSH. Native perennial. Rare in our area, reported by Lynch (1974) from shallow water along Lake Austin.


Specimens: Austin, 15 May 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Scleria verticillata Willd. WHORLED NUTRUSH. Native perennial. Apparently rare in Texas, known only from Dallas, Guadalupe, Hays, and Travis counties. In Hays County it occurs in wet calcareous silt and travertine deposits on the scoured limestone bed of a nearly perennial stream, in partial shade of Platanus occidentalis, etc. (W. R. Carr 10050, TAES). No recent reports from Travis County.


Specimens: Cypress bog, Watkins Ranch, 8 Oct 1948, Tharp et al. 51-128 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Core, 1966; Fairey, 1967; Kessler, 1988.


ARECACEAE (PALMAE) PALM FAMILY


Sabal minor (Jacq.) Pers. DWARF PALMETTO. Native shrub. A species of the southeastern United States; populations along the Balcones Escarpment in Travis and Kendall counties mark the western limit of current distribution. Elsewhere this native palm generally inhabits mesic to wet acid soils of flatwoods and swamps; in our area it is found in calcareous soils subject to occasional inundation as well as seasonal drought, usually in mixed woodlands in stream bottoms but sometimes seemingly remote from water sources.


Specimens: 10 mi up Barton Creek, Jun 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); in moist silty clay or clay loam in mixed woodland on creekbank and terraces, frequently flooded streambottom, Slaughter Creek, upstream from utility access road at end of Kingfisher Creek Lane, 25 Jun 1993, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 12847 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Travis Audubon Preserve (Lyter, 1986). References: Bailey, 1944; Zona, 1990.


ARACEAE ARUM FAMILY


Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott. GREEN DRAGON. Native perennial. Uncommon, forming small colonies in silty or loamy alluvium on shaded creek terraces, occasionally extending upslope in narrow mesic limestone canyons.


Specimens: Bull Creek, 10 May 1907, W. S. Bray s.n. (TEX-LL), Bull Creek, 17 Apr 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Onion Creek, 24 Mar 1917, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, spring 1928, J. F. Normand s.n. (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, 20 Apr 1922, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, Jul 1945, C. C. Albers 45Ph019 (TEX-LL); Edwards Plateau Lab., TSNL, Kretschmar, in leaf mold at bottom of deep wooded canyon, 18 Jun 1969, Bro. D. Lynch 9661 (SEU) and 21 Apr 1984, Bro. D. Lynch 9000 (SEU); common in moist soil at bottom of slope in wooded limestone canyon, Stillhouse Hollow, 14 Apr 1984, W. R. Carr 6018 (TEX-LL); Hamilton Pool, 8 Apr 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges 9051 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. Other reports: Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986).


Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott. JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT. Native perennial. Included here solely on the basis of a report from the Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary on Lime Creek Road (Lyter, 1986), a report that could be immediately dismissed as being based on misidentification had it not been accompanied by a report of Arisaema dracontium. The status of this eastern species in our area is uncertain but doubtful.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. ELEPHANT-EARS. Naturalized perennial. Common in moist soils and in shallow water along banks of Colorado River impoundments, particularly Town Lake. Presumably a relatively recent introduction but already replacing native vegetation in some of our more interesting aquatic and riparian sites (e.g., the Red Bud Isle area). Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott, a superficially similar exotic elephant-ears, may also occur on streambanks within the county (Lemke & Schneider, 1988).


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Akridge & Fonteyn, 1981.


LEMNACEAE DUCKWEED FAMILY


Lemna aequinoctialis Welw. Lemna trinervis (Aust.) Small. DUCKWEED. Native annual. Occasional on the surface of quiet backwaters along rivers and streams and along the shoreline of impoundments. Perhaps the only Lemna in our area; early reports of other species, including Lemna minor L. and Lemna valdiviana Phil. (Lemna cyclostasa Chev.), were apparently based on specimens that have since been annotated to this species.


Specimens: Waller Creek, Country Club, 9 Dec 1916, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL; ann. E. Landolt, 1980); Barton Creek, 14 Dec 1916, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL; ann. E. Landolt, 1980); Austin, Waller Creek, 20 Oct 1922, B. C. Tharp 2848 (TEX-LL; ann. E. Landolt, 1980). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Hartog & Plas, 1970.


Lemna valdiviana Phil. Incl. Lemna cyclostasa Chev. PALE DUCKWEED. Native annual. Included here on the basis of its recent report from Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, 1996). An earlier report by Young (1920) was probably based on Lemna aequinoctialis.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Nov 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Godfrey & Wooten, 1979; Hartog & Plas, 1970.


Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. COMMON DUCKMEAT. Native annual. Larger than Lemna species and readily distinguished from them on the basis of its numerous roots. Apparently rare in our area.


Specimens: On surface of quiet water along N bank of Town Lake at mouth of Shoal Creek, 1 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4262 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: none.


BROMELIACEAE PINEAPPLE FAMILY


Tillandsia recurvata L. BALLMOSS. Native perennial. A common epiphyte on branches of trees and on certain types of utility wires.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: McWilliams, 1992; Smith, 1944.


Tillandsia usneoides L. Dendropogon usneoides (L.) Raf. SPANISH MOSS. Native perennial. Young (1920) found this epiphyte to be "abundant on trees in ravines, as the valleys of Shoal Creek and Waller Creek where the air is more moist than on the uplands." Frequent but local on live oaks and other trees at Pease Park, on slopes along the Colorado River and in a few other locations.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Smith, 1944.


COMMELINACEAE SPIDERWORT FAMILY


Commelina diffusa Burm. f. CREEPING DAYFLOWER. Annual, native to eastern North America but perhaps introduced in our area. A species with decumbent stems, rooting at the nodes at least in age. The identity of our single specimen is questionable.


Specimens: Colorado River flood plain, Travis Heights, Austin, 17 Oct 1922, B. C. Tharp 1526 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Commelina erecta L. var. erecta. ERECT DAYFLOWER. Native perennial. Occasional in a variety of situations, often along the margins of woodlands.


Specimens: St. Edward's University campus, N side of building, black soil, 6 May 1954, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Commelina erecta L. var. angustifolia (Michx.) Fern. Commelina angustifolia Michx.; Commelina crispa Wooten. NARROWLEAF DAYFLOWER. Native perennial. Frequent to common virtually throughout.


Specimens: 39 sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Commelina virginica L. VIRGINIA DAYFLOWER. Native perennial. The only Commelina in our area in which all three petals are blue. Included in our flora on the basis of a report by Young (1920) for which no voucher specimens have been located.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Setcreasea leiandra (Torr.) Pilger. Tradescantia leiandra Torr. SETCREASEA. Perennial, native to mountains of the Trans-Pecos and adjacent northern Mexico; introduced in our area. A local escape from cultivation on the campus of Saint Edward's University (Lynch, 1974), not widely naturalized.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Tinantia anomala (Torr.) C. B. Clarke. Commelinantia anomala (Torr.) Tharp. WIDOW'S TEARS. Native annual. Frequent in clayey to loamy soils in mesic oak-juniper woodlands in limestone canyons, alluvial soils in riparian woodlands, and other shaded or partially shaded situations.


Specimens: Dam, 3 Apr 1909, York 789 (TEX-LL); Colorado River bluffs near the dam, 31 Mar 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River floodplain, 16 Apr 1929, A. A. Armer 53338 (TEX-LL); moist shaded limestone slope, Austin, 15 Apr 1938, B. C. Tharp 44308 (BRIT/SMU, TEX); Onion Creek at Post Road, 26 May 1940, C. L. Lundell and A. A. Lundell 9117 (TEX-LL); shaded slopes, Bull Creek, near Austin, 23 May 1944, Tharp s.n. (BRIT/SMU); moist shaded limestone slope, Zilker Park, Austin, 1 May 1956, B. C. Tharp s.n. (BRIT/SMU, TEX); moist rich humus of limestone slope, Shoal Creek, Austin, 1 Jun 1955, Tharp s.n. (BRIT/SMU); Bull Creek, 11 May 1957, W. L. McCart 6706 (BRIT/SMU); Pedernales River at Hwy 71, 29 May 1970, J. Grashoff & T. Whiffen 419 (TEX-LL); W. R. Carr 3823 (BRIT/SMU); Austin, Presbyterian Theological Seminary N of UT campus, shady N-facing slope along W bank of Waller Creek, 15 Apr 1984, B. Ertter 5315 (TEX-LL); 50 ft W of Lamar underneath 29th St. bridge over Shoal Creek, just E of hike-and-bike trail, shrubs and herbs on the bank of the creek, 27 Mar 1994, G. Bromiley & M. Gonzalez 3 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Tradescantia edwardsiana Tharp. PLATEAU SPIDERWORT. Native perennial; endemic to Texas, primarily in canyons along the Balcones Escarpment at the eastern and southern edges of the Edwards Plateau but also in the Central Mineral Basin (Llano Uplift), ranging north on calcareous substrates almost to Oklahoma; records from Bandera, Bell, Bexar, Brown, Caldwell, Collin, Comal, Coryell, Dallas, Fannin, Hays, Kendall, Lamar, Llano, Medina, Palo Pinto, Real, Travis Uvalde and Val Verde counties. Rare in oak-juniper woodlands on loamy organic soils on mesic lower slopes of limestone canyons.


Specimens: Bull Creek, 23 May 1944, B. C. Tharp 44-025 (TEX-LL); Kenmore Court, Austin, 25 Mar 1949, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-L); occasional in rich moist woods along creek bottom, 600 ft. SE of Far West Blvd., 0.3 mi NE of its jct. with R. M. 2222, 20 April 1983, W. R. Carr 4720 (TEX-LL); in rich loamy soils over in mostly deciduous woodland on most mesic portion of lower, N-facing Glen Rose Limestone slope, along trail above Dry Creek, ca. 500 ft. SW of jct. R. M. 2222 and Mesa Blvd., Brightleaf State Natural Area, 11 May 1995, W. R. Carr & L. Kissock 14627 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary (Lyter, 1986). References: Tharp, 1932.


Tradescantia gigantea Rose. GIANT SPIDERWORT. Native perennial. Locally abundant in and along margins of open deciduous woodlands on creek and river terraces, less frequent in upland situations. Once thought to be endemic to Texas, but recently reported from Louisiana (MacRoberts, 1984).


Specimens: Colorado River, Austin, 25 Apr 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); infrequent on limestone knoll 1/2 mi SW of Camp Mabry, 17 Mar 1946, B. H Warnock 46017 (TEX-LL); dry rocky limestone, Austin, 25 Mar 1949, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL); hillside, deep shade, Austin Chalk formation along small creek 1 mi from Walnut Creek on Cameron Rd., no date [1949?], B. C. Tharp 49255 (TEX-LL); scattered in riparian thicket along N bank of Bull Creek, 600 ft. ESE of Loop 360, 0.6 mi NE of Lakewood Dr., 7 May 1983, W. R. Carr 4818 (TEX-LL); SW Austin, upper Bull Creek, shade of cedar and oak woodland, loam on limestone, 13 Apr 1985, B. Ertter & L. Vorobik 5679 (TEX-LL); Onion Creek crossing of Hwy 183, 3.3 mi S of jct. Hwy 71, floodplain and adjacent slope, abundant at base of slope, 27 Mar 1986, G. Nesom 5370 (TEX-LL); frequent in silty clay loam on high but occasionally inundated creek terrace, in partial shade of pecan-elm-hackberry woodland with broken canopy, N bank of Onion Creek, W of westernmost softball field at Richard Moya Precinct 4 Park, 21 Apr 1996, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 15177 (TEX-LL); rare at edge of deciduous riparian woodland on sandy alluvium deposits, near paved golf cart trail at N edge of Austin Community College Riverside Campus, 28 Apr 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15190 (TEX-LL).


Tradescantia hirsutiflora Bush. HAIRYFLOWER SPIDERWORT. Native perennial. The taxonomic status of this species, at least in our area, is uncertain. All of the Travis County material at TEX-LL previously identified as Tradescantia hirsutiflora was recently annotated by B. L. Turner to other species, most notably Tradescantia humilis.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986).


Tradescantia humilis Rose. TEXAS SPIDERWORT. Native perennial; endemic to a wide swath of southern and eastern Texas, with records from more than 30 counties. Occasional in silty to clayey soils along margins of woodlands on alluvial terraces and in upland grasslands.


Specimens: N of B. Hall, campus, 6 May 1900, E. Wild s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 18 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Shoal Creek and 26th St., 10 Apr 1911, Carsner & Studhalter s.n. (TEX-LL); I & GN RR, 8 May 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); along I & GN RR, near Pease Place, 27 Apr 1916, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 13 Apr 1933, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 11 Apr 1940, B. H. Warnock 156 (TEX-LL); Austin, 11 Mar 1944, B. C. Tharp 44112 (TEX-LL); St. Edward's University campus, 20 Apr 1956, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL); rare in moist clayey loam on partially shaded E bank of Shoal Creek ca. 100-300 ft. N of 38th St. bridge, Austin, 7 Apr 1985, W. R. Carr 6265 (BRIT/SMU, TEX-LL); North Austin, undeveloped lot at S end of Gray Blvd. (between Rutland Dr. and Rundberg Lane) in shade of Celtis, black clay soil, 7 Apr 1985, B. Ertter 5663 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Tradescantia occidentalis (Britt.) Smyth. PRAIRIE SPIDERWORT. Native perennial. Occasional, mostly in grasslands and open woodlands on gravelly soils.


Specimens: Hyde Park, 25 Mar 1908, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); hillside, E of Waller Creek, 1 May 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 8 May 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); gravel soil, Austin, May 1923 [or 13 Apr 1933], B. C. Tharp 1256 (TEX-LL); Austin, 12 Apr 1933, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 12 Apr 1940, B. H. Warnock 155 (TEX-LL); Austin, 15 May 1933, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 11 Apr 1944, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); gravel river terrace, Tarrytown, Austin, 26 Mar 1949, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL); gravelly soils, Austin, 25 Apr 1949, B. C. Tharp 49260 (TEX-LL); Pedernales River at Hwy 71, limestone soil, roadside, 29 May 1970, J. Grashoff & T. Whiffen 432 (TEX-LL); Austin, W 38 1/2 St. in Hyde Park neighborhood, 10 Mar 1985, B. Ertter 5563 (TEX-LL); local in shallow, well drained, calcareous, moderately alkaline gravelly clay loam over Glen Rose Limestone, in grassy opening in Quercus fusiformis-Juniperus ashei on +/- level footslope, Brightleaf State Natural Area, 11 May 1995, W. R. Carr & L. Kissock 14631 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.; Lynch, 1974.


Tradescantia ohioensis Raf. OHIO SPIDERWORT. Native perennial. Rare in a variety of mostly unshaded situations.


Specimens: H & TC railroad, 3 mi from Manor, 17 May 1923, B. C. Tharp 2188 (TEX-LL); Austin, 3 May 1930, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL) and 13 Apr 1933, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); St. Edward's University campus, bottom of swale, cloddy soil, 30 Mar 1954, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL); occasional in Houston Black clay over Lower Taylor Marl, open roadside, Sassman Rd., 0.3 mi SE of Thaxton Rd., 18 Apr 1986, W. R. Carr & J. Wright 7273 (BRIT/SMU); small clearings in live oak-cedar elm woodlands, Brackenridge Field Lab of University of Texas, 21 May 1990, J. L. Neff 90-V-21-1 (TEX-LL). Four additional specimens at TEX-LL. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. Other reports: Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986).


Tradescantia subacaulis Bush. STEMLESS SPIDERWORT. Native perennial; endemic to Texas, ranging from north of Dallas south to the Rio Grande and east almost to Louisiana. Apparently restricted in our area to deep, well drained sandy soils on Pleistocene or contemporary river deposits.


Specimens: Sandy pasture beyond Montopolis bridge, 6 Apr 1924, B. C. Tharp 2879 (TEX-LL); Austin, 13 Apr 1933, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); one mile E of Montopolis bridge, in sandy river terrace, 25 Mar 1949, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


PONTEDERIACEAE PICKERELWEED FAMILY


Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. WATER HYACINTH. Introduced perennial. Rare, floating on the surface of quiet water along the shoreline of Town Lake.


Specimens: Greenhouse grown plant, Fall 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Williamson Creek sewage plant, spreading rapidly on a sewage oxidation pond, 1 Sep 1977, Bro. D. Lynch 9760 (SEU); occasional on surface of quiet water along N shoreline of Town Lake just W of Waller Creek, 18 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4322 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Heteranthera dubia (Jacq.) MacM. Heteranthera liebmannii (Buch.) Shinners.; Zosterella dubia (Jacq.) Small. WATER STARGRASS. Native perennial. Common to locally abundant in still to rapidly flowing waters of the Colorado River and Barton Creek.


Specimens: Barton Creek, Nov 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 29 Aug 1912, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); below bridge, Austin, 28 May 1921, B. C. Tharp 1444 (TEX-LL); Colorado River near Austin, 22 May 1943, F. A. Barkley & R. Hale 6031 (TEX-LL); Colorado River, 5 mi below Austin, 1 Jun 1943, F. A. Barkley 13309 (TEX-LL); Lake Austin, 25 Aug 1944, L. Taylor & F. A. Barkley 14650 (TEX-LL); SEU farm, in mud at edge of pond, unshaded, 27 Jun 1962, Bro. D. Lynch 9678 (SEU) and 4 Jul 1962, Bro. D. Lynch 9677 (SEU); abundant in Town Lake along N shoreline just W of mouth of Shoal Creek, 1 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4263 (BRIT/SMU, TEX-LL); rare, perhaps not rooted here, along N bank of Colorado River ca. 600 ft. NW of Bastrop County line, E edge of Precinct 1 Park, 1 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9194 (TEX-LL); Colorado River off F. M. 973, 11 Sep 1988, K. D. Cleveland s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920, Lynch, 1974.


Heteranthera limosa (Sw.) Willd. BLUE MUDPLANTAIN. Native perennial. Rare in mud along margins of stock ponds and other bodies of still water.


Specimens: N Pease pasture, stock pond, 6 Jun 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); stock pond, 1923, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); wetland, Northwest Park, 10 Aug 1987, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA); in depression in Edwards Limestone exposed in pasture on level, ridgetop, ca. 100 ft. W of N-S fenceline in center of Post Oak Ridge, ca. 1800 ft. N, 800 ft. W of Hanging Rock Spring, 16 May 1991, W. R. Carr & J. M. Poole 11155 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Pontederia cordata L. PICKERELWEED. Native perennial. Rare, a few small colonies on shorelines and backwaters of Town Lake. There are no Young-Armer-Tharp era specimens at TEX-LL other than two specimens of cultivated plants collected in Austin by Tharp in the early 1930's, indicating that perhaps this very conspicuous species is a recent, perhaps intentional introduction to the local flora.


Specimens: Locally abundant in mud bottom of backwater area along N shoreline of Town Lake just E of mouth of Johnson Branch (at Mopac bridges), 23 Sep 1989, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 10056 (TEX-LL); on colony of 50 plants in moist silty to clayey soil at foot of partially shaded riverbank slope, W side of Red Bud Isle, E side of W fork of Colorado River, ca. 1000 ft. S of Red Bud Trail bridge below Tom Miller Dam, 5 Jun 1994, W. R. Carr, P. McNeal & J. Gleason 13882 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


JUNCACEAE RUSH FAMILY


Juncus acuminatus Michx. KNOTLEAF RUSH. Native perennial. A common rush of wet areas on the Coastal Plain, known in our area from a single collection.


Specimens: Austin, 27 May 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Juncus brachycarpus Engelm. WHITEROOT RUSH. Native perennial. Apparently rare; our few historic collections may have been taken from moist alluvial sand on bars along the Colorado River.


Specimens: Colorado River, Austin, 5 May 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 15 Jun 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 17 May 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (SEU, TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Juncus bufonius L. TOAD RUSH. Native annual. Rare in disturbed moist soils, sometimes in urban gardens.


Specimens: 7 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Juncus dichotomus Ell. FORKED RUSH. Native perennial. Rare or overlooked due to its similarity to the common Juncus interior. Reported by Lynch (1974) from Onion Creek.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1991; several sheets at SEU could not be determined with certainty. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Juncus diffusissimus Buckl. SLIMPOD RUSH. Native perennial. A striking species, not uncommon in moist sandy soils in open areas on the Coastal Plain just to the east and on the Llano Uplift to the northwest but apparently rare in Travis County.


Specimens: Colorado River, Austin, 17 May 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Juncus effusus L. var. solutus Fern. & Wieg. SOFTSTEM RUSH. Native perennial. Rare in moist soil along bank of Colorado River at Webberville Park.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Juncus filipendulus Buckl. RINGSEED RUSH. Native perennial. Frequent in moist gravelly clayey soils on unshaded, frequently scoured limestone streambottoms; also on sandbars in the Pedernales River.


Specimens: 8 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Juncus interior Wieg. INLAND RUSH. Native perennial. Common in moist areas of all description; occasional in various upland situations.


Specimens: 24 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Juncus marginatus Rostk. GRASSLEAF RUSH. TWO-FLOWER RUSH. Native perennial. Occasional in moist areas, sometimes in upland grasslands on sandy soils. Reported by Lynch (1974) from Mt. Bonnell.


Specimens: 15 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Juncus scirpoides Lam. NEEDLEPOD RUSH. Native perennial. Included here on the basis of a report from McKinney Falls State Park (Johnston & Riskind, 1975).


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Juncus tenuis Willd. PATH RUSH. Native perennial. Reported by Lynch (1974) to occur in swales.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1991; vouchers at SEU resemble taxa of the Juncus interior complex. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Juncus texanus (Engelm.) Cov. TEXAS RUSH. Native perennial; once thought to be endemic to Texas but now known to range into Oklahoma. Frequent in moist gravelly clayey soils on unshaded, frequently scoured limestone streambottoms; also on sandbars in the Pedernales River.


Specimens: 10 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Juncus torreyi Cov. TORREY RUSH. Native perennial. Rare in a variety of moist, unshaded situations.


Specimens: Austin, 3 Jul 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River, Austin, 19 May 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); 5 mi from Austin on the Bee Cave Road, 1 Jun 1946, C. L. York 46122 (TEX-LL); Lake Walter E. Long, 6 Jul 1984, F. W. Barrie 811 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Juncus validus Cov. Incl. var. fascinatus M. C. Johnst. ROUNDHEAD RUSH. Native perennial. Occasional in moist areas, usually in sandy soils.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: none.


LILIACEAE LILY FAMILY


Allium canadense L. var. canadense. CANADA WILD ONION. Native perennial. Frequent in alluvial soils on wooded or open stream terraces.


Specimens: Onion Creek floodplain, 24 Mar 1917, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 3 May 1930, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); in creek bed, Oak Hill, 15 May 1940, C. L. Lundell & A. A. Lundell 8916 (TEX-LL); gravel sandbar 5 mi NW of Austin, 12 Jul 1943, J. Cohn & F. A. Barkley 13152 (TEX-LL); wet limy soil along upper Bull Creek, among trees, 18 May 1946, Tharp, Barkley & LaMotte 16T251 (TEX-LL); Bull Creek near road crossing stream to Mansfield Dam, 18 May 1946, C. L. York & H. Thiers 46067 (TEX-LL); alluvial sand and gravel along N bank of Colorado River under US Rt. 183 bridges, 23 Apr 1982, W. R. Carr 3863 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Ownbey, 1950.


Allium canadense L. var. fraseri M. Ownbey. FRASER WILD ONION. Native perennial. Occasional in grasslands or open post oak woodlands on sandy loams over Pleistocene terrace deposits, in loamy soils in openly wooded canyon bottoms, and in loamy clay soils in live oak savannas on uplands underlain by massive limestone.


Specimens: Edge of thickets, sandy post oak land, Hyde Park, 20 Apr 1901, W. H. Long, Jr. s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 18 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Shoal Creek at 22nd St., Austin, 10 Apr 1911, Conner & Studhalter s.n. (TEX-LL); hillside, Austin, 1 May 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); along RR tracks near Austin, 13 May 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 29 Apr 1933, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 20 Apr 1943, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); open live oak woodland on Airport Rd. NE of Austin, 4 Apr 1946, B. C. Tharp & F. A. Barkley 15T100 (TEX-LL); abundant in open oak woodland in broad canyon bottom, SE side of Loop 360 ca. 1/2 mi NE of Lakewood Drive, 7 May 1983, W. R. Carr 4821 (BRIT/SMU); occasional in gravelly cobbly sandy soil in openings in live oak-cedar elm woodland on moderate slope, W of and downslope from Shaw Rd. 3.0 roadmiles S of R. M. 1472, Turkey Bend Resource Area, 23 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 11097 (TEX-LL); occasional along partially shaded margin of live oak mottes on Speck clay soils on karstic Edwards Limestone upland, 200-1000 ft. N of corral area at old windmill, ca. 3.5 airmiles SSE of R. M. 1826 bridge over Slaughter Creek, ca. 4.7 airmiles E of R. M. 1826 bridge over Bear Creek, 8 May 2000, W. R. Carr 18961 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Ownbey, 1950.


Allium canadense L. var. mobilense (Regel) M. Ownbey. MOBILE WILD ONION. Native perennial. Rare, known in our area from a single specimen. To be expected in post oak woodlands on sandy soils.


Specimens: Austin, 14 May 1944, B. H. Warnock 20590 (TEX; annotated by M. Ownbey as "unusually large"). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Ownbey, 1950.


Allium drummondii Regel. Allium helleri Small. DRUMMOND WILD ONION. Native perennial. Probably our most common Allium, in grasslands and open woodlands on shallow clays and clay loams over limestone but also in sand and gravel in post oak woodlands over Pleistocene terrace deposits.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Ownbey, 1950.


Allium neopolitanum Cyr. NAPLES GARLIC. Introduced perennial. A native of the Mediterranean region (Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995) that has escaped cultivation and is locally abundant in deciduous woodlands along Shoal Creek near Pease Park. Perhaps naturalized in local urban pockets, but not at present a noxious weed of natural settings.


Specimens: Locally abundant, naturalized (?) in clay loam under deciduous trees on steep rocky NNW-facing slope with exposures of Buda Limestone, SE side of N. Lamar Blvd., 0.3-0.4 mi N of W. 24th St., Austin, 16 Mar 1993, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 12501 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995.


Androstephium caeruleum (Scheele) Torr. BLUE FUNNEL-LILY. Native perennial. Rare in grasslands, perhaps mostly in relict prairies over Austin Chalk. There are no recent specimens from our area, although a small population was extant on the Saint Edward's University campus in the mid 1990's.


Specimens: Along I & GN RR near Austin, 24 Mar 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 5 Apr 1922, B. C. Tharp 1507 (TEX-LL); Austin, 7 Mar 1928, J. F. Normand s.n. (TEX-LL); I & GN RR, Camp Mabry, Mar 1932, C. C. Albers s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Mar 1935, K. E. Smith s.n. (TEX-LL); (TEX-LL); rare along RR north of Austin, 19 Mar 1940, B. H. Warnock 72 (TEX-LL); limestone and clayey grassland on knoll about 1 mi S of Camp Mabry, 13 Mar 1946, B. H. Warnock & F. A. Barkley 16T040 (TEX-LL); 1/4 mi S of St. Edward's University, sandy loam at foot of stony west slope, unshaded, 4 Mar 1955, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Camassia scilloides (Raf.) Cory. Camassia angusta (Engelm. & Gray) Blankenship. WILD HYACINTH. Native perennial. A species of the central United States, here near the southwestern limit of its distribution. At the time of Mary Sophie Young (1920), wild hyacinth was "abundant along railroad tracks and in other open ground where the soil is deep... One of our conspicuous spring wild flowers." Its status has changed considerably during the intervening decades; wild hyacinth, while still conspicuous where present, is now one of our rarer species. Steyermark (1961) discussed the variability in flower color, etc., that sometimes results in the recognition of a second species, Camassia angusta, from our area.


Specimens: Shoal Creek on rocky, grassy hillside, 10 Apr 1901, Long s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 18 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-Ll); Austin, Apr 1930, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL), 15 Mar 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL), 17 Mar 1944, B. C. Tharp 44100 (TEX-LL), and 1 Apr 1944, B. C. Tharp 44123 (TEX-LL); opening in mixed woods on slope above E bank of Shoal Creek, 200-1500 ft. S of W. 45th St. bridge, Austin, 16 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4685 (BRIT/SMU); Slaughter Lane, approximately 2 mi W of Hwy 1, Circle C Ranch disk golf course, hole 4, 5 Apr 1995, S. McGauley 50 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Gould, 1942; Steyermark, 1961.


Cooperia drummondii Herb. Zephyranthes brazosensis Traub. CEBOLLETA, DRUMMOND RAINLILY. Native perennial. Frequent in grasslands over various substrates.


Specimens: Univ. campus, 29 Aug 1898, F. E. Smith s.n. (TEX-LL); University campus, 10 Jun 1901, W. H.Long s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 3 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. [or 438G?] (TEX-LL); Univ. of Texas campus, 19 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson 598 (TEX-LL); Austin, 16 Oct 1939, B. H. Warnock 41 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Cooperia pedunculata Herb. Zephyranthes drummondii D. Don. GIANT RAINLILY. Native perennial. Common in grasslands and open areas over various substrates.


Specimens: Univ. of Texas campus, Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Dam Blvd., 12 Apr 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); 3 mi W of Manor along highway, 17 Apr 1946, C. L. York 46052 (TEX-LL); corner of Helms and E. 32nd Sts, Austin, 6 Aug 1969, T. J. Watson 345 (TEX-LL); drainage on W side of Loop 360, ca. 2 mi N of Rt. 2244, just N of Wild Basin, hillside, openings in woodland of oak, juniper, and mixed shrubs on limestone hills, 14 May 1983, B. Ertter & J. Saunders 4828 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Echeandia flavescens (J. A. Schultes & J. H. Schultes) Cruden. Anthericum torreyi of auth. TORREY'S CRAG-LILY. Native perennial. Rare, one small population recently discovered in a grassy opening in a juniper woodland on an Edwards Limestone ridgetop (Post Oak Ridge) within the Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge (Chuck Sexton, pers. comm.). A western species at the eastern edge of its range. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Specimens: Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge, 1 Oct 1998, C. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR).


Erythronium albidum Nutt. WHITE TROUTLILY. Native perennial. A striking spring wildflower of forested areas of eastern North America, here at or near the southwestern limit of its range. Rare in oak-juniper woodlands on mesic limestone slopes.


Specimens: Edwards Plateau Lab I, TSNL, growing in leaf mold on a wooded slope above Glen Elg Cr., Walnut Formation, McDonald [Tract on Anderson Mill Road], 10 Mar 1973, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (SEU). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge (P. Turner, pers. comm.).


Habranthus tubispathus (L'Her.) Traub. Habranthus texanus (Herb.) Steud., Zephyranthes texana Hook. COPPER RAINLILY. Perennial; primarily South American in distribution, perhaps introduced and long naturalized in North America (Holmes & Wells, 1980). Rare in grasslands on sandy to loamy soils; more common on curblawns in urban Austin.


Specimens: Gravel terrace, Austin, 27 Jun 1949, W. V. Brown 42 (TEX-LL); Municipal Golf Course, Holes 13 and 14, in gravel, 28 Aug 1948, W. V. Brown s.n. (TEX-LL); SEU campus, 20 Jun 1961, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL); shallow clay loam on upland limestone outcrop, opening in juniper-oak woodland on ridgetop on NE corner of jct. Loop 360 and N branch of Spicewood Springs Rd., 23 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4340 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Holmes & Wells, 1980.


Muscari neglectum Guss. ex Ten. Muscari atlanticum Boiss. & Reut.; Muscari racemosum (L.) Miller. GRAPE-HYACINTH. Introduced perennial. Lynch (1974) reported this species as "a garden escape that becomes established in lawns."


Specimens: Shoal Creek, Austin, 4 Apr 1923, R. H. Painter s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 27 Mar 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL), B. H. Warnock 107; Edwards Plateau Lab. I, TSNL, edge of road, open to light shade, McDonald, 25 Mar 1978, Bro. D. Lynch 9766 (SEU). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. Other reports: Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, 1996).


Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Britt. FALSE GARLIC. Native perennial. Frequent to abundant in various soils in mostly unshaded situations.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Schoenocaulon drummondii Gray. DRUMMOND SABADILLA, GREEN-LILY. Native perennial. Young (1920) found this fall-blooming green-lily to be a species of "dry soil, roadsides and hillsides in open places," and Lynch reported it "in stony soil on limestone knolls supporting a thin stand of post-cedar and live oak." Neither source mentioned Schoenocaulon texanum. No recent reports or specimens.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Schoenocaulon texanum Scheele. TEXAS SABADILLA, GREEN-LILY. Native perennial. Frequent in clayey soils on open Glen Rose slopes, often with Muhlenbergia reverchonii and Bouteloua pectinata; occasional in grasslands on other rocky calcareous strata.


Specimens: Roadside near Mt. Bonnell, 25 Apr 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 3 May 1930, E. Normand s.n. (TEX-LL), 28 Apr 1940, B. H. Warnock 208 (TEX-LL); chalky limestone, Austin, 10 May 1949, B. C. Tharp 49259 (TEX-LL); frequent on drier limestone slopes in areas with well developed perennial grass cover, NE side of Cat Mt., 30 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4781 (BRIT/SMU); Bull Creek City Park on SE side of Loop 360, SW of Spicewood Springs Rd., edge of oak-juniper woodland on limestone, 14 May 1983, J. Saunders with B. Ertter 1340 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Zigadenus nuttallii Gray. NUTTALL DEATH-CAMAS. Native perennial. Occasional in grassland openings on loamy clay soils on limestone uplands.


Specimens: near Austin, 18 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Apr 1929, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 27 Mar 1933, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 30 Mar 1930, P. Hoagland s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 18 May 1940, B. H. Warnock 20585 (TEX-LL); frequent in burned-over cedar brakes in limestone soil between Oak Hill and Bee Caves, 24 Mar 1946, B. H. Warnock 46047 (TEX-LL); 9 3/4 mi SW of Austin, a colony on roadside in a draw, 11 Apr 1948, V. L. Cory 54290 (TEX-LL); opening in cedar brake, thin rocky soil, Talleyran Drive, 0.5-0.6 mi N of Old Lampasas Trail, 21 Mar 1982, W. R. Carr 3697 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Trillium gracile J. D. Freeman. Trillium ludovicianum of auth. SLENDER TRILLIUM. Native perennial. In the spring of 1984, Chuck Sexton (pers. comm.) encountered an extremely small population of a Trillium species in moist soils near a seep in a wooded limestone canyon on the McDonald Tract in the Cypress Creek watershed. Later that year Dr. John Freeman, an expert on the genus Trillium, examined slides and photographs of the Sexton specimen and determined it to be Trillium ludovicianum. Whether this population represents an extremely interesting relict or the remnants of a deliberate planting is unknown.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none.


AGAVACEAE AGAVE FAMILY


Dasylirion texanum Scheele. SOTOL. Native shrub. A succulent ranging from the Trans-Pecos and adjacent northern Mexico east across the Edwards Plateau. Locally common on dry rocky limestone slopes in adjacent counties (e.g., Blanco and Hays) but apparently rare within Travis County outside of cultivation.


Specimens: Rare in mixed shrubland/juniper-oak woodland on dry rocky W-facing rubble slope just above level of river alluvium on E bank of Pedernales River, ca. 0.2 mi upstream from (S of) mouth of Hamilton Creek, Hamilton Pool Preserve, 26 July 1996, W. R. Carr & L. Campbell 15635 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: None.


Nolina lindheimeriana (Scheele) Wats. DEVIL'S SHOESTRING. Native shrub; endemic to Texas, ranging across most of the Edwards Plateau (Bandera, Bexar, Comal, Edwards, Gillespie, Kendall, Kerr and Travis counties) north to the Lampasas Cutplain (Bell, Lampasas, Somervell and Williamson counties); also on calcareous sandstone in Fayette County. Frequent in shallow stony clays in grasslands or juniper-oak woodlands on open rocky limestone slopes.


Specimens: Bull Creek above Austin, 12 Oct 1900, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); near Austin, 15 May 1907, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); open calcareous ravine, about 5 mi S of Austin, 14 May 1940, C. L. Lundell & A. A. Lundell 8870 (TEX-LL); W branch of Onion Creek, 5 mi S of Austin on Old Lockhart Rd., Cretaceous limestone, 9 Aug 1946, F. A. Barkley & H. V. Copeland 72 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Nolina texana Wats. SACAHUISTA. Native shrub. Frequent in shallow stony clays in grasslands or juniper-oak woodlands on open rocky limestone slopes.


Specimens: 10 sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Yucca arkansana Trel. ARKANSAS YUCCA. Native shrub. Occasional on limestone and chalk uplands.


Specimens: Hill across Colorado River above Barton Creek, 7 May 1913, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); along I & GN RR, Austin, 4 May 1917, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); near Walnut Creek, Austin, 28 May 1931, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 13 Apr 1933, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL), 22 Apr 1933, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL), and 10 May 1944, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin chalk, 6 mi N of Austin, 13 May 1953, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Yucca constricta Buckl. BUCKLEY YUCCA. Native shrub. Included here on the basis of a report by Lynch (1974).


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Yucca pallida McKelvey. PALLID YUCCA. Native shrub; endemic to the Lampasas Cutplain and Grand Prairie. Although common just to the north, this species is rare in our area, known from a single collection.


Specimens: Ca. 8 mi W of Oak Hill, along roadside, 15 May 1940, C. L. Lundell & A. A. Lundell 8902 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras:


Yucca rupicola Scheele. TWISTLEAF YUCCA. Native shrub; endemic to the Edwards Plateau and Central Mineral Basin (Llano Uplift), grading into and replaced by Yucca pallida, another Texas endemic, on the Lampasas Cutplain to the north. The common yucca in our area, frequent in all manner of plant communities on various soils over limestone, most common in grasslands but persisting under woodland cover.


Specimens: Hill across river from Barton Creek, 17 May 1913, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, dry woods, 24 May 1916, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Apr 1931, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-L); open rocky slope along the Pedernales River NW of Bee Cave, 24 Jun 1958, D. S. Correll & H. B. Correll 19006 (TEX-LL); silty clay loam along margin of mixed woods on bluff above E bank of Onion Creek, ca. 0.7 airmiles ESE of jct. North Bluff Dr. and Nuckles Crossing Rd., 25 May 1986, W. R. Carr & J. Wright 7473 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Yucca torreyi Shafer. TORREY YUCCA, SPANISH DAGGER. Native shrub. Apparently our flora includes only one huge, trunked species of "Spanish dagger" yucca; such plants have been traditionally but mistakenly referred to Yucca treculeana. Conspicuous on xeric limestone bluffs along the Colorado River at Pace Bend Park, along the Pedernales River at Hamilton Pool, and in scattered other locations.


Specimens: Rim of Pedernales River limestone area, below Hamilton Pool, 31 Mar 1946, B. C. Tharp & B. H. Warnock 46066 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Yucca treculeana Carr. TRECUL YUCCA. Native shrub. Apparently falsely reported from our area; see above.


SMILACACEAE GREENBRIAR FAMILY


Smilax bona-nox L. Incl. Smilax renifolia Small. SAW GREENBRIAR. Native woody vine. Our common greenbriar, encountered to a greater or lesser degree in almost any habitat but more common in woodlands.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Smilax tamnoides L. var. hispida (Torr.) Fern. Smilax hispida Torr. HELLFETTER. Native woody vine. Uncommon in our area, apparently restricted to woodlands on alluvial soils on stream terraces or rocky colluvium in limestone canyons.


Specimens: Mesic calcareous stream terrace hardwood forest, Barton Creek, 2 mi upstream from Barton Springs, 0.5 mi NE of Loop 360 bridge, 17 Apr 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges 9291 (TEX-LL); occasional in pecan-elm-hackberry woodland on silty clay loam on occasionally inundated creek terrace, N bank of Onion Creek, W of westernmost softball field at Richard Moya Park, 21 Apr 1996, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 15176 (TEX-LL); climbing into trees and shrubs in deciduous woodland on alluvial terrace and creekbank, N-S stretch of Bull Creek ca. 1500 ft. upstream from Loop 360 bridge ca. 0.6 mi NE of Lakewood Drive, 28 Apr 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15182 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Smilax rotundifolia L. ROUNDLEAF GREENBRIAR. Native woody vine. Included on the basis of a report from McKinney Falls State Park (Johnston & Riskind, 1975).


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none.


IRIDACEAE IRIS FAMILY


Herbertia lahue (Mol.) Goldblatt. Alophia drummondii Grah. Foster, sensu Correll & Johnston (1970); Trifurcia lahue (Mol.) Goldblatt. CELESTIAL. Native perennial. Common on the coastal plain to the east but rare in our area, mostly in live oak savannas in southwestern part of county.


Specimens: University of Texas campus, grassy mall near 26th and Speedway, approximately 30 plants growing in carpetgrass, 26 Apr 1980, R. Winter 118 (TEX-LL); several hundred plants occurring as lone weeds on well-tended lawn of Stenotaphrum secundatum, SE corner of 10th and Lavaca, downtown Austin, 15 April 1986, W. R. Carr & K. Kolb 7242 (TEX-LL); occasional in formerly grazed grassland on Speck soils on karstic Edwards Limestone upland covered with live oak savanna, ca. 3.5 airmiles SSE of R. M. 1826 bridge over Slaughter Creek, on Edwards 118 Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 8 May 2000, W. R. Carr 18960 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Goldblatt, 1976; Goldblatt, 1987.


Iris pseudacorus L. YELLOW FLAG. An Old World perennial, introduced/cultivated in our area. Perhaps naturalized along Town Lake, where it is locally common in saturated soils at various locations.


Specimens: Large patches in wet soil on river bank, W side of Colorado River 200 feet S of Tom Miller Dam, 2 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4627 (BRIT/SMU); frequent in moist silty alluvial soil along mostly unshaded bank of Town Lake (Colorado River), from ca. 0.2 mi W to ca. 0.3 mi E of IH-35 bridges, Austin, 3 May 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15288 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Nemastylis geminiflora Nutt. Nemastylis acuta Herb. TWINFLOWER. Frequent in grassy openings in woodlands on loamy clay soils over limestone.


Specimens: Shoal Creek in grassy rocky soil, 10 Apr 1901, W. H. Long s.n. (TEX-LL); chalky hills E of Watters Station, 22 Apr 1901, Long & Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 18 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Pease Road, 21 Apr 1912, F. D. H[eald?]. & N. J. H. 4306 (TEX-LL); Austin, 5 Apr 1922, B. C. Tharp 1506 (TEX-LL); frequent in pockets of deeper loamy clay soils over limestone, on top of bluff along SSE side of ridge along NW side of Loop 360, 0.1-0.3 mi SW of N branch of Spicewood Springs Rd., 16 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4692 (TEX-LL); limestone glade on ridgetop on N side of Mountain Trail ca. 0.4 mi N of Comanche Trail, 2.5 airmiles NW of jct. F. M. 2222 and F. M. 620 at Four Points, 8 Apr 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges 9063 (TEX-LL); Circle C Ranch, Slaughter Lane 1.4 mi W of Hwy 1 at disc golf course, shaded area, moist soil, 19 Apr 1995, C. Chisholm 22 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Goldblatt, 1976.


Sisyrinchium angustifolium Nutt. WINGSTEM BLUE-EYED GRASS. Native perennial. A species of eastern North America; apparently rare in our area, known from a few specimens.


Specimens: Hills across river above Deep Eddy, Spring 1913, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); near Austin, 5 Apr 1922, B. C. Tharp 1512 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Sisyrinchium chilense Hook. Sisyrinchium ensigerum Bickn.; Sisyrinchium scabrum Cham. & Schlect. SWORDLEAF BLUE-EYED GRASS. Native perennial. Common in clay soils over limestone in grasslands and on rocky limestone slopes, mostly west of the Balcones Escarpment.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Sisyrinchium dimorphum R. Oliv. BLUE-EYED GRASS. Native perennial. Rare in moist soils along streams west of the Balcones Escarpment.


Specimens: along stream in limestone hills 1 mi W of Austin dam, 14 Apr 1946, B. H. Warnock 46121 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986).


Sisyrinchium langloisii Greene. LANGLOIS BLUE-EYED GRASS. Native perennial. Frequent in grasslands on various strata; more common in the Blackland Prairie and east than on the Edwards Plateau.


Sisyrinchium minus Engelm. & Gray. LEAST BLUE-EYED GRASS. Native annual. Rare in seasonally moist clay or sand around puddles.


Specimens: Pilot Knob, 5 Apr 1954, S. Ely s.n. (TEX-LL); Catholic cemetery, 2 Apr 1901, Long s.n. (TEX-LL); moist to wet clay in poorly drained spot on level Glen Rose Limestone upland, on old truck track through dense juniper woodland, Emma Long (Lake Austin) Metro Park, 26 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr 11124 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. Other reports: Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986). References: Shinners, 1962.


Sisyrinchium pruinosum Bickn. DOTTED BLUE-EYED GRASS. Native perennial. Numerous reports from county, most of which are apparently based on specimens of Sisyrinchium langloisii. Status in our area uncertain.


Specimens: two sheets at TEX-LL, 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Sisyrinchium rosulatum Bickn. ANNUAL BLUE-EYED GRASS. Native annual. Rare in our area, known from a single collection.


Specimens: On top of limestone bluff S of Williamson Creek E of I-35 in SE Austin, heavy dark clay of dried pool, semi-shade of juniper woodland, 25 May 1983, B. Ertter with J. W. Grimes 4852 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Shinners, 1962.


ORCHIDACEAE ORCHID FAMILY


Corallorhiza wisteriana Conrad. WISTER CORALROOT. Native perennial. Rare under oaks in various woodland types, sometimes under oaks in gardens and lawns.


Specimens: Westfield, Austin, 6 Mar 1937, J. Biesele s.n. (TEX-LL); near oak tree in C. F. Gray's yard, Austin, 6 Mar 1946, F. McAllister 46T1 (TEX-LL); oak upland, Austin, 10 Mar 1946, B. C. Tharp 46T000 (TEX-LL); ca. 1.7 mi N of the intersection of Spicewood Springs Rd. and Hwy 360, under low juniper canopy in juniper-oak woodland on first terrace above Long Hog Creek, an intermittent tributary of Bull Creek, clay loam soil with deep juniper humus, 22 Mar 1984, C. Greene & L. Sherrod 84-001 (TEX-LL); rich soil on rocky limestone flat on nearly level, heavily wooded uplands, canopy of Quercus texana, Q. sinuata var. breviloba, Juniperus ashei, 3M site, 1.5 mi E of Four Points, 3 Apr 1984, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA); under Quercus buckleyi, Prunus serotina, and Fraxinus texensis in woods on Cedar Park Limestone, Rathgeber Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 1 May 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary (Lyter, 1986). References: Correll, 1944.


Epipactis gigantea Hook. CHATTERBOX ORCHID, STREAM HELLEBORINE. Native perennial. Rare on moist to wet soils on travertine deposits and banks of streams in limestone canyons.


Specimens: J. B. Watkins Ranch above Cow Creek on Lake Travis, 29 Jul 1950, B. C. Tharp & C. S. York 50-42 (TEX-LL) and 2 Jun 1951, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-936 (TEX-LL). Correll (1944) cited an additional specimen from Travis County: Tharp 1947 (disposition and date not provided). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Westcave Preserve (Enquist, 1987). References: Correll, 1944.


Hexalectris nitida L. O. Williamson. GLASS MOUNTAINS CORAL-ROOT, SHINING CORAL-ROOT. Native perennial. Occasional in leaf litter under Ashe junipers in woodlands on limestone slopes and uplands. An inconspicuous saprophyte once thought to be found only in mountains of the Trans-Pecos and adjacent New Mexico and Coahuila, but now known to range across limestone areas of much of Texas north and east to Taylor, Dallas and Travis counties (Carr, 1996).


Specimens: In juniper scale duff over gravelly clay loam over Upper Glen Rose Limestone on more or less level ridgetop, in shade of Juniperus ashei-Quercus fusiformis woodland with Garrya ovata ssp. lindheimeri in canopy and shrub layer, with sparse ground layer of Carex planostachys, Brightleaf State Natural Area, 11 Jul 1995, W. R. Carr 14769 (TEX-LL) and 11 Aug 1995, W. R. Carr 14788 (TEX-LL); in fruit; in shallow, well drained, calcareous, moderately alkaline, gravelly clay loam on moderately steep, E-facing Glen Rose Limestone slope, in shade of Juniperus ashei, Quercus fusiformis, Garrya lindheimeri woodland, Brightleaf State Natural Area, 25 Sep 1996, W. R. Carr & J. Maresh 14867 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Carr, 1995; Engel, 1987; Howell, 1986.


Hexalectris spicata (Walt.) Barnh. CRESTED CORALROOT. Native perennial. Occasional in leaf litter under junipers and oaks in woodlands, reported only from limestone west of the Balcones Escarpment but to be expected in the eastern part of the county as well. According to Catling & Engel (1993), represented in our area by var. spicata and var. arizonica (S. Wats.) Catling & Engel.


Specimens: Oak Hill, 21 May 1922, B. C. Tharp 1493 (TEX-LL); Austin, 20 May 1931, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 21 May 1934, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Edwards Plateau Lab. I, TSNL, woodland dominated by Juniperus ashei, undergrowth sparse, unshaded, Edwards limestone, McDonald, 5 Jun 1972, Bro. D. Lynch 9722 (SEU) and 7 Jun 1973, Bro. D. Lynch 9721 (SEU); SEU campus, woods near entrance, at edge of a stand of Juniperus ashei and Quercus fusiformis, ground cover dominated by Schizachyrium scoparium, light shade to sunny in afternoon, 26 May 1977, Bro. D. Lynch 9720 (SEU). Correll (1944) cited three additional specimens (dispositions not provided) from Travis County: E. Hall s.n.; B. C. Tharp 1260; Mueller s.n. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. Catling & Engel cited one specimen of var. arizonica from Travis County: in juniper woodland above Barton Creek, SW Austin, 19 Jul 1992, V. S. Engel s.n. (AMES). Other reports: Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary (Lyter, 1986); Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986). References: Catling & Engel, 1993; Correll, 1944.


Spiranthes cernua (L.) Rich. NODDING LADIES'-TRESSES. Native perennial. Reports of this species from Travis County by Lynch (1974) and others predate recent treatments of Spiranthes by Luer (1975) and Sheviak (1982) and are probably best referred to Spiranthes magnicamporum Sheviak or Spiranthes odorata (Nutt.) Lindl. However, Spiranthes cernua may well occur in the eastern half of the county.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 15 December 1997. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Correll, 1944; Luer (1975); Sheviak, 1982.


Spiranthes lacera (Raf.) Raf. var. gracilis (Bigelow) Luer. Spiranthes gracilis (Bigel.) Beck. var. gracilis. LADIES'-TRESSES. Native perennial. Rare in our area, presumably in open post oak woodlands on sandy to gravelly substrates.


Specimens: Austin, 20 Oct 1926, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 21 Oct 1942, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, fall 1945 or 1946, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Spiranthes magnicamporum Sheviak. LADIES'-TRESSES. Native perennial. Frequent in seasonally moist clay or clay loam in grasslands on rocky limestone slopes and uplands, often among Muhlenbergia reverchonii and Bouteloua pectinata in seep zones on Glen Rose Limestone; sometimes on sedge mats on alluvium along streams in limestone canyons.


Specimens: Hillside near Devils Hollow, 19 Nov 1915, Thomas, Dodd & Norwood s.n. (TEX-LL); seepage slope of Mt. Bonnell, 23 Dec 1976, T. F. Patterson s.n. (TEX-LL); canyon, above tributary of Dry Creek, NE of Mt. Bonnell, 21 Nov 1982, L. J. Dorr & L. C. Barnett 2622 (TEX-LL); mat of Muhlenbergia reverchonii in wet clayey soil in stream bottom, cedar brake on limestone slope N of Bull Creek, ca. 3600 ft. due N of intersection of Loop 360 and Lakewood Drive, 10 Nov 1982, W. R. Carr 4509 (TEX-LL); among clumps of Muhlenbergia reverchonii and Bouteloua pectinata in open areas among patches of juniper-oak woodland in shallow, calcareous, gravelly clay loam Typic Ustochrepts on steep W-facing Glen Rose limestone slope, SW 1/4 of Brightleaf State Natural Area, 10 Nov 1995, W. R. Carr, S. Breslin & L. Campbell 15084 (TEX-LL); in grassland of Muhlenbergia reverchonii and Bouteloua pectinata on somewhat eroded very shallow stony clay on broad benches of Upper Glen Rose limestone, Barton Creek Habitat Preserve, 9 Nov 1997, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 17194 (TEX-LL); common among clumps of Muhlenbergia reverchonii and other grasses on shallow, well drained, gravelly clay loam on open gentle slope underlain by Glen Rose Limestone, Windmill Run County Park, 26 Nov 1977, W. R. Carr & J. Liggio 17244 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Correll, 1944; Luer, 1975; Sheviak, 1982.


Spiranthes odorata (Nutt.) Lindl. LADIES'-TRESSES. Native perennial. Rare in our area, known from a single collection.


Specimens: Austin, Oct 1915, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Correll, 1944; Luer, 1975; Sheviak, 1982.


SUBCLASS 2. DICOTYLEDONEAE


SALICACEAE WILLOW FAMILY


Populus alba L. WHITE POPLAR, ALAMO BLANCO. Adventive tree. Native of Eurasia, sparingly cultivated in our area and rarely escaping into moist situations.


Specimens: SEU campus, small tree in bed of intermittent marshy stream, 23 Oct 1978, Bro. D. Lynch 9723 (SEU). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Populus deltoides Marsh. subsp. deltoides. EASTERN COTTONWOOD. Native tree. Uncommon but, due to its massive size, usually conspicuous in gallery woodlands along perennial streams and impoundments. Like several other trees with wind-dispersed seeds, eastern cottonwood often colonizes disturbed upland sites, rarely reaching sexual maturity in such dry habitats. Occasionally utilized as a shade tree in urban areas.


Specimens: Banks of Colorado River, 17 May 1913, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Correll (1961) cited several other specimens from Travis County. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1981. References: Correll, 1961.


Lynch (1974) reported Populus sargentii Dode from Travis County. As currently circumscribed, this cottonwood occurs mainly in the Plains Country and does not reach our area. Only Populus deltoides was included in his later work on the woody plants of the region (Lynch, 1981).


Salix nigra Marsh. BLACK WILLOW. Native tree. Common on stream and riverbanks, lakeshores, pond margins and other perennially wet areas. In some treatments (e.g., Ball, 1961), two subspecific taxa, var. lindheimeri Schneid. as well as var. nigra, are recognized in our area.


Specimens: 7 sheets at TEX-LL, Nov 1996; all annotated in 1994 by G. W. Argus. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


JUGLANDACEAE WALNUT FAMILY


Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch. Carya pecan (Marsh.) Engelm. & Graebn.; Hicoria pecan (Marsh.) Britt. PECAN. Native tree. Frequent in deep alluvial soils on stream terraces, more common east of the Balcones Escarpment. Various commercial varieties have been introduced into similar habitat.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Carya texana Buckl. TEXAS HICKORY. Native tree. Local in post oak woodlands over Pleistocene terrace deposits, such as at the north end of Pace Bend Park; to be expected on similar substrates in eastern Travis County and perhaps also in mixed live oak-post oak savanna woodlands over Edwards Limestone.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Carya tomentosa Nutt. MOCKERNUT HICKORY. Native tree. A species of the southeastern United States; according to Cox & Leslie (1988) and Simpson (1988), it ranges into eastern Travis County, but no specimen records have come to light. Easily mistaken for Carya texana, but usually in more mesic habitats such as stream bottoms.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Juglans major (Torr.) Heller var. major. ARIZONA WALNUT. Native tree. The status of the two large walnuts in Travis County, Juglans major and Juglans nigra, is difficult to assess due to a dearth of fertile specimens and reliable reports. Young (1920) reported only Juglans nigra from the Austin region, while Lynch (1974) reported neither. Juglans major may be the large walnut found in mostly deciduous woodlands in limestone mesic canyons along and west of the Balcones Escarpment, whereas Juglans nigra may be the walnut of deciduous woodlands on alluvial terraces and riverbottoms to the east.


Specimens: Walnut Creek, Watters Station, 22 Apr 1901, Long & Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Bull Creek City Park on SE side of Loop 360, SW of Spicewood Springs Rd., shade of trees near creek, oak-juniper woodland on limestone, 14 May 1983, B. Ertter & J. Saunders 4847 (TEX-LL).


Juglans microcarpa Berl. Juglans rupestris L. LITTLE WALNUT. Native tree or large shrub. Occasional, usually rooted in silt, gravel and limestone rubble in creekbeds west of the Balcones Escarpment, extending to the east along Onion and Williamson Creeks (Lynch, 1974).


Specimens: Bee Creek, 18 Apr 1901, Long & Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); valley of Barton Creek, 15 Apr 1918, M. S. Young 17 (TEX-LL); floodplain, upper Barton Creek, 21 Oct 1922, R. H. Painter 139 (TEX-LL); Austin, 27 Mar 1933, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); Martins Ford Rd., about 10 mi NW of Austin, 27 Mar 1949, M. Rogers 6725 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Juglans nigra L. BLACK WALNUT. Native tree. Young (1920) found this species to be abundant along the appropriately named Walnut Creek. See comments under Juglans major.


Specimens: Near University, 12 May 1907, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); infrequent below rim of Pedernales River, 30 mi W of Austin, 31 Mar 1946, B. H. Warnock 46090 (TEX-LL); W branch of Onion Creek, 5 mi S of Austin on old Lockhart Rd., 9 Aug 1946, F. A. Barkley & H. V. Copeland 63 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


FAGACEAE BEECH FAMILY


Quercus buckleyi Dorr & Nixon. Quercus texana of authors, not Buckl., Quercus shumardii Buckl. var. texana (Buckl.) Ashe, Quercus shumardii Buckl. var. microcarpa (Torr.) Shinners. TEXAS OAK, SPANISH OAK. Native tree. Common, a characteristic oak of mesic limestone slopes and drier uplands west of the Balcones Escarpment; more local on calcareous strata to the east.


Specimens: On loan from TEX-LL, Nov 1996; not examined. However, Muller (1951) cited dozens of specimens from Travis County. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Dorr & Nixon, 1985; Muller, 1951.


Quercus fusiformis Small. Quercus virginiana Mill. var. fusiformis (Small) Sarg. PLATEAU LIVE OAK. Native tree. A common and characteristic species of several plant communities on limestone uplands; intergrading with Quercus virginiana on the coastal plain from Austin eastward (Nixon, 1984).


Specimens: 9 sheets at TEX-LL, Nov 1996. Some of these sheets could be Quercus virginiana or hybrids; none were annotated by K. Nixon. However, Muller (1951) cited 12 specimens from Travis County. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Muller, 1951; Nixon, 1984.


Quercus macrocarpa Michx. BUR OAK. Native tree. A species of eastern North America; uncommon in our area, in riparian woodlands and on mesic limestone slopes. Reported by Young (1920) from Walnut Creek.


Specimens: Tree to 2-3 ft. dbh; frequent in disturbed deciduous forest in calcareous silty clays on moderate to steep slopes along small drainage crossing Colorado River terrace, Webberville Park, N side of Colorado River ca. 0.1 mi. W of Bastrop County line, 11 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & J. Wright 10744 (TEX-LL). Muller (1951) cited 4 additional specimens from Travis County: C. Mohr 10; C. Mohr s.n.; E. J. Paler 9326; E. J. Palmer s.n. (dispositions, dates and other label information not provided). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Muller, 1951.


Quercus marilandica Muenchh. BLACKJACK OAK. Native tree. Found by Young (1920) to be "abundant on the terrace gravels" with Quercus stellata. Scarce today within the City of Austin, although a few old trees persist on such substrate on higher hilltops in the Clarksville neighborhood. Occasionally occurs with plateau live oak and post oak in woodlands or savannas over fractured Edwards limestone in the southwestern part of the county; doubtless in post oak woodlands along eastern edge of county.


Specimens: Deaf and Dumb Grounds, Austin, July 1911, McKee & Wesley 3926 (TEX-LL); gravel soil, Austin, 30 Mar 1949, B. C. Tharp 49-1098 (TEX-LL). Muller (1951) cited two additional specimens from Travis County: E. Hall 608 and Sterrett 13 (dispositions, dates and other label information not provided). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Muller, 1951.


Quercus muehlenbergii Engelm. CHINKAPIN OAK. Native tree. Apparently rare in our area, known from a single specimen. Locally common in woodlands on limestone bluffs and mesic slopes along the Pedernales River just to the W and to be expected in similar habitat in the vicinity of Hamilton Pool if not in other parts of the county.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Nov 1996. However, Muller (1951) cited one specimen from Travis County: B. C. Tharp s.n. (disposition, date and other label information not provided). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Muller, 1951.


Quercus shumardii Buckl. Quercus schneckii Britt. SHUMARD OAK. Native tree. According to Lynch (1981) "an oak of canyons and narrow valleys." Exceedingly difficult to distinguish from Quercus buckleyi; see Simpson (1988) for a discussion of the relationship between these two species.


Specimens: Walnut Creek, near Austin, no date, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Waller Creek, Austin, 1 Sep 1933, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Quercus sinuata Walt. var. breviloba (Torr.) C. H. Mull. Quercus durandii Buckl. var. breviloba (Torr.) Palmer. SHIN OAK, SCALYBARK OAK. Native tree or shrub. A common shinnery-forming scrub oak of limestone uplands, particularly common on very shallow soil over massive but fractured Edwards Limestone.


Specimens: Not examined. However, Muller (1951) cited 24 specimens from Travis County. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Muller, 1951.


Quercus sinuata Walt. var. sinuata. Quercus durandii Buckl. var. durandii. BASTARD OAK, DURAND OAK. Native tree. Patchily distributed on the coastal plain, attributed to the county by Muller (1951). Exceedingly difficult to distinguish from var. breviloba.


Specimens: Several sheets at TEX-LL, none of which could be determined with certainty. However, Muller (1951) cited one sheet from Travis County: B. C. Tharp s.n. (disposition, date and other information not provided). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Muller, 1951.


Quercus stellata Wang. POST OAK. Native tree. Locally common in and characteristic of deciduous woodlands on gravelly soils over Pleistocene river terrace deposits on uplands. Less common in live oak-Ashe juniper woodlands or savannas over fractured Edwards Limestone.


Specimens: University campus, 8 Apr 1910, E. L. Schostag 3012 (TEX-LL); Austin, Shoal Creek, 7 May 1911, O. A. Pratt 3674 (TEX-LL); Austin, 14 Oct 1922, R. H. Painter 144 (TEX-LL); Austin, 11 Sep 1933, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Two other specimens were cited by Muller (1951). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Muller, 1951.


Quercus virginiana Mill. var. virginiana. COASTAL LIVE OAK. Native tree. Presumably the common live oak on deep soils east of the Balcones Escarpment, but exceedingly difficult to distinguish from Quercus fusiformis. Nixon (1984) considered our plants to be intermediates or hybrids between Quercus fusiformis and the true Quercus virginiana of the southeastern United States.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. However, Muller (1951) cited seven specimens from the county: F. V. Coville s.n.; A. M. Ferguson 615; A. M. Ferguson s.n.; F. W. Johnson 1775; McKee & Wesley 3823; B. C. Tharp s.n.; J. L. White 4720 (disposition, date and other label information not provided). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Muller, 1951; Nixon, 1984.


ULMACEAE ELM FAMILY


Celtis laevigata Willd. var. laevigata. Celtis mississippiensis Bosc. SUGAR HACKBERRY. Native tree. A major component of deciduous riparian woodlands on alluvial terraces and of mixed woodlands on abandoned Blackland Prairie fields; present in smaller numbers in all woodland types.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Celtis laevigata Willd. var. reticulata (Torr.) Benson. Celtis reticulata Torr. NETLEAF HACKBERRY. Native tree. Common in mixed woodlands on dry to mesic limestone slopes and in canyons; present in smaller numbers in other situations.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Celtis lindheimeri Engelm. LINDHEIMER HACKBERRY. Native tree. A poorly understood taxon of Texas and northern Mexico. Included solely on the basis of a report from Travis County by Sargent (1965).


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Nov. 2001. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Ulmus alata Michx. WINGED ELM. Native tree. Frequently reported from Travis County but perhaps based on specimens of Ulmus crassifolia, particularly of young growth in which stems are commonly winged and leaves are often broader and longer than in mature growth. The two differ in flowering periods, with Ulmus alata blooming in the spring (Feb-Mar) and Ulmus crassifolia in the fall (Jul-Oct). It should be noted that Simpson (1990) includes Travis County within the range of this species.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Ulmus americana L. AMERICAN ELM. Native tree. Frequent in mostly deciduous woodlands on alluvial terraces and in oak-juniper woodlands in mesic limestone canyons; occasionally planted as a shade tree in upland urban areas.


Specimens: Several at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Ulmus crassifolia Nutt. CEDAR ELM, FALL ELM. Native tree. One of the more common tree species of our area, occurring in varying abundance in virtually all habitats. Perhaps most frequent and achieving largest size in deep alluvial soils on stream terraces, but also conspicuous in live oak savannas and other upland communities.


Specimens: Several at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Ulmus rubra Muhl. SLIPPERY ELM. Native tree. Simpson (1990) included the entirety of Travis County within the Texas range of this species; no specimens have come to light. If present it presumably occurs in mostly deciduous woodlands on alluvial terraces or in oak-juniper woodlands in mesic limestone canyons.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none.


MORACEAE MULBERRY FAMILY


Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. PAPER MULBERRY. Naturalized tree; native of Asia. Long cultivated and sparingly naturalized in Travis County, mostly on vacant lots in Austin but occasionally in riparian woodlands.


Specimens: Disturbed riparian woodland, E bank of Bull Creek near waterfall just N of Loop 360 between Spicewood Springs Rd. and Lakewood Dr., 10 Oct 1982, W. R. Carr 4399 (TEX-LL); edge of juniper-oak woodland on relatively deep soil of high creek terrace, near old homesite on Barton Creek Habitat Preserve, 15 Nov 1997, W. R. Carr 17237 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai. Introduced annual. A native of the Old World, recently introduced to North America in nursery stock and now reported from most of the southeastern United States, where it occurs mostly as a greenhouse weed.


Specimens: St. Edward's University campus, enclosed garden area of Brothers' dormitory, among ferns and Yucca, 21 Aug 1993, M. H. Mayfield, Bro. D. Lynch & G. Nesom 1776 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Massey, 1975; Thieret, 1964.


Ficus carica L. CULTIVATED FIG. Introduced tree or large shrub, native of Asia. Persistent around old home sites, perhaps naturalizing around springs and on alluvial terraces.


Specimens: locally common in deep silty alluvium on terrace of intermittent creek in bottom of main ravine on southern half of Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary on Lime Creek Road, 16 Oct 1996, W. R. Carr & M. Lytle 15798 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid. Toxylon pomiferum Raf. BOIS D'ARC, OSAGE ORANGE, HORSE APPLE. Native [or naturalized?] tree or large shrub. Occasional in riparian woodlands but more conspicuous in fencelines, particularly east of the Balcones Escarpment. Weniger (1996) suggested that Maclura pomifera is not native to this portion of Texas.


Specimens: Fence line, 5 Oct 1936, B. C. Tharp 8249 (TEX-LL); Austin, 28 April 1940, B. H. Warnock 203 (TEX-LL); Austin, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Morus alba L. WHITE MULBERRY. Naturalized tree. Native of Asia. Cultivated and occasionally escaping into vacant urban lots in Austin, perhaps also into riparian woodlands where it could be mistaken for the native Morus rubra.


Specimens: Austin, 10 Oct 1907, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); along old road NE of Austin, in old bois d'arc hedge, 20 Apr 1946, C. L. York 46047 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Morus microphylla Buckl. TEXAS MULBERRY. Native shrub or small tree. A species of the southern Great Plains, the desert southwest and adjacent Mexico, reaching its eastern limit along the Balcones Escarpment in or near Travis County. Rare but consistent component of the diverse woody flora of mesic limestone canyons and slopes, often on or around rimrock exposures.


Specimens: Bee Creek, 18 Apr 1901, Long & Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); slope in ravine of Edwards Plateau near Austin, 20 May 1918, M. S. Young 15 (TEX-LL); upper Barton Creek, 8 Nov 1922, R. H. Painter 132 (TEX-LL); Mt. Bonnell, 15 May 1930, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); slope below N-facing limestone cliff, S side of Loop Bull 360, W of Spicewood Springs Rd., 11 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4303; woods along base of limestone cliff on W bank of Bull Creek, E side of Lakewood Drive, S of Loop 360, 4 Nov 1982, W. R. Carr 4500; wooded limestone ravine, N side of Bull Creek, N of Loop 360 E of Lakewood Dr., 9 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4652; limestone ravine, Jester Estates, 24 Mar 1984, W. R. Carr 5974; wooded alluvial bar, Bull Creek, 1300 ft. NNW of jct. Loop 360 and Lakewood Dr., 8 Apr 1984, W. R. Carr 6005 (UVST); SW Austin, Upper Barton Creek just W of Loop 360, shade of cedar and oak woodland, loam on limestone, 13 Apr 1985, B. Ertter & L. Vorobik 5682 (TEX-LL); front range, Rodgers Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 26 Jul 1995, B. Simpson s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Morus rubra L. RED MULBERRY. Native tree. A minor component of mostly deciduous woodlands within mesic limestone canyons west of the Balcones Escarpment; more frequent in riparian woodlands along rivers and perennial streams throughout.


Specimens: Walnut Creek N of Austin, Oct 1900, Ferguson & Ramsey s.n. (TEX-LL); SEU farm, 2 May 1954, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL); Travis Peak, cliffs along Cow Creek, 18 Apr 1969, D. S. Correll & H. B. Correll 37005 (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 23 Jul 1976, E. McKinney 055 (TEX-LL); elm grove, Webster Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 23 Sep 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


CANNABINACEAE HEMP FAMILY


Cannabis sativa L. MARIJUANA, HEMP. Introduced annual. The extent to which this species is cultivated within Travis County is open to speculation, since growers are not likely to make public such information. Rarely escaping; plants that appear spontaneously in vacant lots and roadsides are seldom made into herbarium specimens.


Specimens: Camp Mabry, Austin, 21 Nov 1940, C. C. Albers s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


URTICACEAE NETTLE FAMILY


Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. FALSE NETTLE. Native perennial. Common in moist to wet or saturated alluvial soils on unshaded to partially shaded banks of rivers and streams.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Miller, 1971.


Parietaria floridana Nutt. ROCK PELLITORY. Native annual. Included here on the basis of a report by Lynch (1974), who found this species in "disturbed coarse soil along road west of Lake Austin."


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Miller, 1971.


Parietaria pensylvanica Willd. Incl. var. obtusa (Small) Shinners; Parietaria obtusa Small. ROCK PELLITORY, CUCUMBER-WEED. Native annual. Common to abundant in woodlands and shaded to partially shaded sites of all description.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Miller, 1971.


Urtica chamaedryoides Pursh. STINGING NETTLE. Native annual. Common in alluvial soils in deciduous woodlands on floodplains of the Colorado River and major streams throughout; also in loamy soils and humus on rocky slopes in mesic limestone ravines.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Miller, 1971.


VISCACEAE MISTLETOE FAMILY


Phoradendron tomentosum (DC.) Gray subsp. tomentosum. Phoradendron serotinum (Raf.) M. C. Johnst. var. pubescens (Engelm.) M. C. Johnst. MISTLETOE. Native parasitic shrub. Common parasite of a number of trees, particularly Celtis laevigata, Prosopis glandulosa and Ulmus crassifolia.


Specimens: Austin, 5 Feb 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL) and 9 Mar 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Parasitic on Celtis occidentalis, S.E.U. Farm, 14 Mar 1954, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


ARISTOLOCHIACEAE BIRTHWORT FAMILY


Aristolochia coryi I. M. Johnst. CORY PIPEVINE. Native perennial. In Texas, Aristolochia coryi is found on limestone strata in the Trans-Pecos and western Edwards Plateau, ranging as far east as Edwards and Kimble counties. No voucher specimens have been located for either of the two reports from our area; perhaps both were based on misidentifications of Aristolochia serpentaria.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 2001. Previous Travis County floras: none. Reports: McKinney Falls State Park (Johnston & Riskind, 1975); Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary (Lyter, 1986).


Aristolochia erecta L. Aristolochia longiflora Engelm. & Gray. GRASSLEAF PIPEVINE, SWANFLOWER. Native perennial. A slender and exceptionally well camouflaged species of early successional or disturbed grasslands on well drained sandy soils. Not uncommon, although easily overlooked, in the post oak belt on Eocene strata to the east of Travis County, but apparently rare in our area.


Specimens: E of "Yucca Hill" [later annotated "Univ. campus, Austin"], 16 Apr 1901, Long s.n. (TEX-LL); in sand, cultivated soil near Colorado River, 14 May 1901, W. H. Long s.n. (TEX-LL); Lovell Drive at Chartwell Drive, Austin, 14 Apr 1967, J. M. Burns s.n. (TEX-LL); rare in old field grassland on fine sandy loam, S end of Pace Bend Park, 27 Aug 1996, W. R. Carr 15663 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Aristolochia serpentaria L. var. serpentaria. VIRGINIA PIPEVINE. Native perennial. A consistent and frequent but often overlooked member of the rock outcrop flora of mesic wooded limestone ravines along the Balcones Escarpment, usually growing with epipetric ferns from solution pits in vertical faces of rimrock; occasionally growing in humus and soil downslope.


Specimens: Limestone cliff, growing out of crack in McKown Limestone, McKinney Falls SP, 9 Jun 1977, R. W. Neck 1036 (BRIT/SMU); rare in rocky loam and humus on wooded N-facing slope, tributary of Bull Creek ca. 1/2 mi due N of summit of Cat Mt., 14 May 1988, W. R. Carr 8851 (TEX-LL); occasional in silty clay loam under cedar elm, Ashe juniper, Texas ash, etc., in broad valley between limestone ridges on SE side of Loop 360, 0.6 mi. NW of Lakewood Drive, Austin, 22 Apr 1989, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 9652 (TEX-LL); local, a dozen or so plants in clay loam under Quercus buckleyi and Juniperus ashei on gently sloping high bank of Grape Creek, ca. 1000 ft. S of road crossing at N end of Morgan A Tract (a Prop 2 tract), ca. 2.5 airmiles W of jct. St. Rt. 71 and Thomas Springs Rd., ca. 3.4-3.5 airmiles S of jct. St. Rt. 71 and R. M. 620, 24 April 2000, W. R. Carr 18876 (TEX-LL). References: Neck, 1981; Pfeifer, 1970.


RAFFLESIACEAE RAFFLESIA FAMILY


Pilostyles thurberi Gray. Native perennial. Hypothetical in Travis County, perhaps overlooked due to its cryptic lifestyle: "Vegetative part of plant entirely imbedded in the stems and branches of host plant [in our area, Dalea frutescens], only the small brownish flowers with their subtending scales exerted from the bark" (Correll & Johnston, 1970). Reported from as nearby as the headwaters of Barton Creek in Hays County (Enquist, 1987); examination of our few scattered populations of Dalea frutescens during May-July might reveal the presence of this interesting parasite within Travis County.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Rowell & Blassingame, 1968.


POLYGONACEAE KNOTWEED FAMILY


Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn. QUEEN'S WREATH. Introduced perennial herbaceous vine. Native of Mexico, cultivated in our area for its attractive flowers and foliage. Persisting around old homesites and on fencelines, rarely escaping.


Specimens: On side of building, growing up onto utility wires, W side of Co-op Bike Shop, SW corner of San Antonio and W. 23rd St., Austin, 23 Jul 1982, W. R. Carr 4163 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995.


Eriogonum longifolium Nutt. var. longifolium. Incl. Eriogonum longifolium Nutt. var. lindheimeri Gand. LONGLEAF WILDBUCKWHEAT. Native perennial. Rare, local in shallow clay loam in remnant grasslands over Austin Chalk near the northern edge of the county and on sandy soils over Cow Creek Limestone at Pace Bend Park.


Specimens: Pease place in pasture NE of house on rocky black soil, 15 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson 586 (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Aug 1920, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); near Austin, 8 Dec 1939, B. H. Warnock 134 (TEX-LL); Austin, 20 Aug 1941, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); on Lake Austin, 13 Oct 1941, B. Moon 174 (TEX-LL); local on very shallow eroded gravelly loam (Eddy Series) over Austin Chalk outcrop, top of bluff on E side of Tar Branch ca. 500-700 feet upstream from its junction with Walnut Creek, Walnut Creek Park, 25 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & J. Wright 10774 (TEX-LL); frequent in shallow gravelly clay loam (Eddy Series) over Austin Chalk, in disturbed grassland immediately E of Memorial Hill Cemetery on NE corner of IH-35 and Dessau Rd., 2 Sep 1990, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 10787 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. Lynch, 1974. References: Reveal, 1968.


Eriogonum multiflorum Benth. HEARTSEPAL WILDBUCKWHEAT. Native annual or biennial. Rare and local but conspicuous in deep loose sandy soils of Colorado River terrace deposits.


Specimens: Near Austin, 21 Oct 1939, B. H. Warnock 27 (TEX-LL); Austin, 11 Nov 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); sandy soil of old river terraces, abandoned pasture on S side of Westall St., Hornsby Bend housing development, 14 Sep 1991, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 11405 (TEX-LL); frequent in deep, slightly acid, loamy sand over Pleistocene Colorado River terrace deposits, weedy vacant lot on W side of US Rt. 183, 500 ft. S of Thompson Lane, Montopolis neighborhood of east Austin, 2 Nov 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15834 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Polygonum amphibium L. Persicaria amphibia (L.) Gray; Persicaria coccinea (Muhl. ex Willd.) Greene; Polygonum coccineum Muhl. AMPHIBIOUS SMARTWEED. Native perennial. Apparently rare in our area.


Specimens: On F. M. 969, seeping area on side of road, 6.5 mi E of Webberville, near Travis-Bastrop Co. line, 5 Jun 1967, J. R. Crutchfield 2892 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Polygonum aviculare L. PROSTRATE KNOTWEED. Naturalized (?) annual. Apparently rare in disturbed lawns. According to Mertens & Raven (1985), our plants may be Polygonum arenastrum Bor.


Specimens: lawn weed in sandy soil at base of oak on W side of driveway on W side of Capitol building, Austin, 18 Apr 1986, W. R. Carr 7286 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Polygonum convolvulus L. Tinaria convolvulus (L.) Webb. & Moq. BLACK BINDWEED. Adventive annual vine. Known in our area from a single specimen; apparently not a persistent member of our flora.


Specimens: campus, Austin (Ag. gardens), 3 May 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Polygonum densiflorum Meisn. Persicaria densiflora (Meisn.) Moldenke. STOUT SMARTWEED. Native perennial. Occasional in moist soils along impoundments and in creek bottoms.


Specimens: locally common in wet silt along unshaded margin of small lake on N side of Bloor Rd., 0.8-0.9 mi W of F. M. 973, 27 Sep 1987, W. R. Carr, D. A. Brown & M. L. Price 8728 (UVST); occasional in wet clayey mud in mostly unshaded bed of Shoal Creek, 1000-2000 ft. S of W. 29th St. bridge, Austin, W. R. Carr 9203. Numerous other specimens at TEX-LL, Nov 2001; not examined. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx. Persicaria hydropiperoides (Michx.) Small. SWAMP SMARTWEED. Native annual or perennial. Rare in moist alluvial clay and silt in creek bottoms.


Specimens: Wet clay along Wells Branch Creek at Walnut Creek Park, 25 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & J. Wright 10777 (TEX-LL). Numerous other specimens at TEX-LL, Nov 2001; not examined. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: McDonald, 1980.


Polygonum lapathifolium L. Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Small. CURLTOP SMARTWEED. Native annual or perennial. Frequent in moist soils along creek bottoms, drainage ditches, and shorelines of impoundments.


Specimens: moist soil along Bull Creek, 20 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4225 (UVST) and 29 Sep 1984, W. R. Carr 6080 (BRIT/SMU); common in moist silt on banks of Cypress Creek at Cypress Creek Park, 29 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15637 (TEX-LL). Numerous other specimens at TEX-LL, Nov 2001; not examined. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Polygonum pensylvanicum L. Persicaria pensylvanica (L.) Small; Polygonum bicorne Raf; Persicaria bicornis (Raf.) Nieuw. PENNSYLVANIA SMARTWEED. Native annual or perennial. Occasional in drying beds of impoundments of the Colorado River.


Specimens: Lake Austin, 1928, A. Armer s.n. (TEX-LL); in sand and silt among piles of limestone boulders exposed in bed of Lake Travis during summer of low lake level, below bluff at Giles Cove, Pace Bend Park, 27 Aug 1996, W. R. Carr 15669 (TEX-LL); [similar habitat at] Naumann Cove, Pace Bend Park, 19 Oct 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15808 (TEX-LL). Numerous other specimens at TEX-LL, Nov 2001; not examined. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Polygonum punctatum Ell. Persicaria punctata (Ell.) Small. DOTTED SMARTWEED. Native annual or perennial. Frequent in moist soils along creek bottoms, drainage ditches, and shorelines of impoundments.


Specimens: Moist clay in disturbed bed of Shoal Creek N of W. 38th St. bridge, Austin, 21 Oct 1982, W. R. Carr 4438 (UVST). Numerous other specimens at TEX-LL, Nov 2001; not examined. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Polygonum ramosissimum Michx. BUSHY KNOTWEED. Native annual. Occasional in disturbed low-lying areas.


Specimens: Low ground, Barton Creek, 16 Nov 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); flood plains of Shoal Creek below 19th St., Austin, 3 Nov 1920, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 Oct 1934, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Polygonum setaceum Baldw. Persicaria setacea (Baldw.) Small. BRISTLE SMARTWEED. Rare in moist soils along creek bottoms, drainage ditches, and shorelines of impoundments.


Specimens: Bank of Bull Creek, 1 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4181 (UVST). Specimens at TEX-LL not examined. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: McDonald, 1980.


Rumex altissimus Wood. TALL DOCK. Native perennial. Moist to wet soils in creekbottoms and on riverbanks; also on railroad ballast along the Missouri Pacific railroad track (Lynch, 1974).


Specimens: Austin, 15 May 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Shoal Creek, 26-27th Sts., Austin, 15 Apr 1911, Carsner & Studhalter s.n. (TEX-LL); Travis Heights, 16 May 1923, A. H. Berkman 1965 (TEX-LL); Austin, 1928, J. F. N[ormand] s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, lake, 23 Apr 1929, A. Armer 5522 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Rehninger, 1937.


Rumex chrysocarpus Moris. AMAMASTLA. Native perennial. Apparently rare in moist soils in creekbottoms.


Specimens: Bee Creek, 8 May 1922, B. C. Tharp 1461 (TEX-LL); originally determined Rumex altissimus; annotated to Rumex chrysocarpus by Rechinger, 1953. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Rechinger, 1937.


Rumex conglomeratus Murr. DOCK. Adventive perennial. Of uncertain status; both Travis County specimens lack mature fruit and cannot be determined with certainty.


Specimens: Travis Heights, spring 1923, A. H. Berkman 1964 (TEX-LL); Austin, 15 Apr 1944, B. C. Tharp 44059 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Rechinger, 1937.


Rumex crispus L. CURLY DOCK. Naturalized perennial. Occasional in moist clay or silt, usually in disturbed creek bottoms but also in roadside ditches and other ruderal areas. More common than our few specimens indicate.


Specimens: Shoal Creek, 10 May 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); moist clay on open seepy slope, W side of Shoal Creek below 34th St. bridge, Austin, 11 Mar 1983, W. R. Carr 4571 (UVST); common in seasonally moist, poorly drained sandy clay loam, weed-dominated community on vacant land ca. 200-300 ft. E of N Lamar Blvd. ca. 1/4 mi N of W. 45th St., Austin, 5 May 1996, W. R. Carr 15193 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Rechinger, 1937.


Rumex hastatulus Ell. HEARTWING SORREL. Native annual. Local in grasslands and open post oak woodlands on sandy loam. Rare in our area, much more common in similar habitat just to the east.


Specimens: Austin, 8 May 1922, B. C. Tharp 1461 (TEX-LL); Austin, 21 May 1927, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); along Colorado River, 14 Apr 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); occasional in sand and gravel in open post oak woodland on level upland underlain by cherty Pleistocene fluviatile terrace deposits, Farquhar Farms, ca. 5 mi SE of Manor, 7 Apr 1996, W. R. Carr, M. L. Price & D. A. Brown 15128 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Rechinger, 1937.


Rumex pulcher L. FIDDLE DOCK. Naturalized perennial. Common on gravel bars and in disturbed areas in creek bottoms and other seasonally moist, open sites.


Specimens: Onion Creek, 17 May 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River, Austin, 16 May 1922, B. C. Tharp 1443 (TEX-LL); Travis Heights, Spring 1923, A. H. Berkman 1966 (TEX-LL); Austin, 7 May 1933, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, no date, B. C. Tharp 1254 (TEX-LL); wet clay on unshaded seepy slope, W side of Shoal Creek, 600-800 ft. S of W. 34th St. bridge, Austin, W. R. Carr 4862 (BRIT/SMU); scattered among limestone boulders in bottom of wooded ravine, Little Bee Creek, Bee Creek Preserve, 15 May 1983, W. R. Carr 4885 (UVST); common in seasonally moist, poorly drained sandy clay loam, weed-dominated community on vacant land ca. 200-300 ft. E of N. Lamar Blvd. ca. 1/4 mi N of W. 45th St., Austin, 5 May 1996, W. R. Carr 15192 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Rechinger, 1937.


CHENOPODIACEAE GOOSEFOOT FAMILY


Chenopodium albescens Small. PALE GOOSEFOOT. Native annual. Doubtful in our area; our single specimen appears to represent Chenopodium berlandieri var. berlandieri.


Specimens: Reed (1969b) cited one specimen from Travis County: Austin, 4 Nov 1939, Warnock 61 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Reed, 1969b.


Chenopodium album L. LAMB'S QUARTERS. Naturalized annual; native of Eurasia. Reported by Young (1920) and Armer (1929); no specimens have come to light that would verify the presence of this weed in our area.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Reed, 1969b.


Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Chenopodium anthelminticum L. EPAZOTE, MEXICAN TEA. Native annual or perennial. Cultivated in some regions for medicinal purposes but apparently native in our area. Our specimens and reports are from loose sandy alluvium associated with the Colorado River.


Specimens: Colorado River bank, 15 Nov 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Jul 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); sandpile on Colorado River terrace, S end of Emma Long Metro Park, 24 Sep 1989, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10066 (TEX-LL); rare in deep, well drained, calcareous fine sandy loam over Pleistocene terrace deposits on unshaded slope along Colorado River, Selma Hughes Park, 25 Sep 1996, W. R. Carr 15733 (TEX-LL). Reed (1969) cited three additional specimens from Travis County: Colorado River at Austin, 2 Nov 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n.; 4 Nov 1939, B. H. Warnock 62; 1 Aug 1940, B. C. Tharp 47238. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Reed, 1969b.


Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. var. berlandieri. PITSEED GOOSEFOOT. Native annual. Perhaps the most frequently encountered, albeit uncommon, goosefoot in our area. Disturbed unshaded sites, often in sandy soils.


Specimens: low ground, Austin, 22 Oct 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 24 Jun 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); rare in deep, well drained, calcareous fine sandy loam over Pleistocene terrace deposits on moderate slope, Selma Hughes Park, 25 Sep 1996, W. R. Carr 15734 (TEX-LL); occasional in deep, slightly acid, loamy sand over Pleistocene Colorado River terrace deposits, weedy vacant lot on W side of US Rt. 183, 500 ft. S of Thompson Lane, Montopolis neighborhood of east Austin, 2 Nov 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15831 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Chenopodium boscianum Moq., i.e., Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. var. boscianum (Moq.) A. Wahl., misapplied). References: Reed, 1969b.


Chenopodium fremontii Wats. FREMONT GOOSEFOOT. Native annual. Doubtful in our area. Reported by Young (1920), but no specimens have come to light.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Jan 1991 or Apr 1996; none cited by Reed (1969b). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Reed, 1969b.


Chenopodium neomexicanum Standl. NEW MEXICO GOOSEFOOT. Native annual. Other Texas records of this species are from the mountains of Brewster and Jeff Davis Counties. Our single specimen, if accurately determined, probably represents a waif.


Specimens: Austin, Colorado River, 9 Apr 1929, A. Armer 5369 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Reed, 1969b.


Chenopodium pumilio R. Br. RIDGED GOOSEFOOT. Naturalized annual. Native of Australia, naturalized in scattered locations in North America. A weed of cattle pastures elsewhere in Texas but apparently rare in our area, known from a single collection.


Specimens: Watkins Ranch in NW Travis County, above Cow Creek on Lake Travis, 2 Jun 1951, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-963 (TEX-LL; ann. from Monolepis nuttalliana, J. Henrickson 1973). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Reed, 1969b.


Chenopodium pratericola Rydb. Chenopodium dessicatum A. Nels. var. leptophylloides (Murr.) H. A. Wahl. THICKLEAF GOOSEFOOT. Native annual. Reported by Lynch (1974) from vacant lots and unshaded disturbed ground.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Jan 1991 or Apr 1996; none cited in Reed (1969b). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Reed, 1969b.


Chenopodium simplex (Torr.) Raf. Chenopodium gigantospermum Aellen. BIGSEED GOOSEFOOT. Native annual. Rare on our area, presumably from disturbed sandy soils.


Specimens: Austin, 22 Oct 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 29 Sep 1936, Tharp 46757 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Reed, 1969b.


Chenopodium standleyanum Aellen. STANDLEY GOOSEFOOT. Native annual. Rare in our area, known from a single collection.


Specimens: Shaded ground, Waller Creek bottom, 2 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. [or 403?] (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Reed, 1969b.


Cycloloma atriplicifolium (Spreng.) Coult. TUMBLE RINGWING. Native annual. A widespread weed of the western United States, found in our area only on deep loose alluvial sand in bars along the Colorado River. Extant on sandpile at S end of Emma Long (Lake Austin) City Park, 10 Oct 1981.


Specimens: River bank above Montopolis bridge, 22 May 1929, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 2 Oct 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Aug 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); sand terrace back of Colorado River channel bank, ca. 1/2 mi above Lamar St. bridge, 11 Nov 1954, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Reed (1969b) cited an additional specimen from Travis County: Austin, 20 Jun 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Reed, 1969b.


Monolepis nuttalliana (Schultes) Green. POVERTY-WEED, NUTTALL MONOLEPIS. Native annual. Rare in disturbed ground. No recent collections or reports.


Specimens: Roadside, Austin, 28 Mar 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); low ground W of I & GN RR, 30 Mar 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); fine dry soil, Austin, 27 Mar 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL). Reed (1969b) cited one additional specimen from Travis County: Austin, 16 April 1927, B. C. Tharp 46243. The representative of second specimen cited by Reed, Tharp et al 51-963, at TEX-LL has since been annotated to Chenopodium pumilio. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Reed, 1969b.


AMARANTHACEAE AMARANTH FAMILY


Alternanthera caracasana H.B.K. Alternanthera repens of auth.; Alternanthera peploides (H. & B.) Urban; Alternanthera pungens H.B.K. MAT CHAFF-FLOWER. Native perennial, ranging from southern Texas to South America. Common in park lawns and other disturbed areas, usually on compacted sandy soils.


Specimens: Roadsides and waste places, Austin, 18 Oct 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 22 Oct 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL) and 1 Aug 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); waste grounds, Austin, 8 Aug 1941, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); UT campus, 14 Aug 1946, O. T. Walle 4 (TEX-LL); weed on curblawn, W. 41st St., 20-30 ft. E of Guadalupe, 29 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3606 (TEX-LL); common in bare areas of loamy fine sand on old Colorado River terrace deposits, seldom used soccer field on level unshaded area on N side of W. First St., 0.3 mi. W of Lamar, Austin, 6 Sep 1991, W. R. Carr & W. C. Bergquist 11387 (TEX-LL); frequent in lawn on deep, well drained, calcareous fine sandy loam over Pleistocene terrace deposits, Selma Hughes Park, 25 Sep 1996, W. R. Carr 15737 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Reed, 1969a.


Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. ALLIGATORWEED. Naturalized perennial. Native of South America, naturalized in the southeastern United States where it is considered by some to be a noxious weed of waterways. A recent addition to our flora.


Specimens: Shoal Creek W of St. Andrews School, 12 Nov 1980, M. C. Johnston s.n. (TEX-LL); Shoal Creek 100 ft. N of 38th St. bridge, Austin, 27 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4243 (TEX-LL); locally abundant in seasonally wet depression (former stream channel) on partially shaded terrace, W side of Shoal Creek at Goodall-Wooten Park, 9 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7533 (BRIT/SMU); wet clay over limestone in disturbed bed of Shoal Creek 300-500 ft. S of W. 34th St., Austin, 2 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr 9197 (TEX-LL); occasional in moist silt on shaded margin of small inlet (old discharge channel), E side of Colorado River opposite mouth of Carson Creek, Hornsby Bend Sewage Treatment Plant, 31 Jul 1992, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 12202 (TEX-LL); frequent in moist silty to clayey soil at foot of partially shaded riverbank slope, W side of Red Bud Isle, E side of W fork of Colorado River, ca. 1000 ft. S of Red Bud Trail bridge below Tom Miller Dam, 5 Jun 1994, W. R. Carr, P. McNeal & J. Gleason 13884 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Reed, 1969a; Robertson, 1981.


Alternanthera polygonoides (L.) R. Br. Alternanthera paronychioides St. Hil. SMOOTH CHAFF-FLOWER. Native annual. Rare in our area, collected only from silt, sand and gravel flats exposed in bed of Lake Travis during extended periods of low water levels.


Specimens: Silt and gravel beach exposed along Lake Travis at Turkey Bend LCRA Park, 3 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr 9110 (BRIT/SMU); rare in moist to dry silt and limestone gravel exposed in bed of Lake Travis during year of exceptionally low water level, mouth of Cypress Creek at Cypress Creek Park, 25 Jun 1996, W. R. Carr 15552 (TEX-LL) and 19 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr 15624 (TEX-LL); [similar habitat at] Arkansas Bend Park, 11 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr, C. Ladd & T. Siegenthaler 15598 (TEX-LL); [similar habitat at] Mansfield Dam Park, 2 Aug 1996, W. R. Carr 15656 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Reed, 1969a.


Amaranthus albus L. Amaranthus pubescens (Uline & Bray) Rydb. PROSTRATE PIGWEED, WHITE AMARANTH. Naturalized annual. Native of Europe, thoroughly naturalized across North America but a rather uncommon weed in our area.


Specimens: limestone soil, cultivated field, 10 Aug 1920, B. C. Tharp 706 (TEX-LL); seasonally dry clay, silt and gravel in bed of Shoal Creek ca. 500 ft. S of W. 45th St. bridge, Austin, 18 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4325 (BRIT/SMU); weed in rich moist garden soil in shaded plot at W door of Miller Blueprint, 510 W. 6th St., Austin, 15 Oct 1986, W. R. Carr 7902. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Reed, 1969a.


Amaranthus arenicola I. M. Johnst. SANDHILL AMARANTH. Native annual. Rare in deep sand on alluvial deposits along the Colorado River and principal streams.


Specimens: sand wash below dam, 6 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson 459 (TEX-LL); Cypress Creek County Park on NE side of Lake Travis, 31 Oct 1983, B. Ertter 5194 (TEX-LL), 29 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15639 (TEX-LL); sand on bars along Colorado River bottom under US Rt. 183 bridges, 15 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3554 and 3555 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Reed, 1969a; Sauer, 1955.


Amaranthus australis (Gray) Sauer. Acnida cuspidata Spreng. SOUTHERN WATERHEMP. Native annual. A species of the Gulf Coastal Plain, apparently rare in our area. Probably in disturbed moist sandy soils of creek and river floodplains.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, 1991. Reed (1969a) cited two specimens from Travis County: 17 Aug 1917, M. S. Young s.n.; Austin, 1922, Tharp 2864. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Reed, 1969a.


Amaranthus blitoides Wats. Amaranthus graecizans of auth. MAT PIGWEED. Naturalized annual. Native of the Old World, now thoroughly naturalized across much of North America. Occasional in a variety of disturbed habitats.


Specimens: Fields across river, common in waste places everywhere, 17 May 1913, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); near Austin, 9 Nov 1939, B. H. Warnock 67 (TEX-LL); disturbed gravelly soil on open limestone ridgetop, home construction sites on North Cat Mountain, 1 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4170; gravel and clayey silt in unshaded seasonally dry bed of Shoal Creek between W. 38th and W. 45th Sts., Austin, 18 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4326 (BRIT/SMU); dry compacted clay soil on unshaded levee along S edge of lagoon at Hornsby Bend Sewage Treatment Plant, 1.0 airmiles NW of F. M. 973 bridge over Colorado River, 28 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 9190 (TEX-LL). Reed (1969a) cited one additional specimen from Travis County: 27 April 1907, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (disposition not provided). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Reed, 1969a.


Amaranthus crassipes Schlect. CLUBFOOT AMARANTH, THICKLEAF PIGWEED. Native annual. Rare, mostly in sandy soils along the Colorado River.


Specimens: Cultivated ground and roadways, Austin, Nov 1897, Bray s.n. (TEX-LL); high sandy terrace, Colorado River, Zilker Park below ravine opposite Deep Eddy, 10 Oct 1945, B. C. Tharp 45510 (TEX-LL); sandy terrace, Zilker Park, 3 Nov 1945, B. H. Warnock, B. C. Tharp & F. A. Barkley s.n. (TEX-LL); Zilker Park, Nov. 1982, J. Henrickson s.n. (TEX-LL); locally abundant in drying "muck" at edge of sewage pond, Hornsby Bend Sewage Treatment Plant, 19 Apr 1986, W. R. Carr 7281 (BRIT/SMU, UVST). Reed (1969a) cited several additional specimens from Travis County, including: Colorado flood plain, Austin, 11 Nov 1928, A. A. Armer 5513; Zilker Park, Austin, 30 Aug 1936, Tharp s.n. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Reed, 1969a.


Amaranthus greggii Wats. GREGG AMARANTH. Native annual. A species primarily of the Gulf Coast. Doubtful in our area; our single specimen may represent a waif or may simply be misdetermined.


Specimens: Bee Creek, 20 Oct 1901, Long & Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL; annotated by C. F. Reed, Mar 1968). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Reed, 1969a; Sauer, 1955.


Amaranthus hybridus L. SLIM AMARANTH. Native annual. Rare in our area, known from a single specimen.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Reed (1969a) cited one specimen (disposition not provided) from Travis County: 3 mi NW of Oak Hill, 28 Dec 1946, G. Webster 30. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Reed, 1969a.


Amaranthus palmeri Wats. PALMER AMARANTH. Native annual. Tall weed of disturbed sites, more common in deep loose sandy soils than elsewhere.


Specimens: Near Austin, 9 Nov 1939, B. H. Warnock 66 (TEX-LL); ruderal, growing in broken soil 3 mi NW of Oak Hill, 28 Dec 1946, G. L. Webster 30 (TEX-LL); shoreline of Town Lake, 1/4 mi W of Pleasant Valley Rd., 18 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4324 (BRIT/SMU); common weed in garden in loamy sand on level upland underlain by Pleistocene fluviatile terrace deposits, Farquhar Farms ca. 5 mi SE of Manor, 16 Jun 1996, W. R. Carr, M. L. Price, C. & N. Farquhar 15529 (TEX-LL); occasional in sandy loam in fencelines and unmown areas on Colorado River terrace near soccer fields just W of Humane Society, N side of Cesar Chavez just E of MoPac, Austin, 2 Nov 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15828 (TEX-LL). Reed (1969a) cited two additional specimens from Travis County (dispositions not provided): 22 Oct 1913, M. S. Young. s.n.; Austin, 15 Oct 1922, B. C. Tharp 1535. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Reed, 1969a; Sauer, 1955.


Amaranthus polygonoides L. Incl. Amaranthus berlandieri (Moq.) Uline & Bray. TROPICAL AMARANTH. Native annual. Frequent in a variety of dry disturbed situations.


Specimens of Amaranthus berlandieri: Abundant in field and roadsides, Austin, Nov 1897, Bray s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 15 Jul 1936, Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); locally common lawnweed near restroom, Mansfield Dam Park, 10 Oct 1982, W. R. Carr 4403 (BRIT/SMU); weed in sandy to gravelly soil on curblawn, W side of Shoal Creek Blvd. between W. 40th and W. 41st Sts., Austin, 21 Oct 1982, W. R. Carr 4439 and 8 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7529 (TEX-LL); thin clay under gravel in xeriscape on curblawn in full sun, SW corner of Medical Parkway and W. 40th St., Austin, 14 May 1986, W. R. Carr 7426 (UVST). Reed (1969a) cited two additional specimens from Travis County: 20 May 1872, E. Hall 534; 1920, Tharp 893. Disposition of these specimens was not provided. Specimens of Amaranthus polygonoides: On loan from TEX-LL, Apr 1996, not examined. Reed (1969a) cited one specimen from Travis County: Austin, May 20, 1872, E. Hall 534 (note that this specimen was also cited under Amaranthus berlandieri). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Reed, 1969a.


Amaranthus retroflexus L. REDROOT AMARANTH. Native annual. Rare in disturbed soils.


Specimens: Disturbed gravelly soil on open limestone ridgetop, home construction sites on North Cat Mountain, 1 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4170; occasional in shallow clay over Austin Chalk in oak-juniper woodland openings moistened by strong seeps, high bank of Slaughter Creek in Searight Park, N side of Slaughter Creek about halfway between IH-35 and Union Pacific RR to the W, 7 Jul 1992, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 12116 (TEX-LL). Reed (1969a) cited two specimens (dispositions not provided) from Travis County: 17 May 1913, B. C. Tharp s.n.; Austin, 9 May 1935, Tharp s.n. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995.


Amaranthus rudis Sauer. Acnida tamariscina (Nutt.) Wood; Amaranthus tamariscinus Nutt. STREAMSIDE AMARANTH, NUTTALL WATERHEMP. Native annual. Frequent in seasonally moist alluvium in unshaded, frequently disturbed creek and riverbeds.


Specimens: Several sheets at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Reed, 1969a.


Amaranthus scleropoides Uline & Bray. BONEBRACT AMARANTH. Native annual. Rare in disturbed sandy soils along the Colorado River.


Specimens: Colorado River floodplain, 11 Nov 1928, A. Armer 5513 (TEX-LL); Zilker Park, Austin, 30 Jul 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); W of Austin, 17 Nov 1939, B. H. Warnock 102 (TEX-LL); sandy terrace along Colorado River, Zilker Park, Austin, 5 Nov 1945, Tharp, Barkley & Warnock 15591 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Reed, 1969a.


Amaranthus spinosus L. SPINY PIGWEED. Naturalized annual; a species of uncertain nativity (Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995). Rare, presumably in disturbed soils; no recent collections.


Specimens: Austin, 20 Oct 1908, F. A. Heald 286 (TEX-LL); roadside, Austin, 21 Nov 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Reed, 1969a.


Amaranthus torreyi (Gray) Wats. Amaranthus pringlei Wats.; Amaranthus bigelovii Uline & Bray. Native annual. A strikingly different species found primarily in the southwestern United States and northcentral Mexico, considerably disjunct if actually present in our area. No specimen has come to light that would verify its inclusion in our flora by Young (1920).


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Reed, 1969a.


Amaranthus viridis L. Amaranthus blitum L. GREEN AMARANTH. Naturalized annual. Probably native to a limited area of the New World (Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995) and now rather widespread. The absence of specimens from Young-Armer-Tharp era may indicate that this species is a comparatively recent introduction to our weed flora.


Specimens: Weed growing from crack at edge of paved parking area in from of restaurant on N side of 29th St., 30 ft. E of Guadalupe, Austin, 23 May 1986, W. R. Carr 7466 (TEX-LL); disturbed moist sand on unshaded lakeshore, at boat ramp on NE bank of Lake Austin (Colorado River) at S end of Lake Austin (Emma Long) Metro Park, 24 Sep 1989, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10061 (TEX-LL); rare weed in garden in loamy sand on level upland underlain by Pleistocene fluviatile terrace deposits, Farquhar Farms ca. 5 mi SE of Manor, 16 Jun 1996, W. R. Carr, M. L. Price, C. & N. Farquhar 15530 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Reed, 1969a.


Celosia nitida Vahl. Celosia paniculata of auth. ALBAHACA. Native perennial. A species of tropical and subtropical distribution, here at or near the northern edge of its range. Rare among shrubs on steep dry limestone slopes.


Specimens: Barton Creek, 30 Nov 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 17 Nov 1933, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 21 Oct 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); dry rocky soil on steep bluff below limestone bluff, N side of Lake Austin just W of Loop 360 bridge, 18 May 1989, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA) and 1 Oct 1989, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 10079 (TEX-LL); shallow soil and duff on limestone outcrop and upper slopes, among Bernardia myricifolia, Ungnadia speciosa, etc., W side of Dry Creek at W end of bend ca. 0.3 miles upstream from Town Lake, 8 Oct 1989, W. R. Carr 10083 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Reed, 1969a.


Froelichia floridana (Nutt.) Moq. Froelichia campestris Small. FLORIDA SNAKECOTTON. Native annual. A species of grasslands, disturbed and early successional areas in deep, well drained sandy or sandy-gravelly soils, common in the post oak belt to the east of Travis County but rare and local here.


Specimens: Park Springs Cemetery, 29 Jun 1986, C. W. Sexton & M. K. Sexton s.n. (COA). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Reed, 1969a.


Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq. SLENDER SNAKECOTTON. Native annual. Locally common in early successional grasslands and disturbed sites on sandy soils; rare in clay over limestone.

`

Specimens: 14 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Froelichia campestris, misapplied). References: Reed, 1969a.


Gomphrena globosa L. COMMON GLOBE AMARANTH. Introduced annual. Native of southern Asia, widely cultivated; commonly escaped in tropical regions, but rarely so in temperate zones (Reed, 1969a). Known in our area from a single collection.


Specimens: Near Austin, 9 Nov 1939, B. H. Warnock 64 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Gomphrena nealleyi Coult. & Fisch. NEALLEY GLOBE-AMARANTH. Native annual. Rare, known only from gravelly sandy soil in post oak woodlands at Pace Bend Park.


Specimens: Occasional in very stony sandy soil in old roadbeds and other unshaded moderately disturbed areas, openings in post oak woodland on sandy-gravelly Pleistocene high terrace deposits, NE corner of Pace Bend County Park, 17 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr, C. Ladd, T. Siegenthaler & P. Koepp 15622 (TEX-LL); locally frequent in open post oak - blackjack oak - Texas black hickory woodland in sandy loam alfisols over Pleistocene high terrace deposits, highly impacted recreation area at Kate's and Johnson's coves, N end of Pace Bend Park, S side of Lake Travis (Colorado River) almost directly across from (S of) mouth of Cow Creek, 19 Oct 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15804 and 15806 (TEX-LL).


Gossypianthus lanuginosus (Poir.) Moq. var. lanuginosus. Guilleminea lanuginosa (Poir.) Hook. f. var. rigidiflora (Hook.) Mears. WOOLLY COTTONFLOWER. Native perennial. Rare in dry sandy soil in disturbed areas.


Specimens: Austin, Oct 1897, Bray s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 Nov 1914, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); dry waste ground Austin, 13 May 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 25 Jul 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); curblawn, 37th at West Ave., Austin, 5 May 1986, W. R. Carr 7381 (TEX-LL); also: weed in compacted sand and gravel of driveway, E side of West Ave., 1/2 block N of W. 30th St., Austin, 22 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4337 (UVST); occasional in compacted sand and gravel of unpaved farm road through Quercus stellata-Prosopis glandulosa-Juniperus ashei woodland on level upland capped by Pleistocene high terrace deposits, N end of Southeast Metro County Park (undeveloped), 10 Nov 1998, W. R. Carr, T. Siegenthaler, K. Terpening & D. Chapman 17895 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Henrickson, 1987; Reed, 1969a.


Guilleminea densa (Willd.) Moq. var. densa. Brayulinea densa (Willd.) Small. COTTONFLOWER. Native perennial. Included here solely on the basis of its report by Young (1920).


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Iresine heterophylla Standl. STANDLEY BLOODLEAF. Native perennial. A western species known in our area from a single collection.


Specimens: Austin, gravelly oak woods, 17 Nov 1913, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Iresine rhizomatosa Standl. ROOTSTALK BLOODLEAF. Native perennial. A species of sandy to loamy soils on wooded alluvial terraces, known in our area from three collections.


Specimens: Upper Barton [Creek], Austin, 8 Nov 1922, R. H. Painter 183 (TEX-LL); Austin, 26 Nov 1933, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); partial shade at edge of Ashe juniper-cedar elm woodland on narrow terrace of minor limestone ravine, S shoulder of Bee Cave Rd. ca. 0.1 mi W of MoPac, 26 Nov 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15855 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. The Painter specimen was cited twice by Reed (1969a), as Iresine rhizomatosa and again as Iresine celosia L. (Iresine diffusa H. & B.). The latter apparently does not occur in our area. References: Reed, 1969a; Robertson, 1981.


Tidestromia lanuginosa (Nutt.) Standl. var. lanuginosa. WOOLLY TIDESTROMIA. ESPANTA VAQUEROS. Native perennial. Apparently rare in our area, known from a single collection.


Specimens: Colorado River floodplain, 11 Nov 1928, A. A. Armer 5394 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Reed, 1969a.


NYCTAGINACEAE FOUR-O'CLOCK FAMILY


Boerhavia coccinea Mill. SCARLET SPIDERLING. Naturalized perennial. Common in open disturbed areas, usually on sandy substrates.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Boerhavia decumbens); Lynch, 1974. References: Reed, 1969c.


Boerhavia erecta L. ERECT SPIDERLING. Native annual or perennial. Occasional in dry soils in open disturbed areas, often weedy along urban streets.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Reed, 1969c.


Boerhavia linearifolia Gray. NARROWLEAF SPIDERLING. Native perennial. Rare, usually rooted in fractures of limestone exposed on dry open slopes.


Specimens: Rocky bank of Barton Creek 10 mi out from Austin, June 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); 7 mi out Loop R [sic], Austin, 4 July 1929, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); Hamilton Pool, 1988-1995, T. Siegenthaler s.n. (TCTNRD); locally frequent on dry, sparsely vegetated outcrops of Cow Creek Limestone exposed along frequently scoured bed of Hamilton Creek just SE of (upstream from) waterfall into Hamilton Pool, 18 Sep 1996, W. R. Carr, T. Siegenthaler & A. Ahrns 15728 (TEX-LL). Reed (1969c) cited one additional specimen (without disposition) from Travis County: Austin and vicinity, Jun 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Reed, 1969c.


Mirabilis albida (Walt.) Heimerl. Mirabilis dumetorum Shinners; Mirabilis grayana (Standl.) Standl.; Mirabilis oblongifolia (A. Gray) Heimerl. WHITESTEM FOUR-O'CLOCK. Native perennial. According to Turner (1993b), an extremely variable species found in a broad range of woodland to disturbed open habitats.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Allionia albida). References: Reed, 1969c; Turner, 1993b.


Mirabilis glabra (Standl.) Standl. Mirabilis exaltata (Standl.) Standl. SMOOTH FOUR-O'CLOCK. Native perennial. A species of the Trans-Pecos and Great Plains, doubtful in our area.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Reed (1969c) cited one specimen from Travis County: Cow Creek on Lake Travis, June 2, 1951, Tharp et al. 51-1433 (disposition not provided). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Reed, 1969c; Turner, 1993b.


Mirabilis jalapa L. Mirabilis lindheimeri (Standl.) Shinners. COMMON FOUR-O'CLOCK. Naturalized perennial; native to Mexico. Infrequent in alluvial soils on creek and river terraces, usually in partial shade along edges of deciduous woodlands. LeDuc (1995) noted that Mirabilis jalapa was cultivated by the Aztecs for its medicinal properties and showy flowers, and that today "it is questionable whether there is any extant population that represents a true wild progenitor."


Specimens: On creek W of bridge below Austin, on hillside, 27 Apr 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); locally common in fairly moist silty clay loam in open grove of pecans on river terrace, Onion Creek Preserve, ca. 1.4 airmiles WSW of mouth of Onion Creek at Colorado River, 5 Oct 1988, W. R. Carr, J. Gee & M. Campbell 9313. Reed (1969c) cited an additional specimen from Travis County: Austin, June 6, 1944, B. C. Tharp 44132. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. Other reports: McKinney Falls SP (Johnston & Riskind, 1975). References: Reed, 1969c; Turner, 1993b.


Mirabilis linearis (Pursh) Heimerl. SLENDERLEAF FOUR-O'CLOCK. Native perennial. A species of the Great Plains, rare in our area in grasslands over various substrates.


Specimens: Golf course just N of Engineering Bldg, University of Texas, 15 Aug 1946, O. T. Walle 10 (TEX-LL); first knoll E of Garfield on Hwy 71, 5 Oct 1966, J. A. Mears 1015 (TEX-LL); rare in clay loam on open roadside, 0.4 mi N of F. M. 969 on unnamed road, 1.1-1.2 airmiles E of jct. F. M. 969 and F. M. 973, 22 Apr 1986, W. R. Carr 7326 (BRIT/SMU). Reed (1969c) cited additional specimens (without disposition) from Travis County: 7 mi N of Austin, 24 Oct 1944, R. B. Payton 62; 8 mi SSE of Austin, 9 Aug 1946, Barkley & Copeland 77. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Reed, 1969c; Turner, 1993b.


Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacM. Allionia nyctaginea Michx. WILD FOUR-O'CLOCK. Native perennial. Apparently rare, presumably a weed of dry soils.


Specimens: None at Nov 2001. Reed (1969c) cited one specimen from Travis County: Young Ranch, April 27, 1930, Hoglund s.n. (disposition not provided). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Reed, 1969c; Turner, 1993b.


PHYTOLACCACEAE POKEWEED FAMILY


Phytolacca americana L. Phytolacca dodecandra L. POKEWEED. Native annual. Rare along margins of woodlands, in disturbed clearings and urban ruderal areas, usually in moist soils.


Specimens: Austin, 1 Jul 1931, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); near Austin, 4 Nov 1939, B. H. Warnock 54 (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Aug 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 5 Aug 1941, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); disturbed soil in openings of scrub forest of Quercus virginiana and Juniperus ashei, 15 Oct 1960, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Rivina humilis L. PIGEONBERRY. Native perennial. Occasional in loamy soils, usually in shade in or along margins of riparian woodlands.


Specimens: 13 sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


MOLLUGINACEAE (AIZOACEAE, IN PART) CARPETWEED FAMILY


Mollugo cerviana (L.) Ser. THREADSTEM CARPETWEED. Adventive (?) annual. Rare in our area, known from a single collection.


Specimens: sandy field beyond Montopolis bridge, Austin, 30 Oct 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (BRIT/SMU, TEX-LL); additional specimens may reside at SEU. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Mollugo verticillata L. GREEN CARPETWEED. Native annual. Locally common in loose sandy soils of open disturbed sites.


Specimens: Brackenridge Field Laboratory, Lake Austin Blvd., 15 Nov 1990, L. Escobar 8861 (TEX-LL); loamy fine sand on old Colorado River terrace deposits, seldom used soccer field, level unshaded area on N side of W. First St., 0.3 mi. W of Lamar, Austin, 6 Sep 1991, W. R. Carr & W. C. Bergquist 11383 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


PORTULACACEAE PORTULACA FAMILY


Claytonia virginica L. SPRING BEAUTY. Native perennial. An early-blooming spring wildflower typical of the flora of eastern deciduous forests, here at the southwestern tip of its range. Rare but locally frequent in loamy alluvial soils in deciduous woodlands on terraces of Onion Creek.


Specimens: Onion Creek, 24 Mar 1917, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Onion Creek, 5 Feb 1922, B. C. Tharp 1451 (TEX-LL); near Austin, 1 March 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (BRIT/SMU); Onion Creek, Austin, 23 Jan 1941, B. C. Tharp s.n. (BRIT/SMU, TEX-LL); Onion Creek on the old Lockhart Rd. bridge crossing, 6 Mar 1953, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Onion Creek at McKinney Falls State Park, 21 Mar 1977, D. H. Riskind 2057 (TEX-LL); uncommon in Frio silty soils in deciduous forest (trees not yet in leaf) on floodplain terrace, N bank of Onion Creek just W of Richard Moya Precinct 4 Park, 24 Feb 1991, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 10924 (TEX-LL); calcareous silty loam in deciduous woodland on terrace of Onion Creek at McKinney Falls State Park, 9 Feb 1992, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 11584 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Portulaca oleracea L. COMMON PURSLANE. Naturalized annual. Occasional in urban ruderal areas, often a weed of sidewalk cracks and garden beds.


Specimens: Austin, 15 Jun 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Portulaca pilosa L. Portulaca mundula I. M. Johnst. CHISME. Native annual. Frequent in dry sandy soils in disturbed situations.


Specimens: dry hills W of Austin, 20 Oct 1900, Long & Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); near dam, 5 Oct 1908, F. A. Wolf s.n. (TEX-LL); campus of University of Texas, 1 Oct 1921, L. C. Gough s.n. (TEX-LL); occasional in sandy alluvium on exposed bars in bed of Colorado River, N bank, 500 ft. W of US Rt. 183 bridges, 15 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3556 (TEX-LL); weed in lawn, sandy soils, Krieg softball fields, Pleasant Valley Rd., Austin, 4 Nov 1984, W. R. Carr 6149; dry open flat to sloping limestone outcrops, valley of Barton Creek, 0.5 mi NE of Loop 360 bridge, 31 May 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges 10195 (TEX-LL); sandpile on Colorado River terrace, S end of Emma Long Metro Park, 24 Sep 1989, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10068 (TEX-LL); loamy fine sand on old Colorado River terrace deposits, seldom used soccer field, level unshaded area on N side of W. First St., 0.3 mi. W of Lamar, Austin, 6 Sep 1991, W. R. Carr & W. C. Bergquist 11386 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Matthews & Levins, 1985.


Portulaca umbraticola H.B.K. subsp. lanceolata (Engelm) Matthews & Ketron. Portulaca lanceolata Engelm. WINGPOD PORTULACA. Native annual. Rare in loose, well drained sandy soils, mostly associated with ancient or modern Colorado River deposits.


Specimens: Post oak woods N of Country Club, 30 Oct 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); sandy soil, 36th St. 1 block W of Duval, 19 Aug 1920, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); river flood plain at Botanical Garden, 16 Aug 1929, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, May 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); grassy bottom 1 mi E of Austin, 8 Nov 1945, B. C. Tharp & F. A. Barkley 15559 (TEX-LL); common weed in garden in loamy sand on level upland underlain by Pleistocene fluviatile terrace deposits, Farquhar Farms ca. 5 mi SE of Manor, 16 Jun 1996, W. R. Carr, M. L. Price, C. & N. Farquhar 15531 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Portulaca suffrutescens Engelm. SHRUBBY PORTULACA. Native annual. Included here on the basis of the report in Correll & Johnston (1970), who noted an apparently disjunct occurrence of this western species from the Colorado River in Austin.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Talinum aurantiacum Engelm. Talinum angustissimum (Gray) Woot. & Standl.; Talinum aurantiacum Engelm. var. angustissimum Gray. ORANGE FLAMEFLOWER. Native perennial. A species of the southwestern United States, here at the eastern edge of its range. Rare in early successional grasslands on shallow sandy to clayey soils over limestone.


Specimens: Pease pasture, open mesquite flat, 4 Jun 1901, W. H. Long s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 Aug 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); rare in shortgrass opening in shrubland on shallow sandy clay loam over Cow Creek Limestone, somewhat xeric top of bluff along shoreline of Lake Travis, SW corner of Pace Bend Park, 31 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr 15645 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn. PANICLED FLAMEFLOWER. Native perennial. Rare, known only from sandy soils of Colorado River terraces in and near Zilker Park.


Specimens: Rare in burned-over tract at Zilker Park near Colorado River, Austin, 10 Oct 1945, B. C. Tharp & B. H. Warnock 45-51 (TEX-LL); Zilker Park Clubhouse, 30 Jul 1983, S. Ginzbarg 36 (TEX-LL); W of MoPac bridge over parking area of the Colorado River in Zilker Park, on a small rise between the Nature Center and MoPac, with Sophora secundiflora, 19 Sep 1990, M. H. Mayfield 673 (TEX-LL); Brackenridge Field Laboratories, Austin, succulent trailing herb along path to vegetable garden, 15 Nov 1990, L. Escobar 8859 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Talinum parviflorum Nutt. DWARF FLAMEFLOWER. Native perennial. Rare in sandy soils along the margins of post oak woodlands on Pleistocene terrace deposits.


Specimens: Hills E of Waller Creek, no date (1910s), M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 20 Jul 1926, B. C. Tharp s.n. (BRIT/SMU); edge of post oak woodland on Pleistocene terrace deposits, F. M. 973 0.8 mi. S of Bloor Rd., 19 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & M. Enquist 10761 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


BASELLACEAE MADEIRA-VINE FAMILY


Anredera cordifolia Holz. MADIERA-VINE. Introduced perennial herbaceous vine. Rare in our area, presumably persistent from cultivation. Two plants or populations are known in the Hyde Park area; at the Ertter location, vines climb through a shaded fencerow at least 25 ft. up into Ulmus crassifolia, while at the Nesom location vines reach into the lower branches of Quercus fusiformis.


Specimens: Austin, Hyde Park area N of University of Texas campus, alley between Home Lane and Guadalupe N of [and parallel to] 34th St., limestone substrate, 19 Nov 1984, B. Ertter 5504 (TEX-LL) and 15 Nov 1996, W. R. Carr 15847 (TEX-LL); near corner of Ave. F and 46th St. [W side of Ave. F just N of 46th St.], massive vine completely covering fencerow, 5 ft. high, adventive according to residents, 29 Jul 1991, G. & G. Nesom 001 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


CARYOPHYLLACEAE PINK FAMILY


Arenaria benthamii Fenzl. BENTHAM SANDWORT. Native annual. Frequent in sparsely vegetated pockets of extremely shallow clay or clay loam over limestone exposures on ridgetops and slopes, more conspicuous on dry rimrock outcrops in canyons.


Specimens: 12 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Arenaria drummondii Shinners. Minuartia drummondii (Shinners) McNeill. DRUMMOND SANDWORT. Native annual. Frequent in sands and sandy loams on roadsides and in open post oak woodlands in Bastrop County and to the east, but rare in our area.


Specimens: Austin, 2 May 1935, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Arenaria patula Michx. var. patula. Minuartia patula (Michx.) Mattf. var. patula. PITCHER SANDWORT. Native annual. Rare in our area, known from a single collection.


Specimens: Georgetown-Austin, 11 Apr 1931, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Tharp did not indicate whether this specimen was collected in Travis or Williamson County. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Arenaria serpyllifolia L. THYMELEAF SANDWORT. Adventive annual. Rare in our area, known from a single collection.


Specimens: at base of limestone cliffs 1 mi above mouth of Bull Creek, 18 Mar 1949, G. L. Webster 53 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Cerastium brachypodum (Engelm.) Robins. Incl. Cerastium longipedunculatum of Young (1920). SHORTSTALK CHICKWEED. Native annual. Rare in grassy open disturbed areas, including lawns.


Specimens: 8 sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Turner, 1995c.


Cerastium fontanum Baumg. subsp. vulgare (Hartman) Greuter & Burdet. Cerastium vulgatum L. COMMON MOUSEEAR. Adventive annual. Included here on the basis of its report from Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986).


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Turner, 1995c.


Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. Cerastium viscosum L. CLUSTER CHICKWEED. Naturalized annual. Our common Cerastium, occurring in lawns and various disturbed habitats.


Specimens: 5 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Turner, 1995c.


Loeflingia squarrosa Nutt. Loeflingia texana Hook. SPREADING LOEFLINGIA. Native annual. Rare, with no recent reports or collections. Presumably found in deep loose well drained sands on bars along the Colorado River or in sandy gravelly soils in post oak woodlands on Pleistocene terraces.


Specimens: Colorado River, Deep Eddy, 30 Apr 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); gravelly hill, west Austin, 14 Jun 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 15 Mar 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River, Austin, 1 Apr 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL), 21 May 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Paronychia lindheimeri Engelm. Paronychia chorizanthoides Small. LINDHEIMER NAILWORT. Native annual. Common in sparse vegetation on shallow clay loam on and around surface outcrops of limestone on ridgetops and dry slopes.


Specimens: 11 sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996; numerous other sheets at BRIT/SMU, UVST. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Core, 1941; Turner, 1983.


Paronychia virginica Spreng. Incl. var. scoparia (Small) Cory; Paronychia parksii Cory; Paronychia dichotoma (L.) Nutt. PARKS' NAILWORT, BROOM NAILWORT. Native perennial. Rare in most of area but consistently encountered in extremely shallow stony soils on sparingly vegetated benches on Upper Glen Rose slopes; also on Austin Chalk prairies to the east.


Specimens: 17 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Core, 1941; Turner, 1983.


Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L.) L. FOURLEAF MANYSEED. Naturalized annual. Rare in compacted sand and gravel in disturbed sites in post oak woodlands. In addition to the location below, this inconspicuous annual also occurs in post oak woodlands at the N end of Pace Bend Park.


Specimens: common in compacted sand and gravel in lane through post oak woodland on Pleistocene terrace deposits, Farquhar Farms, ca. 5 mi SE of Manor, 24 Mar 1996, W. R. Carr, C. & N. Farquhar 15116 (TEX-LL).


Sagina decumbens (Ell.) T. & G. subsp. decumbens. TRAILING PEARLWORT. Native annual. Rare in sandy to gravelly soil in post oak woodlands and on alluvial deposits in and along the Colorado River.


Specimens: Woods E of Waller Creek, 26 Feb 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); W of I & GN RR, Austin, 30 Mar 1914, M. S. Young. s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Colorado River floodplain, 2 Apr 1929, A. Armer 5344 (TEX-LL); Lake Austin silt, Apr 1930, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Lake Austin, 9 Apr 1931, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 19 Mar 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Colorado River floodplain, 1 Apr 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); rare in compacted sand and gravel in lane through post oak woodland on Pleistocene terrace deposits, Farquhar Farms, ca. 5 mi SE of Manor, 18 Feb 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15099 (TEX-LL); occasional in fine sandy loam Alfisols in partial shade of post oak, blackjack oak, Texas black hickory on gently sloping former river terrace, in picnic area at N end of road to Kate's Cove, Pace Bend Park, 19 Feb 1998, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 17255 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Crow, 1978.


Silene antirrhina L. STICKY CATCHFLY. Native annual. Occasional in open areas of all kinds on all substrates.


Specimens: 10 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Hitchcock & Maguire, 1947.


Stellaria media (L.) Cyr. CHICKWEED, COMMON STARWORT. Naturalized annual or perennial. A common weed of lawns, open woodlands and grasslands on alluvial terraces, and other moist sites.


Specimens: 10 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Stellaria prostrata Baldw. Alsine baldwinii Small. LLOVISNA, BALDWIN STARWORT. Native annual. Rare in woodlands on floodplains and in mesic limestone canyons.


Specimens: Colorado bridge, Austin, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, spring 1920, J. F. N[ormand] s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Colorado River floodplain, 2 Jul 1929, A. Armer 5386 (TEX-LL); Deep Eddy, Austin, 30 Apr 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); frequent on moist limestone boulders at the rim of the Pedernales River, 31 Mar 1946, B. C. Tharp & B. H. Warnock 46067 (TEX-LL); shaded wet calcareous clay at the low water bridge over the Colorado River W of Austin, 1 May 1955, M. C. Johnston s.n. (TEX-LL); local in moist soil along bank of Bull Creek at mouth of small S-flowing tributary, in shade of wooded limestone bluffs, 1000 ft. NW of Loop 360, 0.3 mi NE of Lakewood Drive, 5 May 1982, W. R. Carr 3909 (TEX-LL); frequent in mixed woodland on steep rocky W- to N-facing mesic limestone slope, S side of Barton Creek just E of low water crossing near Barton Creek Habitat Preserve HQ, 19 Apr 1997, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 16108 (TEX-LL); moist alluvial silt and limestone gravel in shaded bed of intermittent Grape Creek, ca. 200-500 ft. S of fenceline at N edge of Morgan C Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 24 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr 18880 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


CABOMBACEAE WATER-SHIELD FAMILY


Cabomba caroliniana Gray. CAROLINA FANWORT. Native aquatic perennial. Common in the cool clear water of the San Marcos River in Hays County, but apparently very rare (if present) in our area.


Specimens: [To county only], 26 July 1940, R. W. Strandtmann s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


NYMPHAEACEAE WATERLILY FAMILY


Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Pers. WATER-LOTUS, WATER-CHINKAPIN. Native aquatic perennial, perhaps introduced in our area. Occurring in Lake Walter E. Long and reported from "quiet shallow water in Lake Austin (Lynch, 1974), perhaps from an area along the W shoreline just S of the mouth of Bee Creek indicated on a map in an undated trail guide to the now-defunct nature preserve at the W end of Tom Miller Dam.


Specimens: NE part of Lake Long, dominant in a bay, 23 Aug 1988, Bro. D. Lynch & Bro. D. Steffes 7829 (SEU); none at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Nymphaea odorata Ait. AMERICAN WATERLILY. Native aquatic perennial, perhaps introduced in our area. Rare, known (outside of gardens) from a single collection.


Specimens: Decker Creek, 2 Sep 1987, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA). Previous Travis County floras: none.


CERATOPHYLLACEAE HORNWORT FAMILY


Ceratophyllum demersum L. COONTAIL. Native submersed aquatic. Rare in water of streams and impoundments. Perhaps overlooked due to its superficial similarity to ubiquitous macroscopic algae of the family Characeae.


Specimens: Barton Creek, 14 Dec 1916, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL) and 3 Nov 1917, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); shallow water of Lake Austin, 25 Aug 1944, L. Taylor & F. A. Barkley 14652 (TEX-LL); Lake Walter E. Long, 2 Sep 1987, C. W. Sexton & N. L. McClintock s.n. (COA); common in shallow water along S shore of small inlet on SW side of Lake Long, ca. 1.1 airmiles WNW of N end of spillway, 25 Oct 1986, W. R. Carr 7923 (SEU, UVST). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


RANUNCULACEAE CROWFOOT FAMILY


Adonis annua L. PHEASANT'S- EYE. Introduced annual. A garden plant, apparently rarely escaping cultivation.


Specimens: Bull Creek, upland plowed field, 11 Apr 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Anemone berlandieri G. A. Pritzel. Anemone heterophylla Nutt.; Anemone decapetala Ard. var. heterophylla (Nutt.) Britt. TEN-PETAL ANEMONE. Native perennial. Common in grasslands and other open areas on all substrates.


Specimens: On loan from TEX-LL in 1991, not examined. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Enquist & Crozier, 1995.


Anemone caroliniana Walt. CAROLINA ANEMONE. Native perennial. A species of central and southeastern United States, here at the southwestern limit of its distribution. Rare in grasslands and open areas on sandy soils.


Specimens: Austin, 17 Feb 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); frequent on Austin Golf Course, 11 Feb 1940, B. H. Warnock 21387 (TEX-LL). References: Enquist & Crozier, 1995.


Anemone edwardsiana Tharp var. edwardsiana. Anemone tuberosa of auth., not Rydb. CANYON ANEMONE. Native perennial. Although the taxonomy of central Texas anemones is presently in a state of flux, it seems clear that this taxon is a Texas endemic restricted to the Balcones Escarpment of Edwards Plateau, with records from Bandera, Bexar, Kendall, Medina, Travis, Val Verde and Williamson counties. Locally common but restricted to outcrops of solution-pitted limestone exposed on slopes of mesic wooded canyons.


Specimens: Near Dam, 22 Feb 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL, type specimen); Barton Creek region, 10 Mar 1916, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); near Austin, 16 Mar 1922, B. C. Tharp 1382 (TEX-LL); Austin, 22 Feb 1926, E. R. Bogusch s.n. (TEX-LL); Bull Creek near Austin, 22 Feb 1926, E. R. Bogusch 388 (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Mar 1937, B. C. Tharp 43999 (TEX-LL); Austin, 30 Mar 1944, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); bluffs of Bull Creek above Colorado River, about 5 mi N of Austin, 25 Mar 1947, R. McVaugh 7646 (TEX-LL); frequent in humus and clay loam and on boulders in wooded mesic limestone canyon, S side of Bull Creek, S side of Loop 360 ca. 0.6 mi NE of Lakewood Dr., 6 Mar 1983, W. R. Carr 4633; frequent on top of boulders on rimrock exposed at top of mesic limestone slope, W side of Jester Estates, 29 Mar 1984, W. R. Carr 5988 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. Other reports: Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary (Lyter, 1986). References: Enquist & Crozier, 1995.


Aquilegia canadensis L. COLUMBINE. Native perennial. In Texas known principally from the Edwards Plateau (Bell, Hays, Kendall, Kerr, Real Travis and Williamson counties), an area considerably disjunct from the principal range of the species in the eastern half of North America. Locally common but restricted to outcrops of solution-pitted limestone exposed on slopes of mesic wooded canyons.


Specimens: Austin, no date, B. C. Tharp 1395 (TEX-LL); Austin, 18 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 May 1928, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, Austin, 15 Mar 1935, K. E. Smith s.n. (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, Austin, 20 Mar 1939, B. C. Tharp 44307 (TEX-LL); Austin, 22 Apr 1940, B. H. Warnock 207 (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, 14 May 1944, C. C. Albers 43Ph014 (TEX-LL); at base of limestone cliffs 1 mi above the mouth of Bull Creek, 18 Mar 1949, G. L. Webster 57 (TEX-LL); very local, small population on wet limestone cliff along wooded bed of small creek, ca. 1.2 mi NNW of jct. Loop 360 and Lakewood Dr., 11 Apr 1982, W. R. Carr 3758 (TEX-LL); locally common on large limestone or dolomite boulders in moist shaded ravine on NE-facing slope, ca. 0.6 airmiles NW of jct. Loop 360 and Lakewood Drive, 24 Mar 1984, W. R. Carr 5972 (TEX-LL); crevices of large boulders in seasonally mesic upper north-facing slope forest, at head of ravine on N side of Mountain Trail ca. 0.4 mi N of Comanche Trail, ca. 2.5 airmiles NW of jct. F. M. 2222 and F. M. 620 at Four Points, 8 Apr 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges 9056 (TEX-LL); crevices of large boulders in mesic hardwood forest, lower ravine of Hamilton Creek, 0-0.8 mi upstream from Pedernales River, 0.8 mi N of Hamilton Pool Rd at Pedernales River (Hammetts Crossing), 8 Apr 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges 9049 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Aquilegia chrysantha Gray. YELLOW COLUMBINE. Introduced(?) perennial. This western species is included here solely on the basis of its report by Mary Sophie Young (1920), who mentioned that it occurred on "moist shaded slopes in the Bull Creek region". This is a particularly interesting report, not only because this species is absent from most of the Edwards Plateau and any Travis County population would be disjunct from the closest populations by several hundred miles, but also because of the reliability of the reporter. It should be noted that Young was intimately acquainted with populations of Aquilegia canadensis in the Bull Creek area, and it is probable that she also became familiar with Aquilegia chrysantha during her trips to the mountains of the Trans-Pecos. Therefore it seems unlikely that Young's report is based on a misidentification. Unfortunately, no specimens have come to light, although it is possible that one may be found in an out-of-state herbarium.


Specimens: None seen. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Clematis drummondii T. & G. TEXAS VIRGIN'S-BOWER. Native perennial herbaceous vine. Occasional in dry open disturbed areas, often along fencelines.


Specimens: 14 sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Clematis pitcheri T. & G. var. pitcheri. PITCHER LEATHERFLOWER. Native perennial herbaceous vine. Occasional in mostly deciduous woodlands on terraces and slopes along major streams.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Dennis & Webb, 1979; Erickson, 1943.


Clematis reticulata Walt. Viorna reticulata (Walt.) Small. NETLEAF LEATHERFLOWER. Native perennial herbaceous vine. A species of the southeastern United States, restricted in Texas to about a dozen counties in the eastern fourth of the state. It seems likely that reports from our area are erroneous, based on misidentified collections of other Clematis species. The Rugel specimen cited below may be from Austin County rather than Travis County.


Specimens: None at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Erickson (1943) cited one specimen: Austin, Rugel s.n. (UP). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Erickson, 1943.


Clematis ternifolia DC. Clematis dioscoriaefolia Léveillé. & Vaniot. Yamleaf clematis. Naturalized perennial herbaceous vine. A native of Japan, cultivated in North America and long naturalized in other parts of the continent but apparently a recent addition to the Texas flora. Occasional in thickets along Town Lake, perhaps elsewhere.


Specimens: occasional vine climbing high into trees and shrubs in shoreline thickets along both sides of Town Lake between Mo-Pac and Red Bud Trail bridges, 7 September 2003, W. R. Carr & R. Corbin 22207 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: None.


Clematis texensis Buckl. Viorna coccinea (Engelm.) Small. SCARLET LEATHERFLOWER. Native perennial herbaceous vine. Endemic to the Edwards Plateau, with records from Bandera, Bell, Bexar, Blanco, Comal, Coryell, Edwards, Gillespie, Hays, Kendall, Kerr, Lampasas, Llano, Medina, Real, Travis and Uvalde counties (Erickson, 1943; TEX-LL, 1999). Frequent in mixed woodlands on slopes and bottoms of mesic limestone canyons in the Bull Creek watershed, less common in similar habitat elsewhere.


Specimens: Abundant on Bull Creek, no date [ca. 1900], no collector (TEX-LL); near mouth of Bull Creek, common on hillsides, 20 Apr 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); near Austin, 18 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); abundant in moist ravines of Edwards Plateau near Austin, 17 May 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 3 May 1930, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 21 Apr 1940, B. H. Warnock 206 (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, 14 May 1944, C. C. Albers s.n. (TEX-LL); Edwards Plateau, 17 May 1944, A. S. Foster & B. C. Tharp 44262 (TEX-LL); limestone shelf overlooking upper end of Lake Austin, 5 Jul 1944, F. A. Barkley 14519 (TEX-LL); rare on limestone hill 6 mi NW of Austin, 18 May 1946, J. J. Sperry, C. M. Rowell & B. H. Warnock 46240 (TEX-LL); 1/2 mi S of jct. Loop 360 and Spicewood Springs Rd., climbing in shrubbery next to dirt road in Bull Creek canyon, 1 Jun 1980, Bro. D. Lynch 9197 & 9198 (SEU); locally frequent in cedar-oak-silktassel woods along creekbottom, ca. 1200 ft. SW of jct. Loop 360 and S branch of Spicewood Springs Rd., 19 Apr 1982, W. R. Carr 3817 (TEX-LL); floodplain of Bull Creek at falls N of Loop 360 between Lakewood Dr. and Spicewood Springs Rd., 11 Jun 1982, W. R. Carr 4067 (BRIT/SMU); along wooded creek bottom on N flank of Cat Mountain, 31 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4780 (UVST); Bull Creek City Park on SE side of Loop 360, SW of Spicewood Springs Rd., edge of oak-juniper woodland on limestone, 14 May 1983, B. Ertter & J. Saunders 4844 (TEX-LL); Bee Creek, Rodgers Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 12 Jun 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR); lower Cow Creek Rd., 28 Jul 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. Other reports: Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary (Lyter, 1986). References: Erickson, 1943.


Consolida ambigua (L.) Ball & Heyw. Delphinium ajacis of auth. ROCKET LARKSPUR, GARDEN DELPHINIUM. Introduced annual. Native of the Mediterranean region; a garden plant rarely escaping cultivation in our area.


Specimens: Shoal Creek, 30 Apr 1909, H. H. York 1032 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Delphinium carolinianum Walt. subsp. vimineum (Don) M. Warnock. Delphinium vimineum D. Don; Delphinium albescens Rydb. CAROLINA LARKSPUR. Frequent in grasslands and woodland openings on a variety of substrates.


Specimens: 10 sheets at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Warnock, 1981.


Delphinium carolinianum Walt. subsp. virescens (Nutt.) M. C. Johnston. Delphinium virescens Nutt. subsp. penardii (Huth) Ewan. CAROLINA LARKSPUR. Native perennial. Frequent in grasslands and woodland openings on a variety of substrates.


Specimens: E. 19th St., Austin, 21 Apr 1909, Heald s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 17 May 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, May 1930, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Apr 1933, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Warnock, 1981.


Myosurus minimus L. MOUSETAIL. Native annual. An inconspicuous denizen of mudflats, superficially resembling Plantago hybrida more than any member of the Ranunculaceae. Apparently rare in our area; no recent specimens or reports.


Specimens: Swamp along I & GN RR, 29 March 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, lake, 16 Apr 1929, A. A. Armer 5505 (TEX-LL); Lake Austin silt, 9 Apr 1931, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); rare on silty banks of Pedernales River 31 Mar 1946, B. C. Tharp & B. H. Warnock 46075 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Campbell, 1952.


Ranunculus macranthus Scheele. SHOWY BUTTERCUP. Native perennial. Frequent in deciduous woodlands and somewhat open areas on alluvial soils along major streams, occasionally around seeps on rocky slopes.


Specimens: rock hills 2 mi from mouth of Barton Creek, Apr 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Shoal Creek, 30 Mar 1908, York & Heald 1030 (TEX-LL); Shoal Creek, 18 Mar 1909, Heald & Wolf 674 (TEX-LL); Shoal Creek, 30 Mar 1909, H. H. York 1230 (TEX-LL); valley of Barton Creek, [no date], M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Apr 1940, B. H. Warnock 124 (TEX-LL); along stream near airport, 2 Apr 1944, C. C. Albers 44089 (TEX-LL); limestone seeps along RR 1 mi S of Colorado River near Austin, 24 Mar 1946, B. H. Warnock 46041 (TEX-LL); alluvial soil in open riparian woodlands and fields along Onion Creek at McKinney Falls State Park, 13 Mar 1983, W. R. Carr 4576 (UVST); wet clay on seepy high bank of Shoal Creek S of 45th St. bridge, Austin, 31 Mar 1985, W. R. Carr 6234 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Benson, 1948; Duncan, 1980.


Ranunculus muricatus L. ROUGHSEED BUTTERCUP. Naturalized annual or perennial. Occasional in wet sandy to clayey soils in disturbed creekbottoms and on mudflats and bars along the Colorado River.


Specimens: Moist clay soil on partially shaded disturbed bank of Shoal Creek ca. 500-1000 ft. N of W. 38th St. bridge, Austin, 17 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4712 (TEX-LL), 7 April 1985, W. R. Carr 6267 (UVST); wet clayey soil in spring run/sewer outlet, regularly mown lawn on level terrace with scattered pecan trees, E side of N. Lamar 0.5 mi N of W. 24th St., Austin, 16 Mar 1993, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 12503 (TEX-LL); wet clay and silt in partly shaded riffle area over exposed limestone in bed of Onion Creek, 500-1000 ft. SW of Twin Creek Rd. bridge, 10 Apr 1994, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 13529 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Benson, 1948.


Ranunculus pusillus Poir. WEAK BUTTERCUP. Native annual. Rare, presumably in mud or shallow water. At least one of our two specimens was collected from the Colorado River floodplain, an area from which it may have been extirpated.


Specimens: Austin, 1922, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River floodplain, 2 Apr 1929, A. Armer 5514 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Ranunculus sceleratus L. var. sceleratus. BLISTER BUTTERCUP. Native annual or perennial. Occasional in wet sandy to clayey soils in creekbottoms, on mudflats and bars along the Colorado River, and in sludge of sewage ponds.


Specimens: Occasional in wet sandy mud in creek bed, bottom of wooded ravine near E edge of Precinct 1 Park on N bank of Colorado River just E of Bastrop County line, 13 Apr 1985, W. R. Carr 6291 (BRIT/SMU); abundant in moist muck along margin of sewage ponds, Hornsby Bend Sewage Treatment Plant, 19 Apr 1986, W. R. Carr 7282 (TEX-LL); drying sludge in abandoned sewage lagoon, Williamson Creek Sewage Treatment Plant, 29 Mar 1987, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 8024 (UVST); wet clay and silt in partly shaded riffle area over exposed limestone in bed of Onion Creek, 500-1000 ft. SW of Twin Creek Rd. bridge, 10 Apr 1994, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 13528 (TEX-LL); mudflat along Colorado River at Hornsby Bend Sewage Treatment Plant, 16 Mar 1996, W. R. Carr & J. Maresh 15107 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Benson, 1948.


BERBERIDACEAE BARBERRY FAMILY


Berberis swaseyi Buckl. Mahonia swaseyi (Buckl. ex Young) Fedde. TEXAS BARBERRY. Native shrub. Endemic to Texas and apparently restricted to the Edwards Plateau, where it has been documented from Bandera, Blanco, Comal, Hays, Kerr, Real and Travis counties; oddly, it has also been reported from Bailey County in the Texas Panhandle (Rowell, 1949). Locally common in Blanco and Hays counties, but relatively rare elsewhere in the state. Rare and local in western and southwestern Travis County, where it occurs primarily in grasslands or open woodlands on nondescript limestone uplands, usually in the company of its more common congener, Berberis trifoliolata. Frequent in limestone soils in the vicinity of Hamilton Pool, readily seen along Hamilton Pool Road ca. 0.3 mi S of Hammetts Crossing.


Specimens: Edwards Plateau near Austin, 10 Apr 1922, B. C. Tharp 1437 (TEX-LL); near Hamilton's Pool on Pedernales River W of Austin, rocky limestone soil, 4 Mar 1933, E. Whitehouse 718 (BRIT/SMU); hills W of Austin, 8 Mar 1949, B. C. Tharp 49-1121 (TEX-LL); rare in understory of forest strip on fairly deep loamy soils on moderate slope on bank of Little Barton Creek at and just E of mouth of Spillman Hollow, Little Barton Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 28 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr 18910 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Durand, 1972.


Berberis trifoliolata Moric. AGARITO. Native shrub. Common in grasslands, shrublands and open woodlands in a variety of situations; a characteristic species of the upland vegetation of the Edwards Plateau but also in sandy soils well east of the Balcones Escarpment.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Nandina domestica Thunb. HEAVENLY BAMBOO. Naturalized shrub. Commonly cultivated and frequently escaping, posing a serious competitive threat to the native flora, particularly within mesic limestone canyons.


Specimens: 1015 W. 9th St., 15 Feb 1970, D. Walker 1 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


MENISPERMACEAE MOONSEED FAMILY


Cocculus carolinus (L.) DC. CAROLINA SNAILSEED. Native perennial herbaceous vine, sometimes becoming woody in age. Occasional to frequent in and along margins of woodlands and thickets on all substrates, somewhat weedy in urban areas.


Specimens: Numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Cebatha caroliniana); Lynch, 1974.


LAURACEAE LAUREL FAMILY


Lindera benzoin (L.) Bl. Benzoin aestivale of auth. SPICEBUSH. Native shrub. Rare in bottoms of wooded mesic limestone canyons, usually on creekbanks or clustered around springs or perennial seeps.


Specimens: Austin, 18 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Bee Creek, deep ravine, 31 Mar 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, 10 mi NW of Austin, 10 Sep 1920, B. C. Tharp 695 (TEX-LL); Austin, 16 Mar 1922, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River below dam, 1929, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, Austin, 5 Mar 1930, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 18 Mar 1940, B. H. Warnock 82 (TEX-LL); Marshall Ford Lake, 15 Sep 1944, S. Martin s.n. (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, 25 Sep 1949, Albers & Haskell 49284 (TEX-LL); limestone, Edwards Plateau, lower Bull Creek area, 16 Mar 1947, F. A. Barkley & B. C. Tharp 47070 (TEX-LL); locally common in woods on stream terrace, E bank of Bull Creek, W side of Spicewood Springs Rd., 0.5-0.6 mi S of Old Lampasas Trail, ca. 2.3 mi N of Loop 360, 17 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4219 (TEX-LL); upper Bull Creek in Barrow Reserve, growing on mesic slope on deep humus soil, 21 Mar 1993, T. F. Patterson 7525 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. Other reports: Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary (Lyter, 1986).


Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. RED BAY. Native small tree or large shrub. Known in our area only from Westcave Preserve and Hamilton Pool, two mesic limestone canyons on the Pedernales River; at the latter location, redbay is locally abundant on colluvial slopes.


Specimens: Hamilton Creek, Nov 1979, discovered by M. Enquist, M. C. Johnston s.n. (TEX-LL). On his voucher specimen Johnston pointed out that the Hamilton Pool population is "160 km NW of nearest previously known population." Previous Travis County floras: none.


PAPAVERACEAE POPPY FAMILY


Argemone albiflora Hornem. subsp. texana G. Ownbey. WHITE PRICKLYPOPPY. Native annual or biennial. Frequent in unshaded places on alluvium along the Colorado River (Lynch, 1974) and principal creeks. Some of our unvouchered reports may be based on misidentified specimens of Argemone aurantiaca.


Specimens: 3 mi below Austin, 27 Apr 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River, 19 Mar 1909, Heald & Wolf s.n. (TEX-LL); Shoal Creek & 22nd St., Austin, 10 Apr 1911, Carsner & Studhalter s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Apr 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); 1/2 mi S of SEU campus, 23 May 1954, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Ownbey, 1958.


Argemone aurantiaca G. Ownbey. HILL POPPY. Native annual or biennial; endemic to Texas, with reports from various counties in the central part of the state, mostly on the Edwards Plateau and adjacent north Texas. Common to abundant in old fields and overgrazed pastures (Lynch, 1974).


Specimens: along I & GN RR, Austin, 8 May 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 Apr 1944, B. C. Tharp 44064 (TEX-LL); edge of caliche pit, Zilker Park, 15 Aug 1946, F. A. Barkley & B. H. Warnock 46265 (TEX-LL); 4 mi S of Austin, edge of pasture tank, 9 Aug 1946, F. A. Barkley & H. V. Copeland 55 (TEX-LL); 5.3 mi SE of Austin, 12 Jul 1950, G. B. Ownbey & F. Ownbey 1394a (TEX-LL); Pilot Knob, 30 May 1951, Tharp & Barkley 51-871 (TEX-LL); weed-dominated old pasture on alluvial silty soils on cleared, gently sloping high terrace along S side of Bear creek at dam just N of house on Tabor Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 24 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr 18891 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Ownbey, 1958.


Argemone mexicana L. MEXICAN YELLOW PRICKLYPOPPY. Native annual. Reported by Lynch (1974) from unshaded waste ground. The single specimen cited below may be misidentified, but this yellow-flowered prickly poppy can be expected to occur in Travis County as an occasional waif in ruderal areas.


Specimens: roadside 4 mi from Austin on Manor Road, May 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Ownbey, 1958.


Argemone polyanthemos (Fedde) G. Ownbey. PRICKLYPOPPY. Native annual or biennial. Rare, known in our area from a single specimen, collected in 1915 from the floodplain of the Colorado River, and from a recent report from Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986).


Specimens: Colorado River flood plain, 9 Apr 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Ownbey, 1958.


Glaucium corniculatum (L.) J. Rudolph. RED-HORNED POPPY. Adventive annual; native of the Old World that has becomes established in a few parts of Texas (Kirkpatrick & Williams, 1998). Perhaps becoming naturalized in our area.


Specimens: Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 0.2 mi along dirt road NE from jct. with Cow Creek Rd. ca. 3.4 mi N of R. M. 1431, 2 May 1997, J. K. Williams et al. 150 (TEX-LL).


Papaver dubium L. POPPY. Introduced annual. Young (1920) found this red-flowered poppy "growing wild abundantly on the campus [of the University of Texas]," yet there are no specimens or recent reports. Distinguished by its slender obconic fruit; the other red-flowered poppy of our area, Papaver rhoeas, has a plumply subglobose fruit.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Papaver rhoeas L. CORN POPPY. Introduced annual. Native of Eurasia and northern Africa. Introduced in our area as a garden plant, sometimes intentionally seeded in "wildflower" plots along highways. Occasionally escaping and perhaps naturalizing in alluvial soils in open disturbed creek and river bottoms.


Specimens: vacant lot, W. 29th St., Austin, 12 Apr 1959, C. C. Albers & F. D. Reed s.n. (TEX-LL); SE corner of MoPac and Bee Cave Rd., 18 Apr 1994, D. M. Helfgott & J. Kane 21 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


FUMARIACEAE FUMITORY FAMILY


Corydalis curvisiliqua Engelm. subsp. curvisiliqua. Capnoides curvisilquum of Young (1920). CURVEPOD CORYDALIS. Native annual, endemic to central and western Texas from Brazos and Travis counties west to Presidio and Culberson counties. In lighter-textured alluvial soils in open river and stream bottoms or in sandy soils on uplands, generally uncommon but sometimes locally abundant in disturbed sites. Distinguished from Corydalis micrantha by its large (16-22 mm long) spurred petal and muriculate seeds.


Specimens: 12 sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Ownbey, 1947.


Corydalis micrantha (Engelm.) Gray subsp. australis (Chapm.) Ownbey. Corydalis micrantha (Engelm.) Gray var. australis (Chapm.) Shinners. SOUTHERN CORYDALIS. Native annual. In habitats similar to those of Corydalis curvisiliqua subsp. curvisiliqua. Distinguished from that species by its small (11-25 mm long) spurred petal and smooth or at least non-muriculate seeds.


Specimens: 13 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Ownbey, 1947.


Corydalis micrantha (Engelm.) Gray subsp. texensis Ownbey. Corydalis micrantha (Engelm.) Gray var. texensis (Ownbey) Shinners. TEXAS CORYDALIS. Native annual; reportedly endemic to Texas, with most records from the coastal plain of South Texas. Apparently rare in our area; known from a single collection.


Specimens: grassy limestone loam upland near Lake Austin, 25 Mar 1947, A. M. Harvill Jr. & F. A. Barkley 17000 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Ownbey, 1947.


Fumaria officinalis L. COMMON FUMITORY. Adventive annual. A rare weed of disturbed sandy or alluvial soils. Plants previously reported as Fumaria parviflora Lam. have apparently been recently annotated to this species.


Specimens: near Texas Memorial Museum, Austin, on embankment at contact of Austin Chalk and Pleistocene terrace material, first noticed in Travis County in Jan 1955, 20 Mar 1956, W. L. McCart 5526 (BRIT/SMU); Colorado River bottom at Montopolis bridge, Austin, in sandy loam, Pleistocene alluvium, 19 Apr 1957, W. L. McCart 6555 (BRIT/SMU); campus of the University of Texas, Austin, 8 Mar 1955, B. Anderson s.n. (TEX-LL); locally abundant in drying sludge along margin of sewage pond, Hornsby Bend Sewage Treatment Plant, 19 April 1989, W. R. Carr 7283 (BRIT/SMU, UVST). Previous Travis County floras: none.


BRASSICACEAE (CRUCIFERAE) MUSTARD FAMILY


Arabis petiolaris Gray. BRAZOS ROCKCRESS. Native annual; endemic to Texas, but not restricted to a particular natural region, ranging from the northern part of the South Texas Plains into the Post Oak belt of east-central Texas and onto the Edwards Plateau and Lampasas Cutplain. At one time, Arabis petiolaris was a candidate for possible federal listing as a threatened or endangered species but was dropped from consideration when found to be more common than originally assumed. Within Travis County it is perhaps most consistently encountered in openings in juniper-oak woodlands on limestone substrates west of the Balcones Escarpment, but it has been found elsewhere and might be expected almost anywhere. Like many annuals, it is more common and robust during some years than others.


Specimens: Austin, 2 May 1903, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); near Austin, Barton Creek Valley, 15 Apr 1918, M. S. Young 24 (TEX-LL); Travis Hgts., Austin, 12 Apr 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 9 May 1935, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 28 Apr 1940, B. H. Warnock 205 (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 Apr 1944, B. C. Tharp 44065 (TEX-LL); roadside above Pedernales River W of Hamilton Pool, 22 May 1949, G. L. Webster 99 (TEX-LL); Manchaca, 1 May 1955, M. C. Johnston 2427 (TEX-LL); Cat. Mt., Austin, 11 May 1972, L. E. Urbatsch 995 (TEX-LL); shallow dry rocky soil on top of limestone bluff at W end of Tom Miller Dam, 9 April 1983, W. R. Carr 4648; Barton Creek, 17 Apr 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges 9306 (TEX-LL); McKinney Falls SP, opening in woodland, shallow clayey soil over limestone, 13 May 1989, Bro. D. Lynch & E. A. Kutac 9862 (SEU); locally frequent along interface of pecan-dominated riparian woodland on sandy-silty soil on alluvial slope and weedy old pasture on clay soils of higher terrace, N side of Bear Creek ca. 300-500 ft. downstream from (E of) W fenceline of Tabor Tract (a Prop 2 tract), ca. 3.6-3.7 airmiles S to SSE of R. M. 1826 bridge over Slaughter Creek, 24 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr 18897 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall 1995.


Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. INDIA MUSTARD. Adventive annual. Native of Asia, naturalized in much of temperate North America (Rollins, 1981). Apparently uncommon in our area.


Specimens: weed thick in alfalfa field, presumably introduced with alfalfa seed, Fiskville Rd., Austin, 11 Jul 1912, Dr. F. Heald 4624 (TEX-LL); near Waller Creek, 26 Aug 1923, G. W. Waldorf s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 20 Apr 1940, B. H. Warnock 200 (TEX-LL); Austin, 28 Apr 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Rollins, 1981.


Brassica rapa L. Brassica campestris L. FIELD MUSTARD. Adventive annual. Native of Eurasia, naturalized in much of temperate North America (Rollins, 1981). Reported from Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, 1996).


Specimens: None (from wild material) at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Rollins, 1981.


Camelina microcarpa DC. LITTLEPOD FALSEFLAX. Adventive annual. Native of Asia, a seed contaminant of flax and grain more commonly encountered in northwestern North America than in our area (Rollins, 1981). Uncommon and perhaps not a persistent member of our weed flora.


Specimens: Univ. campus near engineering building, Austin, 8 Apr 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Rollins, 1981.


Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. SHEPHERD'S PURSE. Naturalized annual. Native of Eurasia, now "one of commonest, nearly worldwide weeds" (Rollins, 1981). In our area a common weed of a broad spectrum of disturbed habitats, usually conspicuous only during brief periods of activity in late fall and late winter.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Rollins, 1981.


Cardamine sp. BITTERCRESS. Naturalized(?) annual. Brown & Marcus (1998) reported Cardamine debilis D. Don from the grounds of greenhouses and nurseries in the Houston area and other parts of Texas. A Cardamine species occupies similar habitats in our area but has not been collected.


Specimens: None. Previous Travis County floras: None.


Coronopus didymus (L.) Sm. SWINE WARTCRESS. Adventive annual. Native of Eurasia; largely a garden weed in North America (Rollins, 1981). A weed of such unusual appearance (and vernacular name) as to have surely inspired, were it at all common in our area, at least one additional collection.


Specimens: weed in lawn grass in front of Jo Jo's restaurant, NW part of Austin, 15 Apr 1980, B. L. Turner s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Rollins, 1981.


Descurainia pinnata (Walt.) Britt. PINNATE TANSYMUSTARD. Native annual. Frequent in disturbed sandy soils, occasionally in lawns; largely or entirely absent from limestone areas.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. This may be the Sisymbrium canescens var. brachycarpa of Young (1920).


Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb. FLIXWEED TANSYMUSTARD. Naturalized annual. Native of Eurasia, widely naturalized in temperate North America but doubtful in our area. Lynch (1974) reported this mustard from "sandy loam alluvium at the lower end of Town Lake," but specimens at SEU have since been annotated to Descurainia pinnata.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001; none at SEU, Jan 1997. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. This may be the Sophia millefolia of Young (1920). References: Rollins, 1981.


Diplotaxis muralis (L.) DC. STINKING WALLROCKET. Adventive annual. Native of Europe, occurring sparingly in various parts of North America. Rare in our area, known only from the specimen cited below and that of P. Turner which preceded it.


Specimens: rare, local, in clay loam under Ashe junipers in narrow strip of upland woodland between park lawn and park road, Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, 6 Mar 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15101 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Rollins, 1981.


Draba brachycarpa T. & G. SHORTPOD DRABA. Native annual. There are no recent reports or specimens of our rarest Draba, which is to be expected in sandy soils of post oak woodlands.


Specimens: Austin, 1 Mar 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (BRIT/SMU); Austin, 28 Feb 1940, B. H. Warnock 20609 (TEX-LL).


Draba cuneifolia T. & G. WEDGELEAF DRABA. Native annual. Common in early successional situations in shallow clay soils over limestone, occasionally occurring in nondescript ruderal situations.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Hartman, Bacon & Bohnstedt, 1975.


Draba platycarpa T. & G. BROADPOD DRABA. Native annual. Our most common draba, found in a wide variety of ruderal and natural early successional communities seemingly irrespective of substrate.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Hartman, Bacon & Bohnstedt, 1975.


Lepidium austrinum Small. Lepidium lasiocarpum Nutt. var. orbiculare (Thell.) C. L. Hitchc. SOUTHERN PEPPERWEED. Native annual. A common weed of various and sundry habitats.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Lepidium densiflorum Schrad. Lepidium apetalum of auth. PRAIRIE PEPPERWEED. Native annual. Seemingly rare, but probably more common in our area than the dearth of specimens would indicate.


Specimens: Colorado River, Austin, 3 May 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Lepidium oblongum Schrad. VEINY PEPPERWEED. Native annual. Tentatively included here on the basis of a single specimen.


Specimens: frequent weed in compacted gravel and silt on unshaded roadbed, W shoulder of F. M. 973 at S end of bridge over Decker Creek, just E of dam at Lake Walter E. Long, 24 Mar 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15109 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Lepidium virginicum L. Incl. var. medium (Greene) C. L. Hitchc.; Lepidium medium Greene. VIRGINIA PEPPERWEED. Native annual. With Lepidium austrinum one of the two most common pepperweeds of our area, found in open disturbed situations in soils of all types.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Lesquerella densiflora (Gray) Wats. DENSEFLOWER BLADDERPOD. Native annual; apparently endemic to Texas, although ranging almost to New Mexico (Andrews County) and Oklahoma (Wichita County). In our area, it is found mostly in open areas on sandy substrates associated with modern or ancient Colorado River terraces.


Specimens: sand drift below bridge at foot of Congress Ave, 22 Apr 1901, Long & Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River, Austin, 3 May 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); limestone cliffs above the Pedernales River W of Hamilton Pool, 10 Apr 1949, G. L. Webster 68 (TEX-LL); Austin, 7 Apr 1940, B. H. Warnock 150 (TEX-LL); river floodplain, Austin, 9 Apr 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); in cut-over juniper area along roadside, sandy loam with limestone outcroppings, 5.5 mi W of Oak Hill, 5 Apr 1952, B. M. Waddle 280 (TEX-LL); sandy loam on "lawn" on unshaded Colorado River terrace, Mary Quinlan Park, 3 May 1986, W. R. Carr 7378 (BRIT/SMU, SEU); sandy soil in level, unshaded area along truck track, 0.5 mi. W of its jct. with Singleton Rd. at S end of Post Oak Cemetery, Gloster Bend Resource Area, 23 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 11115 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Rollins & Shaw, 1973.


Lesquerella engelmannii (Gray) Wats. subsp. engelmannii. ENGELMANN BLADDERPOD. Native perennial; a Texas endemic found in a narrow band along the eastern edge of the Edwards Plateau, ranging as north as far as the Red River, occurring mostly in shallow calcareous clayey soils in grasslands on rocky limestone uplands. Young (1920) found Lesquerella engelmannii to be "abundant on the dry hillsides of the Edwards Plateau," but today it seems to be rather rare in Travis County, although quite conspicuous on Mt. Bonnell.


Specimens: abundant in limestone soil of Mt. Bonnell, 10 May 1946, B. H. Warnock 46231 (TEX-LL); frequent in thin soil on limestone ledge on side of mountain, Mt. Bonnell, near Austin, 3 Jun 1960, A. S. Barclay and R. E. Perdue 771 (TEX-LL); dry shallow rocky soil on top of Mt. Bonnell, 15 May 1982, W. R. Carr 3952 (BRIT/SMU); shallow clay on mostly unshaded grassy slope on Glen Rose Limestone hillside from which some Ashe junipers have been cut and burned, E side of Shaw Road, 1.3 roadmiles S of R. M. 1472, 23 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 11092 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Clark, 1975; Rollins & Shaw, 1973.


Lesquerella gracilis (Hook.) Wats. var. gracilis. SLENDER BLADDERPOD. Native annual. The largest of our annual bladderpods, found sparingly in nondescript ruderal habitats.


Specimens: near Austin, 27 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 31 Mar 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); 3 mi E of Manor, on RR in disturbed habitat, 25 Mar 1939, R. Reese s.n. (TEX-LL); bulldozed clay on undeveloped homesites, SW corner of R. M. 2222 and Mt. Bonnell Dr., Austin, 10 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4662 (BRIT/SMU, UVST); meadow NW of Highland Mall, between Middle Fiskville Rd., Highland Mall Blvd., and E. Huntland Dr., full of wildflowers, shallow soil on limestone, 30 Apr 1983, B. Ertter 4774 (TEX-LL); jct. Johnny Morris Lane at Daffon Lane, NE side of Austin W of Lake Long, heavy black clay of roadside (Blackland Prairie) in farmland, 1 Apr 1984, B. Ertter 5259 (TEX-LL); loose sand and gravel in severely eroding open field, NE side of Jacobson Rd. ca. 1/4 mi SE of Elroy Rd., 7 Feb 1987, W. R. Carr & E. A. Kutac 7976 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Rollins & Shaw, 1973.


Lesquerella grandiflora (Hook.) Wats. BIGFLOWER BLADDERPOD. Native annual; a Texas endemic ranging from the Pleistocene sand sheet of the South Texas Plains northward along coastal sands, throughout the southern post oak belt on Eocene strata, and into the Llano Uplift (Central Mineral Basin). "Abundant on the river floodplain" at the time of Young (1920) but now apparently rare in Travis County. It should be sought in sparsely vegetated forb-dominated areas on well drained sandy soils derived from contemporary or Pleistocene river deposits.


Specimens: below dam, Colorado River, 13 Apr 1901, Long & Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL) [no county given, but presumably from Travis since Long & Ferguson collected other plants, e.g., Ephedra antisyphilitica, from the area on the same date]; Austin, 28 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River, 19 Mar 1909, Heald & Wolf 712 (TEX-LL); near river bridge, Austin, 27 Mar 1909, H. H. York 765 (TEX-LL); along river, Austin, 4 Apr 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); river floodplain, 9 Apr 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); sandy ground N of H & TC RR near campus, no date, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Brackenridge Field Laboratory, 2907 Lake Austin Blvd., 50 m from Town Lake, near Juniperus-Quercus woodland and tall grasses and weeds, sandy loam soil, 21 Apr 1995, T. Green 20 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Rollins & Shaw, 1973.


Lesquerella lasiocarpa S. Wats. ROUGHPOD BLADDERPOD. Native annual. No specimens have surfaced that would serve to verify Young's (1920) unannotated Travis County report of this South Texas Plains species. Such a voucher may reside in an extra-Texas herbarium, but none was cited by Rollins & Shaw (1973). Nonetheless, given the distinctness of the taxon and the general reliability of Young's accounts, one is led accept the report and, in the absence of additional evidence, to assume that Lesquerella lasiocarpa may have occurred in our area as a waif, perhaps on sandy Colorado River terrace deposits.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Rollins & Shaw, 1973.


Lesquerella recurvata (Gray) Wats. PLATEAU BLADDERPOD. Native annual; a Texas endemic ranging across most of the Edwards Plateau and Lampasas Cutplain. The common annual bladderpod in the western half of Travis County, usually in shallow calcareous clayey to stony soils, often where underlying limestone is exposed at the surface, thus limiting cover by taller perennial herbs and woody plants.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Rollins & Shaw, 1973.


Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All. YELLOW ROCKET. Naturalized annual. Native of the Mediterranean region. Infrequently encountered elsewhere in North America but common in our area, a winter-blooming weed of roadsides, cultivated fields, urban ruderal areas and countless other disturbed situations. Much more numerous than our few specimens might indicate; perhaps the most common brassica-like mustard of our area, particularly east of the Balcones Escarpment.


Specimens: 1 mi SE of McKinney Falls SP, 22 Apr 1978, Bro. D. Lynch 9228 (SEU); abundant weed in disturbed clay soil of roadside, Burleson Rd. E of Silver Dollar Lane, Austin, 10 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4665; locally abundant weed in disturbed gravelly clay, intersection of Far West and Ladera Norte, Austin, 20 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4732; vacant lot on N side of Rundberg Lane just W of I-35, black clay soil, 7 Apr 1985, B. Ertter 5661 (TEX-LL); Stassney Ln. and S. 1st St., 26 Jan 1993, Bro. D. Lynch 9917 (SEU). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Rollins, 1981.


Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek. Nasturtium officinale R. Br. WATERCRESS. Naturalized perennial. Native of Eurasia, now thoroughly naturalized in much of North America following escape from deliberate plantings (Rollins, 1981). Frequent, rooted in saturated clayey to sandy alluvium in or along perennial streams and around springs.


Specimens: Barton Creek, 8 Apr 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 2 May 1935, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); marshland, Capt. Aldrich Farm, 27 Jul 1943, F. A. Barkley 13367 (TEX-LL); edge of Cypress Creek near Cypress Mill [perhaps in Blanco rather than Travis County], 29 May 1949, G. L. Webster 109 (TEX-LL); S.E.U. farm, marsh along intermittent stream, 1 Apr 1954, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL); shallow water along W side of Colorado River between Red Bud Trail and Tom Miller Dam, 26 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4760. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Green, 1962; Rollins, 1981.


Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser var. fernaldiana (Butt. & Abbe) Stuckey. Rorippa islandica (Oeder) Borbás var. fernaldiana Butt. & Abbe; Roripa obtusa of Young (1920). BOG MARSHCRESS. Native annual. Uncommon on alluvial flats along the Colorado River and at least one of its principal Travis County tributaries.


Specimens: sandy alluvium on N bank of Colorado River just W of US Rt. 183 bridges, 1 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3439 (BRIT/SMU); Shoal Creek at 38th St. bridge, Austin, 17 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4711 (TEX-LL); Precinct 1 Park, 13 Apr 1985, W. R. Carr 6293 (TEX-LL); Colorado River at Hornsby Bend Sewage Treatment Plant, 28 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 9187 (UVST); occasional in moist silt on shaded margin of small inlet (old discharge channel), E side of Colorado River opposite mouth of Carson Creek, Hornsby Bend Sewage Treatment Plant, 31 Jul 1992, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 12203 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Stuckey, 1972.


Rorippa sessiliflora (Nutt.) Hitchc. STALKLESS YELLOWCRESS. Native annual. There are no recent reports from Travis County, which lies at or near the southwestern limit of this species' distribution. It may still be present on some unshaded mudflat along the Colorado River.


Specimens: Bee Creek, 13 Apr 1907, Long & Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, spring 1920, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 12 Aug 1922, B. C. Tharp 1386 (TEX-LL); Austin, 5 Aug 1936, W. L. McCart 47 (BRIT/SMU); shore of Lake Austin, 12 Aug 1943, F. A. Barkley 13429 (TEX-LL). References: Stuckey, 1972.


Rorippa teres (Michx.) Stuckey. Rorippa walteri (Ell.) Mohr. TANSYLEAF YELLOWCRESS. Native annual. Native to North America but, like many mustards, somewhat weedy in behavior. Nonetheless rare in Travis County, to be expected more often in disturbed riparian situations than in drier areas.


Specimens: Austin, 18 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, near river bridge, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 3 Apr 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River floodplain, 8 Apr 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL) and 8 Apr 1917, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 12 Aug 1922, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); frequent along silty banks of Pedernales River, 31 Mar 1946, B. H. Warnock & B. C. Tharp 46077 (TEX-LL); weed growing from crack in sidewalk, W side of Wabash St. 75 ft. S of W. 34th St., Austin, 8 Apr 1986, W. R. Carr 7198 (BRIT/SMU; SEU); locally abundant in moist soil in catch basin on terrace on SW side of Colorado River ca. 300 ft. NW of Loop 360 bridge, 1 March 1987, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 7982 (UVST). References: Stuckey, 1972.


Sibara virginica (L.) Roll. Arabis virginica of auth. VIRGINIA SIBARA. Native annual. Reported by Young (1920, as Arabis virginica) as "abundant in the spring in wet places along roadsides and in shallow pools." Relatively uncommon today, in moist loamy soils on disturbed alluvial terraces as well as in well watered lawns and gardens.


Specimens: Shoal Creek, 2 Apr 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); 2 mi W of Austin, 15 Jun 1935, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); lawnweed, SW corner of San Antonio and W. 21st St., Austin, 20 March 1982, W. R. Carr 3696 and 7 Mar 1983, W. R. Carr 4566 (UVST); rare in silted creekbottom below home construction sites, N side of Cat Mt., 20 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4735 (BRIT/SMU); weed in lawn at fast-food restaurant, SW corner of IH-35 and William Cannon Dr., Austin, 10 Jan 1987, W. R. Carr 7971 (TEX-LL); loose sand and gravel in severely eroding open field, NE side of Jacobson Rd. ca. 1/4 mi SE of Elroy Rd., 7 Feb 1987, W. R. Carr & E. A. Kutac 7976 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Sinapsis arvensis L. Brassica kaber (DC.) Wheeler. WILD MUSTARD. Adventive annual. Native or Europe, now widely naturalized but apparently uncommon in our area.


Specimens: along RR track, Austin, 13 May 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River, Austin, 26 Mar 1929, A. Armer 5375 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Sisymbrium irio L. ROCKET MUSTARD. Naturalized annual. Native of Europe, naturalized in the southwestern United States and in Mexico. A fairly common weed in the lower Shoal Creek valley, from which the absence of early (pre-1980) specimens is somewhat curious. One of our hardiest winter-bloomers, often flowering from Dec-Mar, even through winters with extended periods of freezing weather.


Specimens: sandy hillside, Bastrop Hwy 1 mi E of Montopolis bridge, 3 Apr 1946, B. H. Warnock 46107 (TEX-LL); Austin, Congress at Riverside Dr., disturbed ground, unshaded, 12 Apr 1970, Bro. D. Lynch 9257 (SEU); lawnweed, near 35th & Jefferson, Austin, 1 Feb 1987, W. R. Carr 7975 (TEX-LL); lawnweed, 30th & Lamar, Austin, 18 Feb 1983, W. R. Carr 4535 (TEX-LL); bulldozed clay on undeveloped homesites, SW corner of R. M. 2222 and Mt. Bonnell Dr., Austin, 10 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4664 (BRIT/SMU); margin of parking lot, 16th and Lavaca, downtown Austin, 7 Feb 1986, W. R. Carr 7134 (UVST); locally common in moderately moist clay loam on unshaded curblawn, W. 35th St. W of Jefferson, 1 Feb 1987, W. R. Carr 7975 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Rollins, 1981.


Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. HEDGE MUSTARD. Adventive annual. Native of Europe. A rare weed in our area, our collections coming from disturbed alluvium and fill material from similar sources.


Specimens: roadside ca. 1 1/2 mi beyond Montopolis bridge, 21 Apr 1921, B. C. Tharp 793 (TEX-LL) and 13 May 1921, B. C. Tharp 793 (TEX-LL) [note that two collections three weeks apart have same collection number]; sandy hillside, 1 mi E of Montopolis bridge, 3 Apr 1946, B. H. Warnock 46107 (TEX-LL); locally common in disturbed gravelly soils on trail through various trees on E bank of Waller Creek at Eastwoods Park, 75-100 ft. N of W. 26th St., Austin, 29 Apr 1995, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 14549 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Rollins, 1981.


Streptanthus bracteatus Gray. BRACTED TWISTFLOWER. Native annual. Endemic to the Balcones Canyonlands portion of the eastern and southern Edwards Plateau, where it has been collected from Bandera, Comal, Medina, Real, Travis and Uvalde counties; the source of a seemingly anomalous collection from Caldwell County has not been relocated. Bracted twistflower has long been known from the slopes around Cat Mountain; it persists there and elsewhere in a variety of soils and exposures, often in areas where brush or debris prohibit browsing by white-tailed deer (P. McNeal, pers. comm., 1989). Although no longer considered a candidate for possible federal listing as a threatened or endangered species, this endemic is one of Texas' rarer species; studies to determine useful strategies leading toward its conservation are needed.


Specimens: Austin, between Far West Blvd. and Panther Hollow, among small live oak on level upland, shallow soil over Walnut Clay, 12 May 1977, Bro. D. Lynch 9259 (SEU); locally common among elbowbush, agarito, etc. thickets under cedar elm and Texas ash in woodland on alluvial bottom between limestone ridges, SE side of Loop 360 ca. 1/2 mi. NE of Lakewood Drive, 30 April 1982, W. R. Carr 3865 (BRIT/SMU); among Ashe juniper and live oak on openly wooded fairly dry rocky limestone slope, N and E flanks of Cat Mt., 30 April 1983, W. R. Carr 4776 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Damude & Poole, 1990.


Streptanthus platycarpus Gray. BROADPOD TWISTFLOWER. Native annual. Once considered endemic to central and western Texas but now known to occur in adjacent Coahuila (Henrickson & Johnston, in prep.). Perhaps only a waif in our area; Travis County lies a considerable distance from the nearest populations to the west (in the Llano Uplift area of Gillespie and Llano counties), and there are no recent reports or specimens.


Specimens: river floodplain, 8 April 1917, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Thlaspi arvense L. FIELD PENNYCRESS. Adventive annual. Native of Europe, naturalized in much of temperate North America but avoiding hotter and more humid climes (Rollins, 1981). Known in Travis County from a single collection; almost certainly not a persistent member of our weed flora.


Specimens: adventive in rich black soil of field behind cow lot, 3 mi NW of Oak Hill, 28 Dec 1946, G. L. Webster 29 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Rollins, 1981.


CAPPARIDACEAE CAPER FAMILY


Cleome gynandra L. PRICKLY SPIDERFLOWER. Adventive annual. In the absence of other records or specimens, one can assume that this "pantropic weed of African origin" (Correll & Johnston, 1970) is not a persistent member of our weed flora.


Specimens: weed in stock pen, ca. 1500 ft. SSE of jct. of Elroy and Fagerquist Rds, 26 July 1986, W. R. Carr & E. A. Kutac 7759 (UVST). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Polanisia dodecandra (L.) DC. subsp. trachysperma (T. & G.) Iltis. CLAMMYWEED. Native annual. Uncommon in our area, found primarily in pockets of disturbed, sparsely vegetated, well drained sand and gravel alluvium along the Colorado River and on Pleistocene fluviatile terrace deposits on ridgetops in the eastern half of the county.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Iltis, 1958.


Polanisia erosa (Nutt.) Iltis subsp. erosa. LARGE CRESTPETAL. Native annual. Unlike the preceding, Polanisia erosa subsp. erosa is essentially endemic to Texas and is most often encountered in floristically interesting forb-dominated communities on sandhills on Eocene strata in the Post Oak Belt and in the East Texas Pineywoods. Our three specimens provide little information about local habitat, and there are no recent reports.


Specimens: [to county only], 10 Aug 1940, R. W. Strandtmann s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 20 Aug 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); sandy field, Austin, 15 Jun 1942, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Iltis, 1958.


CRASSULACEAE STONECROP FAMILY


Crassula aquatica (L.) Schoenl. Tillaea aquatica L.; Tillaea drummondii T & G.; Tillaeastrum drummondii Britt; treated by B. L. Turner at TEX-LL at Crassula longipes (Rose) Bywater & Wickens. WATER PYGMYWEED. Native annual. A tiny inconspicuous plant of sparsely vegetated ephemeral wet spots such as flats exposed along drying ponds and vernal pools on rock outcrops. Young (1920) reported this pygmyweed to be "common on shallow pools and mud holes of the post oak woods." There are no recent reports or specimens from our area.


Specimens: woods E of Waller Creek, 26 Feb 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Lake Austin silt, 9 Apr 1931, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Apr 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Apr 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 15 Mar 1941, B. C. Tharp s.n. (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Sedum nuttallianum Raf. YELLOW STONECROP. Native annual. A consistent and, when in flower, conspicuous component of the annual florula of shallow depressions in barren limestone (particularly Edwards) exposed on ridgetops.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Clausen, 1975; Nesom & Turner, 1995.


Sedum pulchellum Michx. PINK STONECROP. Native annual. This striking species is apparently rare in Texas, known only from Bell, Sabine, San Augustine, and Travis Counties. The Bell and Travis county populations are apparently disjunct by over 150 miles from the closest populations in north and east Texas and may represent the southwestern limit of the species' distribution. Rare in our area, in shallow, seasonally moist clayey soils atop unshaded upland limestone exposures in the Bull Creek watershed.


Specimens: hilltop, Bull Creek, 11 April 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); moist shallow clay loam over limestone along trail through juniper-oak woods near ridgetop, ca. 1/2 mi N to NW of jct. Loop 360 and N branch of Spicewood Springs Rd., Bull Creek drainage, 28 May 1982, W. R. Carr 4014 (BRIT/SMU); flat dry hilltop near Jester Blvd., Jester Estates, Austin, on exposed Edwards Limestone on ca. 1/2 inch deep clayish soil mats, sunny site surrounded by Juniperus ashei, Quercus fusiformis, Quercus sinuata var. breviloba, 1 May 1995, D. Miller s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Baldwin, 1943; Baskin & Baskin, 1975; Baskin & Baskin, 1980; Clausen, 1975; White et al., 1998.


SAXIFRAGACEAE SAXIFRAGE FAMILY


Lepuropetalon spathulatum (Muhl.) Ell. Native annual. A species of the southeastern United States, with disjunct populations in Uruguay and central Chile (Spongberg, 1972). Young (1920) found this minuscule annual "in compact wet soil of the post oak woods." To the east and northeast of Travis County, Lepuropetalon spathulatum is frequently encountered (but only by those inclined to see it!) in moist sandy soils on open mossy slopes, in moist compacted soil around puddles in tracks through post oak woodlands, and in other unshaded seasonally moist situations where disturbance or edaphic factors limit competition from taller species, i.e., virtually any other member of the plant kingdom. There are no recent reports or records from our area, but this interesting plant for which no vernacular name has yet been coined may again be found during a wet spring.


Specimens: woods E of Waller Creek, 26 Feb 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL). An additional specimen was cited by Ward (1987): wet flat, Country Club golf links, Austin, 1 Apr 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (GH). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Spongberg, 1972; Thomas, 1971; Ward, 1987; Ward & Gholson, 1987.


HYDRANGEACEAE HYDRANGEA FAMILY


Philadelphus ernestii Hu. CANYON MOCKORANGE. Native shrub; endemic to the eastern Edwards Plateau, where to date it has been reported from a few areas in Blanco, Comal, Hays, Kendall, and Travis counties. This striking shrub grows only from solution-pitted limestone exposed along the rather dry upper rims of wooded canyons, often in the company of columbine (Aquilegia canadensis) and epipetric ferns. Canyon mock-orange was a candidate for possible federal listing as a threatened or endangered species until 1995, when all candidates were dropped from consideration. Nonetheless, persons interested in the conservation of rare Central Texas endemics will recognize the global significance of the large populations of canyon mock-orange in the Jester Estates area of West Bull Creek, in the City of Austin's Bohl's Hollow Preserve, and at Hamilton Pool.


Specimens: canyon on E side of Jester Estates ridge, 4 Dec 1983, W. R. Carr 5966 (BRIT/SMU) and 24 Mar 1984, W. R. Carr 5976 (TEX-LL); rimrock outcrops of Edwards Limestone on W side of Jester Estates ridge, 29 Mar 1984, W. R. Carr 5990 (TEX-LL), 15 Apr 1984, W. R. Carr 6023 (BRIT/SMU), 16 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr 9123 (UVST, TEX-LL), 18 Mar 1990, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 10318 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Hu, 1954-1956; Mahler, 1981d.


PLATANACEAE PLANE-TREE FAMILY


Platanus occidentalis L. EASTERN SYCAMORE. Incl. var. glabrata (Fern.) Sarg. Native tree. A common tree of mostly deciduous woodlands along perennial watercourses. Young, presumably short-lived volunteers are often encountered in disturbed upland sites.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


ROSACEAE ROSE FAMILY


Crataegus crus-galli L. COCKSPUR HAWTHORN. Native tree. Uncommon in fencelines and other unplowed areas in Blackland Prairie.


Specimens: near Dessau, Gregg Cemetery, several on grounds, 19 Aug 1989, M. Enquist 1492 (TEX-LL) and 15 Oct 1989, M. Enquist 1582 (TEX-LL); near Manor, Carlson's home, Boyce Lane, N of 290, 19 Aug 1989, M. Enquist 1494 (TEX-LL); gravelly clay (Heiden Series), ca. 50 ft. N of Gregg Rd., ca. 0.1 mi. W of Cameron Rd., along fenceline of Gregg Cemetery, 19 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & M. Enquist 10767 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Enquist, 1991; Simpson, 1988.


Crataegus mollis Scheele. DOWNY HAWTHORN. Native tree. Apparently rare, collected from one location near the E edge of the county.


Specimens: occasional in understory of disturbed deciduous forest in calcareous silty clays on moderate to steep slopes along small drainage that bisects Colorado River terrace, Precinct 1 Park, 11 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & J. Wright 10746 (TEX-LL) and 18 Mar 1991, M. Enquist 1787 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Enquist, 1991; Simpson, 1988.


Crataegus opaca Hook. & Arn. HAWTHORN. Native tree. Apparently rare in area, known from one specimen reported on the Flora of Texas - UT Austin web site.


Specimens: Austin, no date, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Crataegus tracyi Ashe. TRACY HAWTHORN. Native tree. Rare, collected from one location in a grassland-woodland mosaic on a limestone upland.


Specimens: off Hamilton Pool Rd., in Saddletree Ranch Subdivision, attacked by deer and rust, 30 Apr 1989, M. Enquist 1085 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Enquist, 1991.


Crataegus viridis L. GREEN HAWTHORN. Native tree. Rare in unplowed areas in Blackland Prairie.


Specimens: moist woods, hills E of Travis Heights, blackland, 4 April 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); near Mustang Ridge, on Williamson Road near Center Union Baptist Church, 18 Mar 1990, M. Enquist 1616 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Enquist, 1991; Simpson, 1988.


Duchesnea indica (Andrz.) Focke. INDIAN STRAWBERRY. Adventive or perhaps naturalized perennial. Native of Asia; apparently rare in our area, known from two collections.


Specimens: Williamson at Oak Hill, 10 Jul 1920, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); weed in moist soil of lawn on terrace of Shoal Creek, Goodall-Wooten Park, 11 March 1985, W. R. Carr 6189 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. LOQUAT. Introduced shrub. Native of Asia, cultivated in our area for ornament and perhaps for its edible fruit. Occasionally escaping into woodlands on stream terraces and mesic canyons.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Geum canadense Jacq. WHITE AVENS. Native perennial. Frequent in silty to clayey soils in mostly deciduous woodlands on alluvial terraces, sometimes ranging upslope in oak-juniper woodlands in mesic limestone canyons. In addition to Geum canadense, Young (1920) attributed to our flora Geum virginianum L., a closely-related species which is not known to occur in Texas; presumably this report was based on an aberrant specimen of the former.


Specimens: Onion Creek, 25 Apr 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL), 17 May 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); damp dense riparian thicket along Bull Creek, SE side of Loop 360, 0.8-1.0 mi. NE of Lakewood Dr., 3 May 1982, W. R. Carr 3898 (BRIT/SMU); oak-cedar woods at mouth of mesic ravine, N facing slope on SE side of Bull Creek ca. 0.6 mi. NE of Lakewood Dr., 14 May 1983, W. R. Carr 4864; locally common in alluvial silty clay in wooded bottom of Shoal Creek, 150 ft. NE of W. 29th St. bridge, Austin, 24 May 1986, W. R. Carr 7470 (UVST); Bull Creek City Park on SE side of Loop 360, SW of Spicewood Springs Rd., in shade of trees near creek, oak-juniper woodland on limestone, 14 May 1983, B. Ertter & J. Saunders 4846 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Photinia serrulata Lindl. PHOTINIA. Naturalized shrub. An Asian species commonly cultivated for ornament and readily escaping. Frequent in juniper-oak woodlands on limestone slopes and in canyon bottoms, often common near older residential developments. Other species of Photinia, such as Photinia X fraseri Dress., may also occur in the wild.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Prunus angustifolia Marsh. CHICKASAW PLUM. Native shrub. A thicket-forming shrub common in various situations and on various substrates just to the north and northwest of Travis County. Attributed to our area by Young (1920), but no specimens or more recent reports have come to light.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Prunus caroliniana (Mill.) Ait. LAUREL CHERRY. Native tree of the southeastern United States, including portions of East Texas; introduced here. Frequently cultivated and occasionally escaping into moist wooded sites.


Specimens: thicket in moist soil at base of slope on W side of Shoal Creek terrace, 300 ft. S of W. 34th St. bridge, Austin, 11 March 1983, W. R. Carr 4575 (TEX-LL); naturalized and reproducing in deeper, moister soils on lower slopes and along creekbottom, Blunn Creek Nature Preserve, S side of Oltorf Rd., 0.3 mi. W of IH-35, Austin, 3 Feb 1991, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 10916 (TEX-LL).


Prunus cerasus L. SOUR CHERRY. Naturalized tree. Cultivated in our area and, according to Lynch (1974), occasionally escaping.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Prunus mexicana Wats. Prunus americana Marsh. of Young (1920). MEXICAN PLUM. Small tree occurring in woodlands and along margins in a variety of situations on all substrates.


Specimens: 9 sheets at TEX-LL, 19 Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Prunus minutiflora Engelm. TEXAS ALMOND. Native shrub; eseentially endemic to Texas, ranging across much of the Edwards Plateau and Central Mineral Basin (Llano Uplift), south to northern part of the South Texas Plains; also in Coahuila (Vines 1960). Prunus minutiflora was at one time a candidate for possible federal listing as a threatened or endangered species, but was dropped from consideration when found to be more common than originally presumed. Rare and local in grasslands on shallow soils over Austin Chalk, particularly near the northern edge of the county; even rarer in or absent from similar habitats over Glen Rose and Edwards Formations. The well-documented population along the E edge of Memorial Hill Park Cemetery at the NE corner of IH-35 and Dessau Rd. was extant in March 1996. There are no updates of the 1946 collection from the Camp Mabry area.


Specimens: infrequent shrub on limestone knoll 1/2 mi SW of Camp Mabry, 17 Mar 1946, B. H. Warnock 46011 (TEX-LL); Austin Chalk, E of Dallas Hwy in pastures along Dessau Farm Rd., 10 mi N of Austin, 9 Mar 1950, B. C. Tharp 50-19 (TEX-LL); [same location], 14 Mar 1950, B. C. Tharp & Nickerson 50-20a and 50-20b (TEX-LL), 25 Apr 1950, B. C. Tharp 50-21 (TEX-LL), 9 Jun 1950, B. C. Tharp & York 50-22 (TEX-LL), 9 Feb 1975, D. H. Riskind 1757 (TEX-LL), and 10 Mar 1980, Bro. D. Lynch C.S.C. 9279 (TEX-LL); 6 Mar 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15103 (TEX-LL); N side of Austin, at jct. Hwy 275 (Lamar Blvd.) and I-35, small area with abundant shrubs of Prunus, Berberis, scattered but abundant Nolina, rocky limestone soil at E edge of Edwards Plateau, 18 May 1988, G. Nesom & J. Grimes 6439 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Prunus munsoniana Wight. & Hedr. MUNSON PLUM, WILD GOOSE PLUM. Native tree or shrub. Simpson (1988) reported this species from the Blackland Prairie of Travis County, yet questioned its taxonomic status.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Prunus rivularis Scheele. Incl. var. pubescens Enquist. CREEK PLUM, HOG PLUM. Native shrub. A thicket-forming shrub found along creekbottoms and, perhaps more frequently, along fencelines in pastures in limestone uplands. Uncommon in our area.


Specimens: fencerows, roadside thickets, limestone plateau soil at Bee Caves, not seen between here and Austin, 25 Mar 1947, R. McVaugh 7642 (TEX-LL); rare, a few shrubs in moist alluvium and rock rubble at foot of Austin Chalk bluff on N bank of Walnut Creek, Walnut Creek Metropolitan Park, 6 Mar 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15102 (TEX-LL); other material at TEX-LL is not readily determined. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Prunus serotina Erhr. var. eximia (Small) Little. Prunus serotina Erhr. subsp. eximia (Small) McVaugh. ESCARPMENT BLACK CHERRY. Native tree. Along with Quercus buckleyi, one of the characteristic hardwood trees of woodlands in mesic limestone canyons west of the Balcones Escarpment. Scattered elsewhere in the county.


Specimens: several at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: McVaugh, 1951.


Prunus umbellata Ell. FLATWOOD PLUM. Native tree. Included here on the basis of a report from Edwards Plateau Laboratory I in the Cypress Creek watershed (Lynch, 1975).


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Rosa bracteata Wendl. MACCARTNEY ROSE. Introduced shrub. Native of China, widely planted in other regions to provide cover and food for wildlife. Rare in our area, mostly persisting from cultivation for ornament or as "living fence" (Correll & Johnston, 1970). Lynch (1974) reported that MacCartney rose "forms a high, dense thicket at Atkinson and Cameron Rds."


Specimens: University campus, 5 May [no year stated, probably 1910], Higginbotham 3100 (TEX-LL); Govalle School, 30 May 1926, E. Ross 7190 (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Aug 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); [to county only], 26 Jul 1940, R. W. Strandtmann s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 18 Jun 1944, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); bois d'arc hedge, 3 mi N of Austin, 13 Oct 1944, R. B. Payton 1 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Rubus trivialis Michx. SOUTHERN DEWBERRY. Native shrub. Common in thickets in abandoned fields, on open creekbanks, along railroad tracks and roadsides, more often encountered in deeper soils of valleys than in shallow soils of uplands. The only Rubus reported from our area, although others might be expected in sandy soils along the E edge of the county.


Specimens: Austin, 18 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 29 Mar 1933, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); [to county only], 16 Mar 1944, B. C. Tharp 44-005 (TEX-LL); Austin, 17 Mar 1944, B. C. Tharp 44226 (TEX-LL); low grounds, Austin, 10 Apr 1949, B. C. Tharp 49-1099 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Sanguisorba annua Nutt. PRAIRIE BURNET. Native annual. A species of open calcareous areas in central North America, here at or near the southern tip of its range.


Specimens: railway right-of-way, Austin, 24 Apr 1944, M. C. Johnson s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


FABACEAE PEA FAMILY


Acacia angustissima (Mill.) O. Ktze. var. hirta (T. & G.) Robins. Acacia hirta T. & G.; Acacia filicoides of Young (1920). FERN ACACIA. Native perennial. Infrequent in grasslands in shallow rocky soils of limestone uplands west of the Balcones Escarpment, but also to be expected in deeper, heavier clays in Blackland Prairie sites.


Specimens: along I & GN railroad, Austin, 4 May 1917, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 15 May 1935, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL), 10 Jun 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL), 1 Aug 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL), and 15 May 1944, B. C. Tharp 44234 (TEX-LL); scattered along highway 11 mi NW of Austin in limestone soil, 26 Jun 1946, B. H. Warnock 46463 (TEX-LL); Pilot Knob, 30 May 1951, Tharp & Barkley 51-819 (TEX-LL); silty loam soil on elevated terrace along N side of Bull Creek, S side of Loop 360, 0.6-0.9 mi NE of Lakewood Dr., 4 Jul 1982, W. R. Carr 4140 (TEX-LL); dry limestone outcrops, Barton Creek Greenbelt 0.5 mi NE of Loop 360 bridge, 31 May 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges 10182 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Isely, 1969a; Isely, 1973; Turner, 1959.


Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. Acacia smallii Isely; Acacia minuta M. E. Jones subsp. densiflora (Alex. ex Small) Beauch. HUISACHE. Native tree. Common to the south of Travis County, occurring in our area mostly in cultivation and sparingly as an invader of old fields on Blackland Prairie sites and on sandier soils of floodplains.


Specimens: rare in degraded blackland prairie on heavy clay, E side of Farquhar Farms ca. 5 mi SE of Manor, 16 Jun 1996, W. R. Carr, M. L. Price, C. & N. Farquhar 15527 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Clarke, Seigler & Ebinger, 1989; Isely, 1969a; Isely, 1973; Turner, 1959.


Acacia roemeriana Scheele. ROEMER ACACIA. Native shrub or small tree. A species of the South Texas Plains, Trans-Pecos, and Edwards Plateau, here at the northeastern limit of it current distribution. Open juniper-oak woodlands on limestone uplands and shrublands along exposed bluffs, infrequent in Travis County but more commonly encountered than the paucity of specimens would indicate.


Specimens: Bull Creek, Mr. James Baird's place, 19 Apr 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); shrubland on limestone bluff on W side of Colorado River 1000-2000 ft. S of Red Bud Trail, 7 Jul 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9050 (BRIT/SMU); limestone glade on ridgetop on N side of Mountain Trail, 8 Apr 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges 9064 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Isely 1969a; Isely, 1973; Turner, 1959.


Albizia julibrissin Durazz. SILKTREE MIMOSA. Introduced tree. Introduced from Asia, a conspicuous component of the urban horticultural landscape in some older Austin neighborhoods. Unlike some other popular ornamentals, such as Nandina domestica, Sapium sebiferum, Melia azedarach, and various Ligustrum species, truly feral specimens of Albizia julibrissin are uncommon in Travis County, encountered most often in creekbottoms and moist open slopes.


Specimens: Austin, just E of Sterzing St. and Toomey Rd., 27 Jul 1990, M. Bierner 90-126 (TEX-LL). References: Isely, 1973; Turner, 1959.


Amorpha fruticosa L. BASTARD INDIGO. Native shrub. Occasional but conspicuous in alluvial silt, sand and gravel along watercourses throughout Travis County. Our plants are sometimes treated as var. angustifolia Pursh.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Jan 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Wilbur, 1975.


Amorpha roemerana Scheele. Amorpha roemeriana Scheele; Amorpha texana Buckl. TEXAS AMORPHA. Native shrub; endemic to the Edwards Plateau, with records from Bandera, Bexar, Comal, Gillespie, Hays, Kendall, Kerr, Medina, Travis and Uvalde counties. At one time, Amorpha roemeriana was a candidate for possible federal listing as a threatened or endangered species, but it was dropped from consideration when field research indicated it to be more common than previously thought. Locally frequent on dry limestone ledges along Bull Creek and in open juniper-oak woodlands on Upper Glen Rose Limestone slopes in the Cypress and Sandy Creek watersheds; rare elsewhere in the county.


Specimens: Cypress Creek watershed, 23 May 1972, Bro. D. Lynch s.n., (SEU); [various locations along lower] Bull Creek, 15 May 1982, W. R. Carr 3957 (TEX-LL) and W. R. Carr 3993 (TEX-LL), 16 Jun 1982, W. R. Carr 4094 (TEX-LL), 4 Jul 1982, W. R. Carr 4144 (TEX-LL), 10 Oct 1982, W. R. Carr 4392 (TEX-LL), 19 Jun 1988, W. R. Carr 8982 (TEX-LL), 20 Jun 1988, W. R. Carr 8983 (TEX-LL), W. R. Carr 8985 (TEX-LL) and W. R. Carr 8986 (TEX-LL), 1 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr 9098 (BRIT/SMU, UVST), 5 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr 9115 (BRIT/SMU, TEX-LL), 26 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9162 (TEX-LL), Lime Creek Rd., 1 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr 9100 (BRIT/SMU); Hill Drive NW of Johnson Rd., W. R. Carr 9101 (BRIT/SMU); Stillhouse Hollow, 4 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr 9112 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Cheatham, Johnston & Marshall, 1995; Mahler, 1982; Mahler, 1988b; Wilbur, 1975.


Astragalus crassicarpus Nutt. var. berlandieri Barneby. Geoprumnon mexicanum Rydb. GROUND PLUM. Native perennial. This variety is endemic to Texas, ranging from Kerr and Gillespie counties on the Edwards Plateau southeast to Washington and Victoria counties on the coastal plain (Barneby, 1964). In Travis County, the flowers of var. berlandieri vary considerably in size, the low extremes falling well within the range of variation established for var. crassicarpus (Barneby, 1964). Frequent in open juniper-oak woodlands and grasslands on shallow clayey soils over limestone or Austin Chalk.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996, annotated in 1989 by M. J. Sanderson. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Barneby, 1964; Turner, 1959.


Astragalus crassicarpus Nutt. var. crassicarpus. GROUND PLUM. Native perennial. Doubtful in our area, or at least much less common in our area than var. berlandieri. Habitat differences, if any, are unclear.


Specimens: Pflugerville, Apr 1900, [no collector, perhaps Long & Ferguson] (TEX-LL); near Austin, 15 Apr 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL). Both of these specimens were annotated as var. crassicarpus by M. J. Sanderson in 1989 but have apparently been subsequently annotated to var. berlandieri. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Barneby, 1964; Turner, 1959.


Astragalus distortus T. & G. var. engelmannii (Sheld.) M. E. Jones. BENTPOD MILKVETCH. Native perennial. Uncommon in our area, or perhaps common but simply dismissed by local collectors as yet another undeterminable Astragalus not worthy of collection.


Specimens: frequent about Austin, 28 Mar 1940, B. H. Warnock 112 (TEX-LL); locally abundant in large patches in disturbed sandy soil at base of limestone roadcut, SE corner of Loop 360 and bridge at Lakewood Dr., Austin, 25 Mar 1982, W. R. Carr 3711 (TEX-LL). Neither of these specimens has been annotated. References: Barneby, 1964; Turner, 1959.


Astragalus leptocarpus T. & G. Hamosa leptocarpa (T. & G.) Rydb. BODKIN MILKVETCH. Native annual. Attributed to Travis County by Barneby (1964) and Turner (1959), and reported from McKinney Falls State Park by Johnston & Riskind (1975). A species of sandy soils ranging across much of the eastern half of Texas and northwestern Louisiana.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Barneby, 1964; MacRoberts, 1989; Turner, 1959.


Astragalus lindheimeri Engelm. Hamosa lindheimeri (Engelm.) Rydb. LINDHEIMER MILKVETCH. Native annual. "The showiest by far of the annual astragali of Texas, easily distinguished (almost always) from the other [species of Section] Leptocarpi by flower-size alone" (Barneby, 1964). The apparent type specimen of this species was collected on a sand bar in the Colorado River near Austin by Ferdinand Lindheimer, probably in April 1850 (Barneby, 1964). Rare in our area, but locally abundant along a small stretch of US Rt. 290 between US Rt. 183 and the Harris Branch development.


Specimens: Austin, 10 Apr 1930, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 20 Mar 1940, B. H. Warnock 90 (TEX-LL); marly soil beyond Onion Creek on Bastrop Hwy, 30 Apr 1949, B. C. Tharp 49-1094 (TEX-LL); gravelly clay on disturbed unshaded roadside in blackland prairie, Bloor Rd. N of Lake Walter E. Long, 29 Mar 1987, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 8023 (TEX-LL) and 24 Mar 1991, W. R. Carr & N. Gil-Ad 10972 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Barneby, 1964; Turner, 1959.


Astragalus lotiflorus Hook. LOW MILKVETCH. Native perennial. A species of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains, here at the southeastern edge of its range. All of our few specimens appear to have been taken from grasslands on Austin Chalk. Our plants are sometimes treated as var. lotiflorus.


Specimens: Austin Chalk, dry hillside on lower Jordan Spring Creek just beyond Big Walnut Creek bridge on Dessau Rd., 20 Apr 1947, B. C. Tharp 47410 (TEX-LL); chalky soil along Cameron Rd. 7 mi NE of Austin, 28 Apr 1949, B. C. Tharp 49-1031 (TEX-LL); chalky hillside 6.5 mi N of Austin, 30 Apr 1949, B. C. Tharp 49-1031 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Barneby, 1964; Turner, 1959.


Astragalus nuttallianus A. DC. var. nuttallianus. NUTTALL MILKVETCH. Native annual. "Easily recognized by its consistently retuse or at least truncate-emarginate leaflets of a dark green color, by the calyx with its short, pale or purplish tube and long, slender green teeth sometimes nearly as long as the banner, and by the glabrous pod curved at the base and straight thereafter but sometimes straight throughout" (Barneby, 1964). Frequent in disturbed or sparsely vegetated areas on various substrates throughout our area.


Specimens: 11 sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974 (not as to variety). References: Barneby, 1964; Turner, 1959.


Astragalus nuttallianus A. DC. var. macilentus (Small) B. L. Turner. NUTTALL MILKVETCH. Native annual. The only Texas variety of Astragalus nuttallianus with a blunt keel-tip, it is nonetheless "perplexingly polymorphic" (Barneby, 1964). A phase with large flowers can be mistaken, in the absence of mature fruit, for small-flowered forms of Astragalus lindheimeri (Barneby, 1964).


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001, but reported from Travis County by Turner (1959) and Barneby (1964). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Barneby, 1964; Turner, 1959.


Astragalus nuttallianus A. DC. var. pleianthus (Shinners) Barneby. Astragalus pleianthus (Shinners) Isely. MANYFLOWER NUTTALL MILKVETCH. Native annual. Endemic to the eastern half of Texas, from calcarous prairies in north-central Texas south to brush county on the South Texas Plains. Apparently rare in our area, known from a single specimen.


Specimens: Austin, Colorado River silt, opposite Deep Eddy, 1 Apr 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Astragalus nuttallianus A. DC. var. trichocarpus T. & G. Astragalus austrinus (Small) Schulz var. trichocarpus (T. & G.) B. L. Turner. NUTTALL MILKVETCH. Native annual. Frequent in disturbed or sparsely vegetated areas on various substrates.


Specimens: 11 sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Barneby, 1964; Turner, 1959.


Astragalus plattensis T. & G. PLATTE MILKVETCH. Native perennial. Often confused with Astragalus crassicarpus, but differing from that species in having a pubescent (rather than glabrous) ovary and pod (Barneby, 1964). Apparently rare in our area, presumably on dry rocky slopes.


Specimens: Austin, 5 Mar 1929, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Barneby, 1964; Turner, 1959.


Astragalus reflexus T. & G. DROOPING MILKVETCH. Native annual. Endemic to Texas, with scattered records from the eastern half of Texas from the Dallas-Fort Worth area south to Cameron County; see range map in Barneby (1964). "Astragalus reflexus, which must appear to the casual or uninstructed eye an inconsiderable and trifling weed, cannot fail to excite the admiration of anyone who has paused to ponder the mysterious impulses which have given rise to the protean variations on the astragalus motif" (Barneby, 1964). Poorly known, its habitat may be open disturbed sites that are moist in spring.


Specimens: Austin, UT campus, 20 Apr 1908, H. H. York 445 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Barneby, 1964; Turner, 1959.


Astragalus wrightii Gray. WRIGHT MILKVETCH. Native annual. Endemic to central Texas, mostly on eastern half of the Edwards Plateau; see range map in Barneby (1964). According to Barneby (1964), Astragalus wrightii is "an inconspicuous, somewhat weedy plant, an object of botanical curiosity rather than one of beauty" which occurs in calcareous soils in openings in oak-juniper woodlands, on gravelly hilltops and stony outcrops on prairies.


Specimens: rocky slope, Austin, 19 Apr 1901, Long s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 18 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); University campus, Austin, 12 Apr 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); dry soil, N of Austin, 6 May 1934, C. C. Albers s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin Chalk, 24 Apr 1944, B. C. Tharp 44041 (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 May 1994, B. C. Tharp 44084 (TEX-LL); infrequent along railroad 1 mi S of Colorado River, 18 Apr 1946, B. H. Warnock 46125 (TEX-LL). Type specimen collected near Austin by Charles Wright in 1848. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Barneby, 1964; Turner, 1959.


Baptisia bracteata Ell. var. leucophaea (Nutt.) Kartesz & Gandhi. Baptisia leucophaea Nutt.; Baptisia bracteata Ell. var. glabrescens (Larisey) Isely. WILD INDIGO. Native perennial. Rare, restricted to post oak woodlands and associated grasslands on sandy to gravelly Colorado River terrace deposits in the eastern half of the county.


Specimens: Easley Cemetery, 0.4 mi. S of Blake-Manor Rd., 28 Jul 1987, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA); edge of post oak woodland on Pleistocene terrace deposits, W side of F. M. 973, 0.8 mi. S of Bloor Rd., 24 Mar 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15108 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Isely, 1981; Kosnik et al., 1996; Turner, 1959.


Baptisia sphaerocarpa Nutt. Baptisia viridis Larisey. GREEN WILDINDIGO. An eastern species at the southwestern limit of its distribution. Our single specimen record was apparently taken from an area of Pleistocene terrace deposits near the intersection of MoPac and W. 24th St., Austin. Small populations may be extant in open post oak woodlands on similar strata in the eastern half of the county.


Specimens: gravelly hill across M. P. R. R. out 24th St., 31 Mar 1933, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Isely, 1981; Kosnik et al., 1996; Turner, 1959.


Caesalpinia gillesii (Hook.) Benth. BIRD-OF-PARADISE. Introduced shrub. Native of South America, utilized sparingly as an ornamental. Reported from Travis County by Turner (1959), presumably as a rare escape from cultivation.


Specimens: none (from wild plants) at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Isely, 1975; Turner, 1959.


Calliandra conferta Gray. CALLIANDRA. Native shrub. Rare in our area, known only from a 1946 collection from Mt. Bonnell. Remarkably disjunct from the balance of occurrences of this species in Texas, most of which are found far to the south on caliche outcrops in the South Texas Plains, or far to the west on xeric limestone exposures of the Stockton Plateau and the Trans-Pecos. How large the Mt. Bonnell population was at the time of discovery, and whether it is extant, are unknown. A map provided by Isely (1973) indicates a second specimen from somewhere in Travis or an adjacent county.


Specimens: rare on limestone, Mt. Bonnell, 3 mi NW of Austin, W slopes, 24 Apr 1946, B. H. Warnock 46230 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Isely, 1973; Turner, 1959.


Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth. BUTTERFLY PEA. Native perennial herbaceous vine. An infrequent but conspicuous herbaceous component of post oak woodland vegetation to the east, but apparently rare in our area in similar habitat.


Specimens: [to county only], 23 Jul 1940, R. W. Strandtmann s.n. (TEX-LL); rare in old field grassland or dominated by Aristida purpurea and Sporobolus cryptandrus, in deep, well drained, noncalcareous, mildly alkaline fine sand loam over Hensell Sand, SE corner of Pace Bend Park, 27 Aug 1996, W. R. Carr 15665 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Turner, 1959.


Cercis canadensis L. var. canadensis. EASTERN REDBUD. Native tree. A variety ranging over much of eastern North America, found in Texas, at least according to Isely (1973), only in the NE corner of the state. However, Simpson (1988) extended the range SW to eastern Travis County. Rare if present in our area, certainly less common than var. texensis except perhaps in cultivation.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Hopkins, 1942; Isely, 1975; Turner, 1959.


Cercis canadensis L. var. texensis (Wats.) Rose. TEXAS REDBUD. Native tree. Common in woodlands and shrublands on clay soils of limestone uplands, slopes and canyon bottoms. Rare E of the Austin Chalk.


Specimens: Walnut Creek, 15 Jul 1928, B. C. Tharp 44384 (TEX-LL); Austin, 1929, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); on hills near Marshall Ford Dam, 24 May 1940, C. C. Lundell & A. A. Lundell 9099 (TEX-LL); stony soil under Juniperus ashei, St. Edward's University campus, 20 Apr 1954, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL); under Quercus virginiana and Juniperus ashei, thin soil over Austin Chalk, 15 Mar 1959, Bro. D. Lynch C.S.C. s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Hopkins, 1942; Isely, 1975; Turner, 1959.


Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greene. Cassia fasciculata Michx. PARTRIDGE PEA. Native annual. Abundant in disturbed sandy soils in counties to the east, but only marginally common in our area, occurring in lighter-textured alluvium on ancient and modern Colorado River terraces as well as in upland pastures on sandy clay loam that develops over some beds of Cretaceous limestones.


Specimens: Austin, 1 Aug 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); limestone soil at Walnut Creek, 7 mi N of Austin, 10 Oct 1944, R. B. Payton 10 (TEX-LL); 6 mi N of Austin on Big Walnut Creek, 12 Oct 1944, R. B. Payton 57 (TEX-LL); infrequent on limestone prairie ca. 5 mi N of Austin, Walnut Creek, 7 Oct 1945, B. H. Warnock 45-44 (TEX-LL); weedy roadside at jct. of N. Lamar and N. Meadow Dr. in N Austin, 7 Nov 1971, L. Urbatsch 918 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Irwin & Barneby, 1983; Isely, 1975; Turner, 1959.


Clitoria mariana L. PIGEONWINGS. Native perennial herbaceous vine. Young (1920) reported Clitoria mariana as "occasional in the post oak woods." Although we have no recent reports, it may be extant in such woodlands on gravelly hilltops in the eastern half of the county.


Specimens: post oak woods, Austin, 24 May 1916, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); along railroad near Austin, 13 May 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Turner, 1959.


Coronilla varia L. CROWN VETCH. Introduced perennial. Subsequent to its intentional introduction for purposes of erosion control along highways in the northeastern United States, crown vetch rapidly became a noxious weed in that part of the continent. In our area as well as in most of Texas, crown vetch has not achieved such status.


Specimens: scrambling over forbs in thickets on rather dry alluvial soil over limestone, in disturbed opening along hiking trail, N bank of Barton Creek ca. 3000 ft. WSW of W end of Barton Springs Pool, 24 June 1988, W. R. Carr 8998 (UVST). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Lipscomb, 1984.


Dalea aurea Nutt. Parosela aurea (Pursh) Britt. GOLDEN PRAIRIE-CLOVER. Native perennial. Occasional in grasslands on sandy clay on rocky limestone or chalk uplands and slopes.


Specimens: hills W of Colorado River, 4 Jul 1912, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 26 Jul 1920, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 10 mi out, 4 Jul 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin Chalk 10 mi N of Austin, on Dessau Rd. 200 yds E of Dallas Hwy, 13 Jun 1950, Tharp & York 50-157 (TEX-LL); Pilot Knob, E slope, 1/2 way up, granitic soil, 9 Aug 1946, F. A. Barkley & C. M. Rowell 93 (TEX-LL); in red sandy calcareous clay 4 mi NW of Pedernales ferry on Marshall Ford Lake, 25 Jul 1946, F. A. Barkley & C. M. Rowell 55 (TEX-LL); roadside, 5 mi NW of Pedernales River ferry on road to Spicewood, sandy clay outcrop in limestone country, 25 Jul 1946, J. C. Johnson & F. A. Barkley 6057 (TEX-LL); SEU campus, well drained soil, open, 4 Jun 1954, Bro. D. Lynch 9319 (SEU); gravelly clay soil over limestone on unshaded roadside, R. M. 2322 1 mi N of St. Rt. 71, 22 Jun 1981, W. R. Carr 3314 (TEX-LL); Cow Creek Rd. near R> M. 1431, 12 Jun 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Barneby, 1977; Shinners, 1949; Turner, 1959.


Dalea compacta Spreng. var. pubescens (Gray) Barneby. Dalea helleri Shinners; Petalostemum pulcherrimum (Heller) Heller. SHOWY DALEA. Native perennial. Rare in grasslands on dry rocky limestone or chalk slopes, rarer still in Blackland Prairie sites.


Specimens: hills across Colorado River, 4 Jul 1912, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Mt. Bonnell, 24 May 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); near Austin, 15 Jun 1939, B. C. Tharp 43-445 (TEX-LL); Austin, 11 Jun 1942, B. C. Tharp 42-18 (TEX-LL); Austin Chalk, Austin, 10 May 1944, B. C. Tharp 44026 (TEX-LL); dry limestone, near Negro Orphanage at Austin, 21 Jun 1947, B. C. C. C. Albers 47123 (TEX-LL); Atkinson Rd. 1/4 mi E of I-35, field, relatively undisturbed, shallow soil over limestone, 7 Jun 1968, Bro. D. Lynch 9354 (SEU); Austin Chalk outcrop at St. Albans Church, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10792 (TEX-LL); Rodgers Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 23 May 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. Other reports: Runge Prairie (Sexton, 1986a). References: Barneby, 1977; Shinners, 1949; Turner, 1959; Wemple, 1970.


Dalea emarginata (T. & G.) Shinners. Petalostemum emarginatum T. & G. PRAIRIE-CLOVER. Native perennial. Rare in deep loose sand of Colorado River terrace deposits.


Specimens: Austin, 1 May 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); on sand pile on unshaded terrace on E bank of Lake Austin at Lake Austin (Emma Long) City Park, 26 Nov 1981, W. R. Carr 3665 (BRIT/SMU) and 24 April 1985, W. R. Carr & K. Kenka 6356 (UVST, TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Barneby, 1977; Shinners, 1949; Turner, 1959; Wemple, 1970.


Dalea enneandra Nutt. Dalea laxiflora Pursh. BIGTOP DALEA. Native perennial. Common in grasslands and old fields on heavy clay soils of Blackland Prairie; rare W of the Balcones Escarpment.


Specimens: hills W of Colorado River, 4 Jul 1912, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Pilot Knob, E slope, 1/2 way up, granitic soil, 9 Aug 1946, F. A. Barkley & C. M. Rowell 94 (TEX-LL); near Lake Walter E. Long, 4 Jul 1983, E. A. Kutac 9781 (SEU); somewhat stony clay loam, open roadside and fields, E side of F. M. 973, ca. 100 ft. S of Decker Creek bridge, 2 Aug 1986, W. R. Carr & E. A. Kutac 7760 (BRIT/SMU, SEU); clay prairie N of Lake Walter E. Long, 1 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9191 (UVST, TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Barneby, 1977; Shinners, 1949; Turner, 1959.


Dalea frutescens Gray. Parosela frutescens (Gray) Vail. BLACK DALEA. Native shrub. Rare in grasslands and open woodlands on limestone and chalk hills.


Specimens: dry hills, Bee Creek, 16 Nov 1914, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Walnut Creek, fall 1925, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Bull Creek Rd. N of Dry Creek, 5 Oct 1929, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); infrequent on limestone hills at Oswald Wolf's Lodge, 8 mi W of Austin, 30 Sep 1945, B. H. Warnock 45-18 (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch, Lake Travis, 14 Oct 1950, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-503 (TEX-LL); Edwards Plateau Lab. I, TSNL, roadside, unshaded, on Edwards limestone, 3 Oct 1970, Bro. D. Lynch 9320 (SEU); Austin Chalk outcrop, S bank of Walnut Creek behind Baptist church on W side of Lamar, Austin, 9 Oct 1982, W. R. Carr 4376 (BRIT/SMU); top of limestone cliff along Little Bee Creek, just W of Tom Miller Dam, 17 Nov 1982, W. R. Carr 4522 (UVST); a few shrubs on edge of dry unshaded Glen Rose limestone bluff above SW bank of Barton Creek ca. 1/2 mi downstream from St. Rt. 71 bridge, Barton Creek Habitat Preserve, 8 Oct 1997, W. R. Carr 17146 (TEX-LL). Other reports: Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary (Lyter, 1986). References: Barneby, 1977; Shinners, 1949; Turner, 1959.


Dalea lasiathera Gray. PURPLE DALEA. Native perennial. Rare, known in our area from a single specimen.


Specimens: sandy Colorado River plain at Montopolis bridge, Austin, 23 Oct 1952, B. C. Tharp 53-201 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Barneby, 1977; Shinners, 1949; Turner, 1959.


Dalea multiflora (Nutt.) Shinners. Petalostemum multiflorum Nutt. ROUNDHEAD WHITE DALEA. Native perennial. Occasional in grasslands on shallow clay loam or sandy clay over limestone and chalk on uplands and rocky slopes.


Specimens: Onion Creek, Austin, 2 Jul 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); near Austin, 4 Jul 1921, B. C. Tharp 1455 (TEX-LL); roadside, 5 mi NW of Pedernales River ferry on road to Spicewood, sandy clay outcrop in limestone country, 25 Jul 1946, J. C. Johnson & F. A. Barkley 5055 (TEX-LL); Austin Chalk 10 mi N of Austin on Dessau Farm Rd. 200 yds E of Dallas Hwy, 13 Jun 1950, Tharp & York 50-150 (TEX-LL); near Lake Walter E. Long, roadside along F. M. 973, 4 Jul 1983, E. A. Kutac 9810 (SEU). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Barneby, 1977; Shinners, 1949; Turner, 1959; Wemple, 1970.


Dalea nana Torr. var. nana. DWARF DALEA. Native perennial. Occasional in clay or sand in pastures, old fields and various open disturbed areas.


Specimens: Colorado River in Austin, 31 May 1944, B. C. Tharp 44026 (TEX-LL); Colorado River, Montopolis bridge, Jul 1949, C. C. Albers 49092 (TEX-LL); loamy compacted soil in vehicle trail through grassland on limestone upland, Lake Austin City Park, 30 May 1982, W. R. Carr 4038 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Barneby, 1977; Shinners, 1949; Turner, 1959.


Dalea obovata (T. & G.) Shinners. Petalostemum obovatum T. & G. STINKING DALEA. Native perennial; endemic to deep sandy soils of the Gulf Coastal Plain of south and southeast Texas. Attributed to the county by Turner (1959). If extant in our area, it may be found on deep loose sands of Colorado River terrace deposits.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. References: Barneby, 1977; Shinners, 1949; Wemple, 1970.


Dalea tenuis (Coult.) Shinners. Petalostemum tenue (Coult.) Heller; Petalostemum stanfieldii Small; Dalea stanfieldii (Small) Shinners. STANFIELD PRAIRIE-CLOVER. Native perennial; endemic to Texas, ranging from the Edwards Plateau north to the Grand Prairie and Rolling Plains. Apparently uncommon in Travis County, in grasslands on shallow clayey soils on dry open limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: 35 mi W of Austin, Pedernales River, 9 Jul 1929, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); Edwards Plateau Lab. I, TSNL, unshaded bare area from which road fill apparently had been removed, Walnut formation, McDonald, 7 Jun 1973, Bro. D. Lynch 9355 (SEU); dry rocky limestone slope on roadside, Lime Creek Road 1.6 mi N of R. M. 2769, 17 Jun 1981, W. R. Carr 3276 (BRIT/SMU, UVST); rocky limestone slope, Lime Creek Road at Sandy Creek Park, 19 Jun 1981, W. R. Carr 3293 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Barneby, 1977; Orzell, 1990; Shinners, 1949; Turner, 1959.


Desmanthus acuminatus Benth. Desmanthus virgatus (L.) Willd. var. acuminatus (Benth.) Isely. SHARPPOD BUNDLEFLOWER. Native perenn`ial. Once thought to be endemic to Texas, but now interpreted as ranging into South America (Luckow, 1993). Rare or overlooked in grasslands and open areas on sandy to clayey soils.


Specimens: Pilot Knob, 30 May 1951, Tharp & Barkley 51-843 (TEX-LL); rare in silty clay soil on partially shaded lawn of St. Augustine grass, W side of Larry Lane 300 ft. S of Clarkson, Austin, 3 Jul 1988, W. R. Carr 9036 (BRIT/SMU); Webster Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 7 May 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Isely, 1969b; Isely, 1973; Luckow, 1993; Turner, 1959.


Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacM. Acuan illinoense (Michx.) Kuntze. ILLINOIS BUNDLEFLOWER. Native perennial. Occasional in a variety of habitats, perhaps most consistently as a minor component of the herbaceous riparian flora along perennial streams over limestone in the western half of the county and other wet, unshaded situations. It has also been documented from dry limestone outcrops and should be expected in remnant blackland prairies in the eastern part of the county.


Specimens: Bee Creek, Carsner & Studhalter s.n., 7 Jul 1917 (TEX-LL); bottomland near Waller Creek, 7 Jul 1943, M. Harpin & F. A. Barkley 13075 (TEX-LL); St. Edward's University campus, edge of swale, unshaded, 8 Jul 1980, Bro. D. Lynch C.S.C. 9750 (TEX-LL); grassy opening along bank of tributary of Bull Creek, in ravine of W side of Spicewood Springs Rd. 0.3 mi S of Loop 360, 3 Jul 1982, W. R. Carr 4129 (TEX-LL); wet clay seep along Shoal Creek S of 45th St. bridge, 8 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7521 (BRIT/SMU) and 16 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7585 (TEX-LL); dry limestone outcrops, Barton Creek Greenbelt, 0.5 mi NE of Loop 360 bridge, 31 May 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges 10168 (TEX-LL); rare in moist silt on banks of Cypress Creek channel in area normally submerged under Lake Travis but exposed during drought, Cypress Creek Park, 19 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr 15627 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Isely, 1969b; Isely, 1973; Luckow, 1993; Turner, 1959.


Desmanthus leptolobus T. & G. PRAIRIE BUNDLEFLOWER. Native perennial. "Originally in rich blackland prairies and woodlands... now sporadic on roadsides, uncultivated fields, and waste places" (Luckow, 1993). Apparently rare in Travis County.


Specimens: chalky limestone soil, Austin State Hospital cemetery, 25 Jun 1955, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); seasonally wet clay on unshaded eroding high E bank of Shoal Creek S of 45th St. bridge, 8 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7526 (TEX-LL), 17 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7586 (BRIT/SMU) and 29 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7671 (UVST). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Isely, 1969b; Isely, 1973; Luckow, 1993; Turner, 1959.


Desmanthus reticulatus Benth. NETLEAF BUNDLEFLOWER. Native perennial; endemic to Texas, mostly on prairie of the coastal plain, with reports from Bexar, Comal, Gonzales, Guadalupe, Kerr, Kleberg, Live Oak, San Patricio, Travis, Uvalde and Wilson counties. According to Luckow (1993), Desmanthus reticulatus is "undoubtedly endangered and merits protection," as most of its blackland prairie habitat has been converted to agriculture.


Specimens: Shoal Creek, Austin, 27 Apr 1916, B. C. Tharp 1716 (TEX-LL); H & TC RR, black limestone soil, 24 May 1923, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); in pasture, A. S. Bergstrom Farm, Decker, 3 Jul 1944, C. L. Lundell 13077 (TEX-LL); locally abundant in moderately moist silty clay loam in openings in mixed woods on high E bank of Shoal Creek, ca. 1000 ft. S of 45th St. bridge, Austin, 8 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7514 (TEX-LL) and 17 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7582 (BRIT/SMU); Hamilton Pool, 1988-1995, T. Siegenthaler s.n. (TCTNRD). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Isely, 1969b; Isely, 1973; Luckow, 1993; Turner, 1959.


Desmanthus velutinus Scheele. Acuan velutina (Scheele) Kuntze. VELVET BUNDLEFLOWER. Native perennial. Common in well drained calcareous clay in a variety of open situations, sometimes persisting in shade of regrowth juniper woodlands. Perhaps more common in shallow rocky soils west of the Balcones Escarpment than in deeper soils to the east.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Isely, 1969b; Isley, 1973; Luckow, 1993; Turner, 1959.


Desmanthus virgatus (L.) Willd. Incl. var. depressus (Willd.) B. L. Turner. WAND BUNDLEFLOWER. Occasional in disturbed open areas on a variety of soils.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Luckow (1993) cited one specimen from Travis County: Austin, 20 May 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (MICH). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: McKinney Falls SP (Johnston & Riskind, 1975), Commons Ford Park (Carr, 1991), and Walnut Creek Park (Carr, 1990). References: Isely, 1969b; Isley, 1973; Luckow, 1993; Turner, 1959.


Desmodium paniculatum (L.) DC. TALL TICKSEED. Native perennial. Common in deciduous woodlands and thickets on alluvial terraces and in ravine bottoms. Our plants have sometimes been treated as var. paniculatum.


Specimens: on Waller Creek, 19 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 Sep 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); along Waller Creek, 5 Oct 1925, E. R. Bogusch 116 (TEX-LL); Austin, 5 Oct 1938, B. C Tharp XY-16 (TEX-LL); open stream terrace, bottom of limestone ravine, W side of Spicewood Springs Rd 0.4 mi N of Loop 360, 13 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4311 (TEX-LL); dry rocky clay soil on partially shaded roadside, Red Bud Trail on Red Bud Isle, 31 Oct 1985, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 7055 (TEX-LL); disturbed rocky, clayey to silty soil on modified unshaded stream bank, S side of Loop 360, W side of tributary entering Bull Creek from N between southern stretch of Spicewood Springs Road and first Loop 360 bridge to W, 1 Oct 1995, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 14910 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Isely, 1983; Turner, 1959.


Desmodium psilophyllum Schlecht. Desmodium wrightii Gray. ONELEAF TICKSEED. Native perennial. Rare, mostly in mixed woodlands on rocky slopes of mesic limestone canyons.


Specimens: "East Woods", Austin, 5 Oct 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 22 Jan 1923, R. H. Painter s.n. (TEX-LL); growing from crevices in limestone exposed on rimrock at top of W-facing wooded slope, 1 mi NW of jct. Loop 360 and Lakewood Dr., 15 Apr 1984, W. R. Carr 6024 (TEX-LL); wooded limestone ravine and open woods on ridgetop, E side of Weston Dr., N of Bee Cave Rd., 9 Dec 1984, W. R. Carr 6186 (BRIT/SMU); occasional in shade of juniper-oak woodland on limestone bluff, NE side of Lake Austin ca. 1000 ft. NW of Loop 360 bridge, 12 Jun 1988, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 8957 (UVST). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Turner, 1959.


Eysenhardtia texana Scheele. TEXAS KIDNEYWOOD. Native shrub. Common in grasslands, shrublands, and open woodlands on dry limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Eysenhardtia amorphoides). References: Turner, 1959.


Galactia canescens Benth. HOARY MILKPEA. Native perennial; endemic to deep sandy soils of the South Texas Plains and the southern Post Oak Belt, with sporadic occurrences in similar habitats on the Edwards Plateau. Attributed to Travis County by Turner (1959), but voucher specimens of all Texas Galactia were unavailable from TEX-LL during the fifteen years of this writing. Probably rare in our area, to be expected in pockets on deep, well drained sand on alluvial terraces.


Specimens: on loan from TEX-LL, not examined. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Turner, 1959.


Galactia marginalis Benth. ONELEAF MILKPEA. Native perennial. Rare in post oak woodlands on sandy to gravelly soils derived from Colorado River terrace deposits.


Specimens: edge of post oak woodland on Pleistocene terrace deposits, F. M. 973, 0.8 mi. S of Bloor Rd., 19 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & M. Enquist 10759 (TEX-LL); frequent in grassland component of open Quercus fusiformis-Ulmus crassifolia-Quercus stellata woodland on sandy loam on gentle slope at or near contact of Hensell Sand and Glen Rose Limestone, ca. 200 ft. NW of entrance booth at Pace Bend Park, 31 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr 15654 (TEX-LL). Earlier collections on loan from TEX-LL, not examined. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Turner, 1959.


Galactia regularis (L.) B. S. P. Galactia volubilis (L.) Britt. DOWNY MILKPEA. Native perennial herbaceous vine. Occasional in thickets and along margins of woodlands on alluvial terraces.


Specimens: occasional in well drained gravelly clay loam on stony colluvial-alluvial terrace, shade of Ashe junipers and cedar elms, trail along ephemeral creek in NE 1/4 of Balcones City Park, 28 Jul 1993, W. R. Carr, M. Candee & P. Turner 12945 (TEX-LL); occasional in mixed woodland along upland edge of baldcypress gallery forest, bottom of mesic limestone collapse grotto at Hamilton Pool, 18 Sep 1996, W. R. Carr, T. Siegenthaler & A. Ahrns 15729 (TEX-LL). Earlier collections on loan from TEX-LL, not examined. Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986). References: Duncan, 1979.


Galactia texana (Scheele) Gray. TEXAS MILKPEA. Native perennial herbaceous vine; endemic to the Edwards Plateau and adjacent South Texas Plains, with records from Bandera, Bexar, Comal, Edwards, Fayette, Hays, Kinney, Real, Travis, Uvalde, Val Verde and Zavala counties. Rare in clay or clay loam in juniper-oak woodlands on rocky limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: dry rocky clay and alluvium in unshaded opening in juniper-oak woodland on lower slope of limestone canyon, along Barton Creek ca. 1.3-1.4 airmiles WSW of bridge on Barton Springs Rd., Austin, 24 Jun 1988, W. R. Carr 9003 (UVST; TEX-LL); fairly dry alluvial soil in partially shaded thicket along Barton Creek ca. 1.7 airmiles WSW of bridge on Barton Springs Rd., Austin, 26 Jun 1988, W. R. Carr 9004 (TEX-LL). Two additional specimens lack the mature fruits necessary to distinguish Galactia texana from Galactia volubilis with confidence: dry rocky soil over limestone, juniper woodland on top of bluff on N side of Colorado River W of Loop 360 bridge, 16 Jun 1988, W. R. Carr 8971 (TEX-LL); fairly dry clay and humus in juniper-oak woodland on limestone slope, NE side of Lake Austin, 1000-1200 ft. NW of mouth of Bull Creek, 8 Jul 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9059 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Gleditsia triacanthos L. HONEY LOCUST. Native tree. Rare in or poorly documented from our area. Mary Sophie Young (1920) reported that honey locust grew "wild on the river floodplains," but no early specimens have come to light. It occurs in small numbers in deciduous riparian woodlands along Onion Creek at Moya Park. P. Turner (1996) reported a small population in an abandoned upland pasture on clay soils over Austin Chalk at Walnut Creek Park, and this seems consistent with the invasive behavior of honey locust on Blackland Prairies in North Texas.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Isely, 1975; Turner, 1959.


Glottidium vesicaria (Jacq.) R. Harper. Sesbania vesicaria (Jacq.) Ell. BLADDERPOD SESBANIA. Native annual. Rare in moist soils in and along stream bottoms, margins of impoundments, and open disturbed areas.


Specimens: infrequent in gravel and sand in middle of dry streambottom, Shoal Creek, 0-0.2 mi S of Northland/Allandale bridge, Austin, 27 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4249 (BRIT/SMU); common, with S. macrocarpa, in muddy to gravelly bottom of Shoal Creek between 38th and 45th Sts, Austin, 11 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4306 (BRIT/SMU); no sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996; apparently on loan. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Turner, 1959.


Indigofera miniata Ort. var. miniata (Nutt.) B. L. Turner. SCARLET PEA. Native perennial. Rare in grasslands and open disturbed areas on sandy soils.


Specimens: City of Austin, at corner of Red River and 38th St., plants scattered on this street corner, open grassy area, 10 May 1988, G. Nesom 6406 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Indigofera miniata Ort. var. leptosepala (Nutt.) B. L. Turner. Indigofera leptosepala Nutt. SCARLET PEA. Native perennial. Common in grasslands and open areas on various soils, mostly over limestone and chalk but also over sand and gravel terrace deposits.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Turner, 1959.


Lathyrus hirsutus L. SINGLETARY PEA. Introduced annual. Sometimes seeded in pastures as a forage plant, rarely persisting.


Specimens: rare in weedy grassy opening on dry alluvial gravels and silt over Glen Rose Limestone shelf, on unshaded terrace on S side of Dry Creek, ca. 1000 ft. SW of jct. R. M. 2222 and Mesa Blvd., Brightleaf State Natural Area, Austin, 11 May 1995, W. R. Carr & L. Kissock 14630 (TEX-LL).


Lathyrus pusillus Ell. LOW PEAVINE. Native annual. Rare in grasslands and relatively undisturbed open areas on all substrates.


Specimens: grassy places around Austin, 10 Apr 1897, no collector [Long?] (TEX-LL); University campus, 5 Apr 1910, Breuer & Roberts 3073 (TEX-LL); Austin Chalk 4 mi N of Austin, 1 May 1946, B. C. Tharp 46037 (TEX-LL); in black soil derived from basalt, Pilot Knob, 5 Apr 1954, S. Ely s.n. (TEX-LL); Rt. 973 S of Manor, E of Austin, crest of hill ca. 1 mi E of Lake Walter E. Long dam, roadside in post oak and juniper woodland, soil of mixed river terrace and clay, 31 May 1985, B. Ertter & S. Keeley 5658 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. Other reports: Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary (Lyter, 1986); Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986). References: Turner, 1959.


Lespedeza stuevei Nutt. Lespedeza frutescens of Young, 1920. STUEVE BUSHCLOVER. Native perennial. Found by Young (1920) "in the post oak woodland;" also reported from Travis County by Turner (1959). Fairly common in sandy soils in Bastrop County and probably extant on Pleistocene river terraces in the eastern part of Travis County.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Clewell, 1966.


Lespedeza texana Britt. TEXAS BUSHCLOVER. Native perennial. Closely allied to and difficult to distinguish from Lespedeza procumbens Michx. and Lespedeza repens (L.) Bart. Reports of the former (Young, 1920) are apparently based on Lespedeza texana, but the latter may occur in our area. Common in and along juniper-oak woodlands on rocky limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Clewell, 1966; Turner, 1959.


Lespedeza virginica (L.) Britt. VIRGINIA BUSHCLOVER. Native perennial. Rare in open post oak woodlands on sandy gravelly Pleistocene terrace deposits.


Specimens: from post oak ground, Pease Park, Oct 1900, and sandy gravel, Hyde Park, Nov 1900, W. H. Long s.n. (TEX-LL); infrequent in limestone soil pasture land near UT campus, Austin, 28 Oct 1944, B. H. Warnock W1080 (TEX-LL); edge of post oak woodland on Pleistocene terrace deposits, F. M. 973 0.8 mi. S of Bloor Rd., 19 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & M. Enquist 10764b (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Clewell, 1966; Turner, 1959.


Lotus purshianus (Benth.) Clem. & Clem. var. purshianus. Lotus americanus (Nutt.) Bisch. PURSH DEERVETCH. Native annual. A species of the western United States, common in North Texas and in the Llano Uplift, but scarce in Travis County, restricted to gravelly sandy loam in open post oak woodlands.


Specimens: hills E of Waller Creek, May 1912, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 20 May 1922, B. C. Tharp 1476 (TEX-LL); abundant in the post oak gravelly soil near the municipal airport E of Austin, 18 May 1946, F. A. Barkley, C. M. Rowell & B. H. Warnock 45239 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Isely, 1981; Turner, 1959.


Lupinus texensis Hook. TEXAS BLUEBONNET. Native annual. Common in grasslands and open areas on all substrates.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Turner, 1959.


Medicago arabica (L.) Huds. SPOTTED BURCLOVER. Naturalized annual. Locally common in alluvial soils in disturbed deciduous riparian woodlands along Onion Creek near McKinney Falls, but generally scarce in our area.


Specimens: campus, 27 Dec 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Turner, 1959.


Medicago lupulina L. BLACK MEDICK. Naturalized annual. In similar habitats but much less common than Medicago minima.


Specimens: weed on lawn, in calcareous soil, University of Texas campus, 1 Jan 1955, W. L. McCart 5005 (TEX-LL); occasional in disturbed clay soil in cleared area on N slope of Cat Mt. near summit, SE of jct. if R. M. 2222 and Far West Blvd., 21 Apr 1983, W. R. 4746 (TEX-LL); Shaw Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 30 Mar 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Turner, 1959.


Medicago minima (L.) L. LEAST BURCLOVER. Naturalized annual. Common in grasslands, pastures, roadsides and other disturbed open sites.


Specimens: several sheets at TEX-LL, the earliest being Austin, 28 Apr 1922, B. C. Tharp 1487 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Turner, 1959.


Medicago orbicularis (L.) Bartal. BUTTON BURCLOVER. Adventive or naturalized annual. Apparently a rare weed in our area.


Specimens: roadside, Austin, May 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL) and 10 May 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Turner, 1959.


Medicago polymorpha L. Medicago hispida Gaertn. COMMON BURCLOVER. Naturalized annual. Occasional in open disturbed areas, often in moister sites than those invaded by our other burclovers.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, the earliest dating from 1900. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Turner, 1959.


Medicago sativa L. ALFALFA. Introduced annual. Spontaneous but rarely persistent in our area.


Specimens: rare in disturbed dry sandy to gravelly alluvium on N bank of Colorado River under US Rt. 183 bridges, 28 Apr 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15191 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Turner, 1959.


Melilotus albus Lam. WHITE SWEETCLOVER. Naturalized annual. Occasional on roadsides and in open disturbed areas. Perhaps increasing in abundance in our area.


Specimens: garden, University campus, 31 May 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 24 Jul 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Turner, 1959.


Melilotus indicus (L.) All. YELLOW SWEETCLOVER. Naturalized annual. Our most common sweetclover, found in disturbed situations throughout.


Specimens: several sheets at TEX-LL, the earliest dating from 1909. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Turner, 1959.


Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. YELLOW SWEETCLOVER. Naturalized annual. Rare in our area; reported from Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, 1996) and present in small numbers in disturbed sites in other scattered locations.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Mimosa texana (Gray) Small. Mimosa biuncifera Benth. of local auth. CATCLAW MIMOSA. Native shrub. Rare in grasslands and shrublands on rocky limestone uplands and in deeper soils of adjacent open stream terraces.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. Other reports: Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary (Lyter, 1986). References: Barneby, 1989; Barneby & Isely, 1986; Isely, 1973; Turner, 1959.


Mimosa borealis Gray. Mimosa fragrans Gray. FRAGRANT MIMOSA. Native shrub. The common shrubby mimosa of dry rocky limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Barneby, 1989; Barneby & Isely, 1986; Isely, 1973; Turner, 1959.


Mimosa nuttallii (Nutt.) B. L. Turner. Schrankia nuttallii (Britt. & Rose) Standl. Schrankia uncinata of auth., not Willd. CATCLAW SENSITIVE-BRIAR. Native perennial. Rare in grasslands and disturbed open sites on deep loose sand of Pleistocene terrace deposits.


Specimens: Easley Cemetery, 29 Jul 1987, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA); deep, well drained, slightly acid, loamy sand over Pleistocene Colorado River terrace deposits, weedy vacant lot on W side of US Rt. 183, 500 ft. S of Thompson Lane, Montopolis neighborhood of east Austin, 29 Oct 1994, W. R. Carr & M. Enquist 14344 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Isely, 1971; Isely, 1973; Turner, 1959; Turner, 1994b.


Mimosa roemeriana Scheele. Schrankia roemeriana (Scheele) Blank. ROEMER SENSITIVEBRIAR. Native perennial. The common "schrankia" of our area, encountered in grasslands on clayey calcareous soils throughout the county.


Specimens: Austin, 6 Sep 1907, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); University campus, 19 Apr 1909, F. A. Wolf s.n. (TEX-LL); dry soil, Austin, spring 1932, C. C. Albers s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 14 May 1940, B. C. Tharp 20595 (TEX-LL); Pilot Knob, 30 May 1951, Tharp & Barkley 51-814 (TEX-LL); Shield Ranch, 29 Jun 1982, D. Dunlap 85 (TEX-LL); margin of juniper-oak woodland and open field, limestone upland, Bull Creek watershed, 7 May 1983, W. R. Carr 4828 (BRIT/SMU); meadow NW of Highland Mall, between Middle Fiskville Rd., Highland Mall Blvd., and E. Huntland Dr., full of wildflowers, shallow soil on limestone, 30 Apr 1983, B. Ertter 4781 (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, 21 Apr 1984, W. R. Carr 6036 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Isely, 1971; Isely, 1973; Turner, 1959; Turner, 1994b.


Mimosa strigillosa T. & G. CREEPING MIMOSA, POWDERPUFF, VERGONZOSA. Native perennial. A species of the southeastern United States which in Travis County may be represented only by introduction via the sod trade. An occasional weed of St. Augustine grass lawns in Austin, quite conspicuous when blooming.


Specimens: prostrate weed in lawn, SE corner of Shoal Creek Blvd. and W. 39 1/2 St., Austin, 22 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4338 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Barneby, 1989; Isely, 1973; Turner, 1959.


Neptunia lutea (Leavenw.) Benth. YELLOW NEPTUNIA. Native perennial. Frequent in deep sandy to loamy soils to the east, poorly documented and perhaps rare in our area. It should be sought in post oak woodlands on Pleistocene river terraces on ridges in the eastern half of the county, as well as in sandy alluvium on more recent terraces.


Specimens: Austin, summer 1932, C. C. Albers s.n. (TEX-LL); rare in patch of mostly weedy grasses and forbs on small low silt and gravel bank in bed of Barton Creek, ca. 1/4-1/2 mi. upstream from Barton Springs Pool, 16 Nov 1996, W. R. Carr, P. McNeal & P. Turner 15850 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Runge Prairie (Sexton, 1986a). References: Isely, 1969b; Isely, 1973; Turner, 1959.


Oxytropis lambertii Pursh. LAMBERT LOCOWEED. Native perennial. A Great Plains species, at the southern limit of its distribution and considerably disjunct from closest known populations to the north. Known historically in our area from one or two locations on Austin Chalk. No recent reports or collections.


Specimens: Austin, 24 Apr 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Jourdan Springs Creek near Austin (tributary from the E of Big Walnut, S of Dessau Rd.), 4 Apr 1947, B. C. Tharp 47166 (TEX-LL); Gile's place on Big Walnut Creek, Cameron Rd., Austin Chalk, 12 Apr 1947, B. W. Gile s.n. (TEX-LL); bare Austin Chalk, Big Walnut Creek on Cameron Rd., 11 Apr 1951, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Turner, 1959.


Parkinsonia aculeata L. RETAMA. Native tree or large shrub. A species primarily of moist subtropical woodlands, occurring here, near the northern edge of its range, as an occasional component of disturbed riparian woodlands or as a weed in ruderal urban areas.


Specimens: Austin, 15 Apr 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 9 May 1935, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL) and 16 Nov 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Red Bud Trail just W of the bridge across the Colorado River, 29 Jul 1990, M. Bierner 90-132 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Isely, 1975; Turner, 1959.


Pediomelum cuspidatum (Pursh) Rydb. Psoralea cuspidata Pursh. TALLBREAD SCURFPEA. Native perennial. Doubtful in our area. Young (1920) found this species on "dry hills of the Edwards Plateau," and Lynch (1974) found this species on "unshaded dry, stony slopes." It is likely that these reports and others are based on some other taxon, perhaps Pediomelum latestipulatum var. appressum. Neither Turner (1959) nor Grimes (1990) encountered a specimen from Travis County, but one may reside at SEU.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. Other reports: Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary (Lyter, 1986).


Pediomelum cyphocalyx (Gray) Rydb. Psoralea cyphocalyx Gray. TURNIP-ROOT SCURFPEA. Native perennial; endemic to the Edwards Plateau and north-central Texas, with records from Bandera, Bexar, Blanco, Burnet, Comal, Coryell, Hamilton, Hays, Kendall, Kerr, Lampasas, Parker and Wise counties. A conspicuous species fairly well represented in herbaria, but seldom if ever collected in Travis County. To the west and north, Pediomelum cyphocalyx occurs in grasslands and open juniper-oak woodlands on dry rocky soil over limestone, usually in full sun. Included here solely on the basis of a recent report from Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986).


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Grimes, 1990; Turner, 1959.


Pediomelum hypogaeum (Nutt. ex T. & G.) Rydb. var. hypogaeum. Psoralea hypogaea T. & G. var. hypogaea. EDIBLE SCURFPEA. Native perennial. A taxon of the Great Plains, here at the southern tip of its range and considerably disjunct from nearest reported populations to the north (see map in Grimes, 1990). Our single specimen record is questionable.


Specimens: Hyde Park, 2 Apr 1898, no collector or number (TEX-LL). Note that this sheet was annotated by Grimes as being a mixed collection of Pediomelum hypogaeum var. hypogaeum and Pediomelum hypogaeum var. scaposum. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (not as to variety, and most likely referable to the next). References: Grimes, 1990; Turner, 1959.


Pediomelum hypogaeum (Nutt. ex T. & G.) Rydb. var. scaposum (Gray) Grimes. Psoralea hypogaea Nutt ex T. & G. var. scaposa Gray; Psoralea scaposa (Gray) McBride; Pediomelum scaposum (Gray) Rydb. EDIBLE SCURFPEA. Native perennial. Endemic to the Edwards Plateau, Lampasas Cutplain and Western Cross Timbers, with records from Bandera, Bell, Blanco, Comal, Comanche, Erath, Gillespie, Hood, Johnson, Kendall, Kerr, Lampasas, McLennan, Mills, Tarrant, Travis, Williamson and Wise counties; reported from Arkansas by Bridges & Orzell (1987) but not by Grimes (1990) or Smith (1994). Rare in our area, mostly in grasslands and open juniper-oak woodlands on limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: Hyde Park, Austin, 2 Apr 1898, no collector, no number (TEX-LL); Pflugerville, 1899, C. Hartmann s.n. (TEX-LL); 3.6 mi. W of University along Scenic Drive, in Andropogon grassland, 12 Apr 1955, B. L. Turner 3736 (TEX-LL); NW Austin, corner of Scenic Drive and Pecos St., limestone slope amongst grass, 20 Apr 1964, D. J. Ockendon 32 (TEX-LL); open grassy limestone slope, Cat Mt., Austin, 30 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4786 (BRIT/SMU); rare on mat of Carex microdonta and Muhlenbergia reverchonii along margin of small stream, 0.8 mi N of jct. Loop 360 and Lakewood Dr., 8 Apr 1984, W. R. Carr 6004 (UVST); rare in shallow brown clay loam over Glen Rose Limestone in little bluestem-tall grama-seep muhly grassland from which Ashe juniper and other shrubs were recently cut, Commons Ford Metro Park, 30 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr 11127 (TEX-LL); Rodgers Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 26 Apr 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR); rare, a few plants in grassy understory of open live oak savanna on Brackett soils on rolling Glen Rose upland, Hafif Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 19 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 18862 (TEX-LL). References: Grimes, 1990; Turner, 1959.


Pediomelum latestipulatum (Shinners) Mahler var. appressum (Ockendon) Gandhi & L. E. Brown. Psoralea latestipulata Shinners var. appressa Ockendon. BROAD-STIPULE SCURFPEA. Native perennial. Essentially endemic to the Edwards Plateau, (Bandera, Bexar, Burnet, Hays, Kerr, Kimble, Travis, Williamson and counties), with one record from the Stockton Plateau in Pecos County; there are also cryptic records from Caldwell and Gonzales counties. Occasional in grasslands and open juniper-oak woodlands on clayey calcareous soils on limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: 18 sheets at TEX-LL, 18 Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Grimes, 1990.


Pediomelum linearifolium (T. & G.) J. Grimes. Psoralea linearifolia T. & G. SLIMLEAF SCURFPEA. Native perennial. A species of the Great Plains and limestone prairies of north-central Texas, here near the southern tip of its range. Rare in grassland openings on rocky dry Glen Rose limestone slopes.


Specimens: in red sandy calcareous clay 4 mi NW of Pedernales Ferry on Marshall Ford Lake, 25 Jul 1946, F. A. Barkley & C. Rowell 58 (TEX-LL); Cow Creek Rd. just N of R. M. 1431, 22 Jun 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR 477); locally common in midgrass opening in juniper-oak woodland on rocky slope of Glen Rose Limestone, S side of Bee Cave Rd. (R. M. 2244) ca. 300 ft. E of jct. Cuernevaca Rd., 8 Jun 1996, W. R. Carr, M. Enquist & W. Rohrer 15510 (TEX-LL); rare in shallow gravelly clay in Bouteloua pectinata-Muhlenbergia reverchonii grassland patches on cleared or xeric portions of steep, rocky Glen Rose limestone slope, Windy Point Park, 21 Jun 1996, W. R. Carr 15546 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Grimes, 1990; Turner, 1959.


Pediomelum rhombifolium (T. & G.) Rydb. Psoralea rhombifolia T. & G. ROUNDLEAF SCURFPEA. Native perennial. Rare in patches of relatively sparse or low vegetation in grasslands on various soils, perhaps most common on deeper sands but not infrequent on shallow clays of limestone uplands.


Specimens: along RR, Austin, 13 May 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); limestone bluff S of Williamson Creek E of I-35 in SE Austin, juniper woodland, 25 May 1983, B. Ertter & J. W. Grimes 4855 (TEX-LL); Brackenridge Field Station, 1 May 1984, J. Neff s.n. (TEX-LL); along small drainages of limestone bluffs S of Williamson Creek, E of I-35 and N of William Cannon Blvd. in SE Austin, juniper woodland, Jun 1984, J. Grimes 2467 (TEX-LL); sandpile on Colorado River terrace at S end of Lake Austin City Park, 21 Apr 1985, W. R. Carr 6360 (TEX-LL); sandy loam on "lawn" on unshaded Colorado River terrace, Mary Quinlan Park, 3 May 1986, W. R. Carr 7380 (BRIT/SMU); dry shallow rocky limestone prairie openings in valley of Barton Creek, ca. 2 mi upstream from Barton Springs at Zilker Park, 0.5 mi NE of Loop 360 bridge, 31 May 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges (TEX-LL); Rodgers Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 26 Apr 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Grimes, 1990; Turner, 1959.


Phaseolus sp. WILD BEAN. Perennial (?) herbaceous vine of unknown nativity. Rare in our area, known from a small population at a single site. This area is home to a number of interesting natives, suggesting that this species may be a member of our indigenous flora. However, it has lately been subjected to increasing levels of disturbance, and it seems more likely that this species may be simply a crop plant that appeared spontaneously after its seeds somehow escaped the bulk storage bins at some local grocery.


Specimens: climbing into shrubs and trailing on ground, in shade of mixed woodland on silty to rocky alluvial soil on narrow terrace of nearly perennial stream draining limestone canyons, tributary of Bull Creek emanating from Stillhouse Hollow, ca. 100-200 ft. upstream from (E of) its confluence with Mayfield Creek, 23 Sep 1995, W. R. Carr & M. Mayfield 14861 (TEX-LL); also 1 Oct 1995, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 14909 (TEX-LL) and 26 Oct 1995, W. R. Carr & J. Maresh 15065 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Delgado Salinas, 1985; Turner, 1959.


Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa. Prosopis juliflora of auth. HONEY MESQUITE. Native tree. Common in grasslands and pastures on all substrates, more frequent in deep soils of valleys and of Blackland Prairies than in shallow rocky soils of limestone uplands. In addition to var. glandulosa, Turner (1959) reported var. torreyana (L. Benson) M. C. Johnst. from Travis County.


Specimens: not examined. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Burkart, 1976; Isely, 1973; Turner, 1959.


Psoralidium tenuiflorum (Pursh) Rydb. Psoralea tenuiflora Pursh. WILD ALFALFA. Native perennial. A wide-ranging species apparently of rare occurrence in our area, usually on sandy clay loam on open eroding slopes.


Specimens: along fence at W boundary of Concordia College campus, Austin, 22 Jul 1946, O. T. Walle 7 (TEX-LL); locally common on eroding clay slope, unshaded roadbank below juniper woodland, Hill Drive, 0.1 mi NW of Johnson Rd., W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9102 (UVST).


Rhynchosia latifolia Nutt. T. & G. BROADLEAF SNOUTBEAN. Native perennial. A species of sandy soils occurring regularly to the south and east, but doubtful within Travis County.


Specimens: N. R. R. Rt. of way, 26 Aug 1926, no collector or number (TEX-LL). Added in another hand is the word "Austin," but the original label does not indicate city or county. Grear (1978) cited an additional specimen which he attributed to Travis County: Austin, May 1828, Berlandier 1591 (G, P). According to Geiser (1948) and McKelvey (1956), Berlandier was in the vicinity of San Felipe during this period, and the "Austin" of his label undoubtedly referred to the Austin Colony of which San Felipe was the capital rather than to the city of Austin, which had not yet been settled (or at least so named) and which Berlandier did not visit. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Grear, 1978; Turner, 1959.


Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC. LEAST SNOUTBEAN. Perennial herbaceous vine, thought to be native to the Old World (Grear, 1978). Common in thickets, along woodland margins, and in disturbed areas on various substrates.


Specimens: Travis Heights, Austin, 23 Aug 1922, B. C. Tharp 1714 (TEX-LL); embankment, valley of Shoal Creek, Austin, 9 Oct 1954, W. L. McCart 4026 (TEX-LL); dry shallow rocky limestone prairie openings, valley of Barton Creek ca. 2 mi upstream from Barton Springs in Zilker Park, 0.5 mi NE of Loop 360 bridge, 31 May 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges 10146 (TEX-LL); bottom of Shoal Creek between 38th and 45th St. bridges, Austin, 11 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4305 (BRIT/SMU); upland oak savanna, SW corner of McKinney Falls State Park, 19 Oct 1985, W. R. Carr & E. A. Kutac 7025 (SEU). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Grear, 1978; Turner, 1959.


Rhynchosia senna Hook. var. texana (T. & G.) M. C. Johnst. Rhynchosia texana T. & G.; Rhynchosia senna Hook. var. angustifolia (Gray) Grear. TEXAS SNOUTBEAN. Native perennial herbaceous vine. Occasional in habitats as diverse as those of its preceding congener.


Specimens: campus, in open ground, trailing on grass, 5 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 6 Oct 1923, R. H. Painter s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Aug 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); limestone outcrop 3 mi NW of Austin, 11 Jul 1943, J. Cohn & F. A. Barkley 13256a (TEX-LL); dry rocky limestone soil, 10 Apr 1946, J. C. Johnson 6013A (TEX-LL); infrequent on limestone hills at Barton's Spring, 13 Apr 1946, B. H. Warnock 21429 (TEX-LL); from clumps of Stillingia about 8 mi from Austin on the Bee Cave Rd., 1 June 1946, C. L. York 46119 (TEX-LL); Pilot Knob, 30 May 1951, Tharp & Barkley 51-831 (TEX-LL); Site 5 on Shield Ranch, 24 Jun 1982, D. W. Dunlap 72 (TEX-LL); in silty clay loam under spreading Quercus fusiformis on slope ca. 100 ft. W of Shoal Creek, 300 ft. S of 45th St. bridge, Austin, 17 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7581 (TEX-LL); clayey loam in grassy openings in oak/ash woods in valley between limestone ridges, SE side of Loop 360 0.5 mi NE of Lakewood Drive, 28 Apr 1984, W. R. Carr 6051 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Grear, 1978; Johnston, 1984; Turner, 1959.


Robinia pseudoacacia L. BLACK LOCUST. Tree, native to North America but probably introduced and sparingly naturalized in our area. Lynch (1974) reported a small population between South 1st Street and Congress Avenue north of St. Elmo in Austin; it has also been found at Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, 1996). A cluster of seemingly feral trees was extant in 1996 along Shoal Creek Boulevard near 40th Street in Austin.


Specimens: Austin, Hemphill Park N of UT campus, tree in vacant lot, 8 Apr 1985, B. Ertter 5676 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Isely, 1975; Turner, 1959.


Senna lindheimerana (Scheele) Irwin & Barneby. Cassia lindheimeriana Scheele. LINDHEIMER SENNA. Native perennial. Frequent in grasslands in shallow clay loam over limestone on rocky or level uplands, less common on open limestone slopes.


Specimens: hillsides and hills, Bee Creek, 20 Oct 1900, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); dry hillsides above Bee Creek, 6 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); S end of wagon bridge, Jul 1911, McKee & Wesley 3923 (TEX-LL); Austin, 17 Nov 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); W of Austin, 17 Nov 1939, B. H. Warnock 94 (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 23 Jul 1976, E. McKinney 050 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Irwin & Barneby, 1983; Isely, 1975; Turner, 1959.


Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby. Cassia obtusifolia L. SICKLEPOD SENNA. Adventive annual or perennial. A circumtropical weedy species, native to parts of North America but undoubtedly a casual waif in our area.


Specimens: rare weed in vacant lot, W side of N. Lamar Blvd. just S of W. 34th St., Austin, 7 Nov 1982, W. R. Carr 4504 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Irwin & Barneby, 1983; Isely, 1975; Turner, 1959.


Senna occidentalis (L.) Link. Cassia occidentalis L. COFFEE SENNA. Adventive annual. Native of the tropics and subtropics of both the New World and the Old World, but a rare waif in our area. Used as a coffee substitute on three continents despite its lack of caffeine (Irwin & Barneby, 1983).


Specimens: near H & TC tracks, 3 mi below Austin, in ravine, sandy soil, 12 Oct 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Irwin & Barneby, 1983; Isely, 1975; Turner, 1959.


Senna roemeriana (Scheele) Irwin & Barneby. Cassia roemeriana Scheele. TWOLEAF SENNA. Native annual. Common in grasslands and open areas in shallow clay soils on rocky limestone slopes and uplands. Rare E of the Austin Chalk.


Specimens: 17 sheets at TEX-LL, 6 Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Irwin & Barneby, 1983; Isely, 1975; Turner, 1959.


Sesbania drummondii (Rydb.) Cory. Daubentonia longifolia of Young, 1920. RATTLEBOX SESBANIA. Native shrub or perennial. Common in moist soils in and along stream bottoms, margins of impoundments, and open disturbed areas.


Specimens: near H & TC track 3 mi below Austin, 12 Oct 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); S end of wagon bridge, Jul 1911, McKee & Wesley s.n. (TEX-LL); Devil's Canyon, 9 Nov 1927, J. F. Normand s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 20 Jun 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL) and 4 Oct 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Williamson Creek 2 mi S of St. Edward's University campus, 1 Nov 1954, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL); along Slaughter Lane 0.2 mi E of MoPac, 31 Jul 1990, M. Bierner 90-142 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Turner, 1959.


Sesbania herbacea (Mill.) McVaugh. Sesbania macrocarpa Muhl.; Sesbania emerus (Aubl.) Urban. COFFEE-BEAN SESBANIA, SLENDERPOD SESBANIA. Native annual. Common in moist soils in and along stream bottoms, margins of impoundments, and open disturbed areas.


Specimens: Barton Creek, 29 Aug 1912, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); abundant in creek bottom above Barton Springs, Austin, 10 Sep 1944, B. H. Warnock 21621 (TEX-LL); abundant in gravel and sand in middle of dry stream-bottom, Shoal Creek, 0-0.2 mi S of Northland/Allandale bridge, Austin, 27 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4250 (BRIT/SMU); Bull Creek Park SW of Spicewood Springs Rd., E of Loop 360, sunny streamside in cedar and oak woodland on limestone, 11 Sep 1983, B. Ertter, M. Lavin & K. Lavin 5137 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Turner, 1959; Wilbur, 1989.


Sophora affinis T. & G. EVE'S NECKLACE. Native tree. Rare to locally frequent in woodlands on mesic limestone slopes, in canyons, on alluvial terraces, occurring on limestone as well as sandy substrates.


Specimens: Shoal Creek in black soil, 20 Apr 1901, Long s.n. (TEX-LL); near Still House Spring, Austin, 20 Dec 1907, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); near Oakwood Cemetery, Jul 1911, McKee & Wesley s.n. (TEX-LL); on limestone bluff of Onion Creek at Post Rd., 16 May 1940, C. L. Lundell & A. A. Lundell 8933 (TEX-LL); W of Austin, Bee Caves Rd., in cedar brakes, 21 Apr 1941, C. L. Lundell & A. A. Lundell 10285 (TEX-LL); limestone bluffs above Zilker Park, 8 Oct 1944, B. H. Warnock W1045 (TEX-LL); St. Edwards University campus, small tree at edge of hackberry grove, 30 Mar 1954, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL); rare in fairly dry clay loam at top of shaded WSW-facing limestone slope, E side of Bull Creek, 2 mi WSW of jct. R. M. 2222 and R. M. 620, 16 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr 9124 (TEX-LL); mesic calcareous stream terrace hardwood forest, valley of Barton Creek, 2 mi upstream from Barton Springs in Zilker Park, 0.5 mi NE of Loop 360 bridge, 19 Apr 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges 9330 (TEX-LL); Webster Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 22 Jun 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Isely, 1981; Turner, 1959.


Sophora secundiflora (Ort.) DC. TEXAS MOUNTAINLAUREL. Native shrub. Common in woodlands and shrublands on dry rocky limestone slopes, often in openings on and at the top of steep bluffs; also widely cultivated.


Specimens: 15 sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Isely, 1981; Turner, 1959.


Strophostyles helvola (L.) Ell. AMERIQUEBEAN. Native vinelike annual or perennial. Rare, local in thickets in moist soils in creekbottoms and along riverbanks.


Specimens: first knoll E of Garfield on Hwy 71, 5 Oct 1966, J. A. Mears 1014 (TEX-LL); occasional in sandy alluvium in thickets in riverbottom along N bank of Colorado River, 100-500 ft. W of US Rt. 183 bridges, 1 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3434 (TEX-LL); frequent, scattered in clay silt and gravel in seasonally drying bed of Shoal Creek ca. 25-300 ft. S of W. 45th St. bridge, Austin, 23 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4236 (TEX-LL); rare in herbaceous thicket of Xanthium strumarium, very large Heliotropium indicum, Sesbania drummondii, etc., in silt and sand among limestone rubble exposed during drought in bed of Lake Travis, Maxey Cove, Pace Bend Park, 31 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr 15646 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Strophostyles leiosperma (T. & G.) Piper. SLICKSEED WILDBEAN. Native annual. Common to the east but rare in our area, known from a single collection.


Specimens: common in dry to fairly moist sand or sandy loam in small swale on unshaded river terrace, NE bank of Lake Austin (Colorado River) at S end of Lake Austin (Emma Long) Metro Park, 24 Sep 1989, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10057 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Trifolium bejariense Moric. BEXAR CLOVER. Native annual; endemic to Texas, ocurring primarily in the post oak belt but ranging south to the Coastal Bend, southeast to the Houston area, and north nearly to the Red River. Rare in disturbed areas or early successional grasslands on sandy to loamy soils.


Specimens: Pease Park, Austin, 9 Apr 1898, no collector (TEX-LL; a mixed sheet, with Trifolium carolinianum); Austin, 30 Apr 1909, Heald & Wolf s.n. (TEX-LL; another mixed sheet, with Trifolium carolinianum); Austin, 28 Mar 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); C. C. Goldflinks, Austin, 5 Apr 1922, B. C. Tharp 1469 (TEX-LL); Austin, 12 Apr 1933, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 30 Mar 1944, B. C. Tharp 44117 (TEX-LL); occasional in sand and gravel in open post oak woodland on level upland underlain by cherty Pleistocene fluviatile terrace deposits, Farquhar Farms, ca. 5 mi SE of Manor, 7 Apr 1996, W. R. Carr, M. L. Price & D. A. Brown 15129 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Turner, 1959.


Trifolium carolinianum Michx. CAROLINA CLOVER. Native annual or perennial. Described by Young (1920) as "abundant in waste places and roadsides and open woods." Apparently rare today; no recent reports or collections.


Specimens: Pease Park, Austin, 9 Apr 1898, no collector (TEX-LL; a mixed sheet, with Trifolium bejariense); Austin, 30 Apr 1909, Heald & Wolf s.n. (TEX-LL; another mixed sheet, with Trifolium bejariense); Austin, 5 Apr 1922, B. C. Tharp 1457 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Turner, 1959.


Trifolium incarnatum L. CRIMSON CLOVER. Adventive annual. Rare in our area, known from a single collection.


Specimens: along Commons Ford Rd. off Hwy 2244 in the hills W of Austin, in a disturbed oak clearing along roadside, 12 Apr 1986, J. Grimes & B. Meurer 2880 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Turner, 1959.


Trifolium pratense L. RED CLOVER. Naturalized biennial or perennial. A plant commonly cultivated and widely naturalized in eastern North America, but rare in our area and perhaps not a persistent member of our weed flora.


Specimens: Austin, 30 Jul 1920, B. C. Tharp 830 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Turner (1959).


Trifolium repens L. WHITE CLOVER. Introduced perennial, perhaps becoming naturalized. Occasional on lawns and in moist soils along disturbed creekbanks and floodplains.


Specimens: local in silt exposed on mostly unshaded bank of Shoal Creek ca. 800 ft. S of W. 34th St. bridge, Austin, 11 May 1996, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 15341 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986).


Trifolium resupinatum L. PERSIAN CLOVER, REVERSED CLOVER. Adventive annual, native of the Mediterranean area. Rare in our area, on lawns and disturbed moist open areas, perhaps introduced with sod.


Specimens: rare, one patch covering ca. 15 sq. ft., on sod of watered lawn on S side of commercial bank, N side of W. 37th St., 50-75 ft. E of Lamar Blvd., Austin, 2 Apr 1986, W. R. Carr 7193 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986).


Vicia angustifolia L. NARROWLEAF VETCH. Naturalized annual vine. Occasional in moist clayey soils in disturbed areas.


Specimens: rare in strip of riparian forbs along unshaded bank of Bull Creek, N-S stretch ca. 1500 ft. upstream from Loop 360 bridge ca. 0.6 mi NE of Lakewood Drive, 28 Apr 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15183 (TEX-LL); common in seasonally moist, poorly drained sandy clay loam, weed-dominated community on vacant land ca. 200-300 ft. E of N Lamar Blvd. ca. 1/4 mi N of W. 45th St., Austin, 5 May 1996, W. R. Carr 15295 (TEX-LL).


Vicia ludoviciana Nutt. subsp. leavenworthii (T. & G.) Lasseter & Gunn. Vicia leavenworthii T. & G. LEAVENWORTH VETCH. Native annual vine. Common in grasslands, thickets, and open areas on all substrates.


Specimens: 12 sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Lasseter, 1984; Turner, 1959.


Vicia ludoviciana Nutt. subsp. ludoviciana. LOUISIANA VETCH. Native annual vine. Similar to but much less common than the preceding, occurring primarily on sandier soils.


Specimens: Austin, 5 Apr 1922, B. C. Tharp 43-448 (TEX-LL); Austin, 26 Mar 1929, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 9 Apr 1931, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Apr 1944, B. C. Tharp 44094 (TEX-LL); airport, Austin, 2 Apr 1944, C. C. Albers s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 12 Apr 1944, B. C. Tharp 44125 (TEX-LL); clay soil on unshaded roadside, Haynie Flat Rd., 21 Mar 1987, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 8021 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Lasseter, 1984; Turner, 1959.


Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth. BLACK-EYED PEA. Native perennial herbaceous vine. Lynch (1974) found this plant "trailing over forbs in a shaded habitat on disturbed ground" and pointed out that its occurrence here is far beyond its normal range along the Texas coast. Perhaps a waif rather than a persistent member of our flora.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch (1974).


Zornia bracteata J. F. Gmel. VIPERINA. Native perennial. Local in sandy gravelly soil in open post oak woodlands, reported from areas underlain by Pleistocene terrace deposits but also to be expected in sandy alluvium of more recent origin.


Specimens: deep well drained acid fine sandy loam in partial shade along mottes of live oak, post oak, and cedar elm, both sides of Shaw Rd. 3.0 roadmiles S of R. M. 1472, in Turkey Bend Turkey Bend Resource Area, 23 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal Carr 11093 (TEX-LL); rare in gravelly well drained acid fine sandy loam at edge of road through post oak woodland and early successional grassland, Singleton Rd., ca. 0.7 roadmiles SSW of Post Oak Bend Cemetery, bear S end of Gloster Bend Resource Area, 23 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 11099 (TEX-LL); Pace Bend Park, 5 May 1995, W. Nixon PB008 (TCTNRD); occasional in old field grassland or dominated by Aristida purpurea and Sporobolus cryptandrus, in deep, well drained, noncalcareous, mildly alkaline fine sand loam over Hensell Sand, SE corner of Pace Bend Park, 27 Aug 1996, W. R. Carr 15667 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


KRAMERIACEAE RATANY FAMILY


Krameria lanceolata Torr. Krameria secundiflora of auth. TRAILING RATANY. Native perennial. Occasional in grasslands and open woodlands on well drained, often shallow soils over limestone as well as sandier substrates.


Specimens: 12 sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


GERANIACEAE GERANIUM FAMILY


Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her. PIN CLOVER, ALFILARIA. Naturalized annual or biennial. One of our earliest winter-blooming weeds, common in a variety of open, disturbed habitats.


Specimens: 3 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Erodium texanum Gray. HERON'S BILL, TEXAS FILAREE. Native annual or biennial. Frequent in early successional grasslands in shallow clay loam over limestone, particularly on ridgetops, as well as in a variety of ruderal situations.


Specimens: 14 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Geranium carolinianum L. CAROLINA GERANIUM. Native annual or biennial. Occasional in ruderal areas on various substrates.


Specimens: 8 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Moore, 1943.


Geranium texanum (Trel.) Heller. Geranium carolinianum L. var. texanum Trel. TEXAS GERANIUM. Native annual. Very similar to the preceding but, according to Moore (1943), readily distinguished by its pitted, not reticulate, seeds. Frequent in early successional grasslands in shallow clay loam over limestone, particularly on ridgetops, as well as in a variety of ruderal situations.


Specimens: several sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Moore, 1943.


OXALIDACEAE WOOD-SORREL FAMILY


Oxalis drummondii Gray. Ionoxalis drummondii (Gray) Rose. DRUMMOND WOOD-SORREL. Native perennial. Uncommon in clayey to loamy soils in grasslands and oak woodlands on limestone uplands and slopes. Once thought to be endemic to Texas, Oxalis drummondii is now known to range across much of northern Mexico (Denton, 1973).


Specimens: 9 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Oxalis stricta L. Oxalis dillenii Jacq., incl. var. radicans Shinners; Oxalis corniculata L. var. wrightii (Gray) B. L. Turner. YELLOW SOUR-CLOVER. Native annual. Ubiquitous but seldom common in any one location, found in varying abundance in ruderal to relatively pristine, wet to dry, shaded to unshaded habitats in all soil types.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. The confusing taxonomy of one of our most common weeds is summarized in Diggs et al. (1999).


Oxalis violacea L. VIOLET WOOD-SORREL. Native perennial. The Texas range of this species includes much of the Gulf Coastal Plain, where it is frequent in sandy soils in pine and pine-oak woodlands. Rare in our area, perhaps absent from limestone soils where Oxalis drummondii is common. No recent collections.


Specimens: Austin, Bouldin Creek, 30 Mar 1929, B. C. Tharp 5663 (TEX-LL). Denton (1973) cited one additional specimen: vicinity of Austin, 22 Oct 1942, Taylor 3056 (US). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: McKinney Falls State Park (Johnston & Riskind, 1975); Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986). References: Denton, 1973.


LINACEAE FLAX FAMILY


Linum hudsonioides Planch. SAND FLAX. Native annual. Local in sandy soils of roadsides, pastures, and other early successional areas; most frequently associated with contemporary and Pleistocene river deposits but also in clay soils over Edwards Limestone on karstic uplands.


Specimens: Pease Park, Austin, 1 Apr 1899, W. L. Bray s.n. (TEX-LL); NE of University campus, 11 Apr 1900, Wild s.n. (TEX-LL); Camp Mabry, 26 Mar 1909, Wolf 785 (TEX-LL); Hyde Park, Austin, 24 Apr 1909, Birge 999 (TEX-LL); [to county only], 21 Apr 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); locally common in sandy loam on open roadside, Loyola Lane 0.2-0.3 mi E of Blue Bluff Lane, 22 Apr 1986, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 7332 (TEX-LL); common in gravelly well drained acid fine sandy loam in early successional grassland among post oaks, 100-500 ft. W of Singleton Rd. ca. 0.7 mi. S of Post Oak Bend Cemetery, Gloster Bend Resource Area, 23 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 11103 (TEX-LL); common in well drained, neutral dark clay (Crawford Series) in openings in live oak - cedar elm - post oak - juniper woodland on +/- level upland underlain by Glen Rose Limestone, upper S edge of Slaughter Creek floodplain, S edge of Hielscher Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 19 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 18855 (TEX-LL); shortgrass-dominated recently grazed openings in oak - post oak - cedar elm - Ashe juniper savanna on shallow noncalcareous stony clay loam (Speck series) over Edwards Limestone on +/- level upland, S side of entrance road to J-17 Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 26 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr 18907 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References; Rogers, 1964.


Linum imbricatum (Raf.) Shinners. Linum multicaule Hook. TUFTED FLAX. Native annual. Reported by Lynch (1974) as "occasional to frequent in the open in well-drained calcareous soil."


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Cathartolinum multicaule); Lynch, 1974. References: Rogers, 1964.


Linum medium (Planch.) Britt. var. texanum (Planch.) Fern. SUCKER FLAX. Native perennial. Just to the east (e.g., in Bastrop County) this species is frequent in sandy to loamy soils in grasslands and open post oak woodlands. There are no recent reports or specimens from our area, but this flax is to expected in appropriate habitat particularly along the eastern edge of the county.


Specimens: Austin, 1 May 1935, Smith s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Rogers, 1964.


Linum rigidum Pursh. var. berlandieri (Hook.) T. & G. Linum berlandieri Hook. var. berlandieri. BERLANDIER FLAX. Native annual. Frequent in various soils, mostly in grasslands and on roadsides east of the Balcones Escarpment.


Specimens: 11 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Cathartolinum rigidum); Lynch, 1974. References: Rogers, 1964.


Linum rupestre (Gray) Engelm ex. Gray. ROCK FLAX. Native perennial. Frequent in grasslands and open juniper-oak woodlands on dry rocky limestone slopes.


Specimens: 8 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Cathartolinum rupestre); Lynch, 1974. References: Rogers, 1964.


Linum usitatissimum L. Linum humile Mill. CULTIVATED FLAX. Adventive annual, native of the Old World. A rare weed in our area, with no recent specimens or reports.


Specimens: Austin, lake, 9 Apr 1929, A. Armer 5521 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


ZYGOPHYLLACEAE CALTROP FAMILY


Guaiacum angustifolium Engelm. Porlieria angustifolia (Engelm.) Gray. GUAYACAN. Native shrub. A component of thorn shrublands of northern Mexico, the Trans-Pecos and South Texas Plains, here at the northeastern limit of its range. Rare in our area, known only from a marly rubble slope at the foot of a SW-facing limestone bluff. The only other specimen from the immediate vicinity is from a shrubland amid overtopping post oak and live oak in droughty clay over the Smithwick Formation at the LCRA Shaffer Bend tract in Burnet County (W. R. Carr & T. Schumann 12838, TEX-LL).


Specimens: base of bluff, N side of Lake Austin, W of Loop 360 bridge, 26 Dec 1988, M. Enquist 489 (TEX-LL), 9 Apr 1989, M. Enquist 486 (TEX-LL) and 1 Oct 1989, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 10076 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Kallstroemia hirsutissima Vail. HAIRY CALTROP. Native annual. A weed of disturbed areas, apparently much less common in our area than Kallstroemia parviflora.


Specimens: Invading land cleared by construction work, St. Edward's University, 13 Aug 1987, Bro. D. Lynch 9827 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Porter, 1969.


Kallstroemia parviflora Nort. Kallstroemia intermedia Rydb. WARTY CALTROP. Native annual. Occasional in well drained, usually somewhat sandy or gravelly soils in lawns, parking lots, and other open disturbed areas.


Specimens: 12 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Porter, 1969.


Tribulus terrestris L. PUNCTURE-VINE, GOAT-HEAD. Naturalized annual; native of the Mediterranean region. Occasional in well drained, usually somewhat sandy soils in lawns and open disturbed areas; locally common on sandy terraces of the Colorado River along Town Lake.


Specimens: 10 sheets at TEX-LL, the earliest from along I & GN RR, 12 Oct 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


RUTACEAE CITRUS FAMILY


Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. Citrus trifoliata L. Bitter orange. Adventive shrub or small tree. Native of Asia; naturalized in Texas coastal woodlands but a rare escape from cultivation in our area.


Specimens: Bank of Little Barton Creek, 0.2-0.3 mi E of mouth of Spillman Hollow, Little Barton Tract, 29 Nov 1999, W. R. Carr 18650 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Ptelea trifoliata L. WAFER ASH. Native tree. Frequent in oak-juniper woodlands on mesic limestone slopes and in canyon bottoms, in mottes of live oak in upland savannas, and in mostly deciduous riparian woodlands. According to Bailey (1962), represented in our area by subsp. trifoliata var. mollis T. & G. and subsp. angustifolia (Benth.) Bailey var. persicifolia (Greene) Bailey.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Bailey, 1962; Bailey, Herlin & Bailey, 1970.


Thamnosma texanum (Gray) Torr. TEXAS DESERT-RUE. Native perennial. Frequent in shallow clayey to sandy soils on dry open rocky slopes and on limestone exposures on ridgetops.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L. TICKLE-TONGUE, TOOTHACHE-TREE, HERCULES' CLUB. Native tree. A species of the southeastern United States, here at or near the southwestern limit of its current distribution. Rare in our area, apparently known from Blackland Prairie sites east of the Balcones Escarpment. No recent reports or specimens.


Specimens: Austin, Shoal Creek, 5 Apr 1911, O. A. Pratt 3366 (EX-LL); Austin, 2 May 1918, M. S. Young 46 (TEX-LL); Austin, 18 Oct 1937, B. C. Tharp 44063 (TEX-LL); roadside hillside near Pecan Springs, 13 May 1940, C. L. Lundell & A. A. Lundell 8824 (TEX-LL) and 24 Apr 1941, C. L. Lundell & A. A. Lundell 10305 (TEX-LL); pasture, Lockhart road, 5 mi S of Austin, 14 May 1940, C. L. Lundell & A. A. Lundell 8862 (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Apr 1944, B. C. Tharp 44063 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Porter, 1976.


Zanthoxylum hirsutum Buckl. Zanthoxylum carolinianum var. fruticosum Gray. TOOTHACHE-TREE, TICKLE-TONGUE. Native tree or shrub. Occasional to rare in live oak savannas on limestone uplands and in juniper-oak woodlands on rocky limestone slopes.


Specimens: Pilot Knob, 5 Apr 1956, S. Ely s.n. (TEX-LL); S-facing limestone slope, ca. 3000 ft. WNW of jct. Loop 360 and N branch of Spicewood Springs Rd., 16 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4702 (TEX-LL); drainage on W side of Loop 360, ca. 2 mi N of Rt. 2244, just N of Wild Basin, hillside, openings in woodland of oak, juniper, and mixed shrubs on limestone hills, 14 May 1983, B. Ertter & J. Saunders 4827 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Porter, 1976.


SIMAROUBACEAE QUASSIA FAMILY


Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle. GHETTO PALM, TREE-OF-HEAVEN. Naturalized tree. Native of Eurasia, introduced and now naturalized in urban areas across North America. Occasional in vacant lots, alleys and other ruderal areas in older parts of Austin, less commonly encountered in riparian woodlands along creeks.


Specimens: 2200 San Antonio, Jul 1911, McKee & Wesley 3902 (TEX-LL); Austin, Jul 1912, C. M. Parker 4763 (TEX-LL); Austin vicinity, on Red Bud Trail just W of bridge across Colorado River, 29 Jul 1990, M. Bierner 90-133 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Cox & Leslie, 1988.


Castela erecta Turp. subsp. texana (T. & G.) Cronq. Castela texana (T. & G.) Rose. TEXAS ALLTHORN. Native shrub. Like Guaiacum angustifolium, this shrub is a common component of the Tamaulipan thorn-scrub vegetation of South Texas, occurring here at or near the northeastern limit of its range. The one known Travis County population lies at the top of a marly rubble slope at the foot of a SW-facing limestone bluff, a rather xeric site which may remain warmer than other areas during winter. However, Castela erecta subsp. texana also occurs in rather nondescript uplands at the LCRA's Shaffer Bend tract in Burnet County (W. R. Carr & T. Schumann 12837, TEX-LL).


Specimens: limestone ridge above Barton Creek, 1 mi S of Loop 360, 1/4 mi N of Westhill Dr., 1 Apr 1984, J. Larke 15 (TEX-L); locally common on dry marl outcrops at foot of S-facing limestone bluff, at top of rubble slope, N side of Colorado River (Lake Austin) ca. 1000 ft. W of Loop 360 bridge, Austin, 1 Oct 1989, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 10075 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


MELIACEAE MAHOGANY FAMILY


Melia azedarach L. CHINABERRY. Naturalized tree. Native of Asia, introduced as an ornamental shade tree and now naturalized in much of the eastern half of Texas. Common in deciduous woodlands on stream and river terraces and in mixed evergreen-deciduous woodlands in disturbed mesic limestone canyons, as well as in vacant urban lots and ruderal sites of all descriptions.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


MALPIGHIACEAE MALPIGHIA FAMILY


Galphimia angustifolia Benth. Thryallis angustifolia (Benth.) O. Ktze. NARROWLEAF THRYALLIS. Native perennial. Occasional in very shallow clay loam and fractures of limestone exposed on open rocky slopes. A species of the west Texas and adjacent Mexico, here at the eastern edge of its range.


Specimens: 12 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: none.


POLYGALACEAE MILKWORT FAMILY


Polygala alba Nutt. WHITE MILKWORT. Native perennial. Frequent in shallow gravelly clay or sandy clay loam on open limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Polygala lindheimeri Gray var. lindheimeri. LINDHEIMER MILKWORT. Native perennial. Occasional, usually rooted in fracture or pits on limestone bedrock and boulders on openly wooded slopes and rimrock.


Specimens: 17 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Wendt, 1979.


Polygala ovatifolia Gray. EGGLEAF MILKWORT. Native perennial. Apparently rare, known in our area from two collections along Barton Creek.


Specimens: Upper Barton Creek, Austin, 7 Oct 1922, R. H. Painter 168 (TEX-LL); creekbed 4 mi above Barton Springs on current (1956) Gaines Ranch, Oct 1922, R. H. Painter 168 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Polygala verticillata L. WHORLED MILKWORT. Native annual. Apparently rare, known in our area from a single collection. To be expected in sparsely vegetated openings in post oak woodlands and other habitats on sandy soils.


Specimens: Runge Tract, 0.5 mi N of US 290 on Gregg-Manor Rd., 17 May 1985, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA). Previous Travis County floras: none.


EUPHORBIACEAE SPURGE FAMILY


Acalypha gracilens Gray var. delzii L. Mill. SLENDER COPPERLEAF. Native annual; endemic to sandy soils of northeast Texas and adjacent Arkansas and Louisiana. Rare in our area, known only from a single specimen perhaps collected from open post oak woodlands on Pleistocene river deposits.


Specimens: near Austin, 26 Oct 1939, B. H. Warnock 36 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Acalypha phleoides Cav. Acalypha lindheimeri Muell. Arg. LINDHEIMER COPPERLEAF. Native perennial. A conspicuous component of the florula of solution-pitted rimrock along wooded limestone canyons, but also common in a variety of completely different habitats, including urban lawns.


Specimens: 24 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Johnston & Warnock, 1962b.


Acalypha monococca (Gray) L. Mill. & Gandhi. Acalypha gracilens Gray var. monococca Engelm. ONESEED COPPERLEAF. Native annual. Uncommon in our area. Most of our early records are from gravelly or loamy soils over limestone in the western part of the county, whereas more recent reports are from sandier soils on Pleistocene terrace deposits.


Specimens: loose black gravelly soil W of Austin, 15 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 19 Oct 1923, R. H. Painter s.n. (TEX-LL); near Austin, 26 Oct 1939, B. H. Warnock 36 (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Aug 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); open woodland, limestone outcrop, 5 mi NW of Austin, 12 Jul 1943, J. Cohn & F. A. Barkley 13298 (TEX-LL); sparse in black loam soil at Harthaven, 6 Oct 1944, B. H. Warnock W1015 (TEX-LL); Easley Cemetery, 28 Jul 1987, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA); edge of post oak woodland on Pleistocene terrace deposits, F. M. 973, 0.8 mi. S of Bloor Rd., 19 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & M. Enquist 10763 (TEX-LL); open post oak woodland on sandy soils over gravelly/sandy Pleistocene high terrace deposits, level upland on Farquhar property, S side of Dry Creek, ca. 1.6 airmiles SSE of jct. Lockwood Rd. and Hog Eye Rd., 2 Nov 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15837 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Gandhi & Hatch, 1988.


Acalypha monostachya Cav. Acalypha hederacea Torr. ROUND COPPERLEAF. Native perennial. Rare in grasslands and openings in juniper-oak woodlands in shallow soils on limestone bluffs and ridgetops.


Specimens: frequent in dry rocky clay soil on openly wooded limestone bluff on NE side of Lake Austin, ca. 1000 ft. NW of Loop 360 bridge, 12 Jun 1988, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 8956 (TEX-LL); rare in thin dry clay soil over limestone exposed on unshaded flat ridgetop, along unpaved extension of Big View Rd., ca. 0.3 mi SE of River Place Rd., 11 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr 9122 (UVST). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Johnston & Warnock, 1962b.


Acalypha ostryifolia Riddell. HORNBEAM COPPERLEAF. Native annual. A rather uncommon weed of disturbed soils, most often encountered on alluvial terraces and in garden beds.


Specimens: 9 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Johnston & Warnock, 1962b.


Acalypha radians Torr. SAND COPPERLEAF. Native perennial. Occasional in our area, mostly in grasslands and disturbed open areas on loose sandy soils associated with Pleistocene Colorado River terrace deposits.


Specimens: arid soil near Onion Creek, Aug 1898, F. E. Smith s.n. (TEX-LL); sandy ground 10 mi out on Webberville Rd., Austin, 12 Jul 1920, Allen s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 4 Nov 1939, B. H. Warnock 59 (TEX-LL); [to county only], 2 Aug 1940, R. W. Strandtmann s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Aug 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); terrace along Barton Creek, ca. 4500 ft. WSW of Barton Springs Pool, 24 Jun 1988, W. R. Carr 9000 (BRIT/SMU); sandy soil in level, unshaded area along truck track, 0.5 mi. W of its jct. with Singleton Rd. at S end of Post Oak Cemetery, Gloster Bend Resource Area, 23 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 11116 (TEX-LL); occasional in loose sandy soil on unshaded, regularly mown, level roadside, S side of F. M. 969 ca. 0.2-0.3 mi W of Hornsby-Dunlap School, i.e., ca. 1.5 roadmiles SE of jct. F. M. 973, 14 Sep 1991, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 11407 (TEX-LL); deep, slightly acid, loamy sand over Pleistocene Colorado River terrace deposits, weedy vacant lot on W side of US Rt. 183, 500 ft. S of Thompson Lane, Montopolis neighborhood of east Austin, 29 Oct 1994, W. R. Carr & M. Enquist 14342 (TEX-LL); Lower Cow Creek Rd., 24 May 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR 436); locally common in frequently mown lawn/grassland on deep, well drained, calcareous, mildly alkaline fine sandy loam over Pleistocene terrace deposits, E half of Fritz Hughes Park, 3 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr 15591 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. Other reports: Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986).


Bernardia myricifolia (Scheele) Wats. var. myricifolia. BRUSH MYRTLECROTON. Native shrub. A species of northern Mexico and southern Texas, here at or near the northeastern limit of its current distribution. Frequent on dry rocky limestone slopes and uplands in Barton and Bee Creek watersheds; locally abundant on Cow Creek Limestone bluffs at Pace Bend Park. Rare north of the Colorado River.


Specimens: hill W of dam, 6 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson 457 (TEX-LL); limestone cliffs above W bank of Pedernales River W of Hamilton Pool, 7 Aug 1949, G. L. Webster 59 (TEX-LL); Mt. Bonnell, 27 Aug 1966, J. A. Mears 816 (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 16 Jul 1976, E. McKinney 025 (TEX-LL); locally abundant, forming thickets on slope and ridgetop, N end of Little Bee Creek Preserve, 17 Nov 1982, W. R. Carr 4525 (TEX-LL); frequent shrub in woody thickets in fairly dry soil at base of cliff along NW side of Barton Creek, ca. 3000-4000 ft. WSW of Barton Springs Pool, 24 Jun 1988, W. R. Carr 9001 (UVST); in open Ashe juniper woodland on stony clay or clay loam on steep rocky W-facing slope of Edwards Limestone, high above E bank of Barton Creek under powerlines leading from substation on W side of Loop 360 ca. 1 mile NW of Barton Creek Square Mall, 9 Oct 1998, W. R. Carr & D. Hernandez 17775 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Johnston, 1980.


Chamaesyce angusta (Engelm) Small. Euphorbia angusta Engelm. BLACKFOOT SPURGE. Native perennial. Once thought to be endemic to the Edwards Plateau and west Texas, but now known to range into south-central Coahuila (Henrickson & Johnston, in prep). Frequent among limestone boulders on dry rocky slopes.


Specimens: 13 sheets at TEX-LL, including 6 from Mt. Bonnell. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Chamaesyce fendleri (T. & G.) Small. Euphorbia fendleri T. & G. FENDLER SPURGE. Native perennial. Common in patches of clayey soil among rock outcrops on open limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: 14 sheets at TEX-LL, including 5 from Mt. Bonnell. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Chamaesyce glyptosperma (Engelm.) Small. Euphorbia glyptosperma Engelm. RIDGESEED SPURGE. Native annual. Rare in deep loose sand of Colorado River terrace deposits.


Specimens: sand pile along unshaded E bank of Lake Austin at Lake Austin (Emma Long) Metro Park, 10 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3527 (BRIT/SMU) and 1 Nov 1981, W. R. Carr 3634 (UVST). Two other incomplete specimens may also represent this species: Austin, 19 May 1922, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 26 May 1932, L. L. Winans s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Chamaesyce hyssopifolia (L.) Small. Euphorbia hyssopifolia L. HYSSOPLEAF SPURGE. Native annual. Apparently rare in area, known from a single specimen.


Specimens: on Big Walnut Creek, 7 mi N of Austin, 11 Oct 1944, R. B. Payton 15 (TEX-LL).


Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp. Euphorbia hyperifolia L. TROPICAL SPURGE. Native annual. Widespread in tropical portions of the New World but rare in our area, occurring mostly as a garden weed.


Specimens: UT campus at intersection of 24th and Speedway. 26 Jul 1972, R. L. Hartman & B. L. Turner 3443 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small. Euphorbia maculata L.; Euphorbia supina Raf.; Chamaesyce supina (Raf.) Moldenke. SPOTTED MAT-SPURGE. Native annual. Common in any number of open disturbed situations on all substrates.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Chamaesyce missurica (Raf.) Shinners. Euphorbia missurica Raf. MISSOURI SPURGE. Native annual. Locally common in Austin Chalk prairies; rare elsewhere in our area. Our plants are sometimes recognized as var. calcicola Shinners.


Specimens: 11 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Chamaesyce nutans (Lag.) Small. Euphorbia nutans Lag.; Euphorbia preslii Guss.; Euphorbia maculata of some auth., misapplied. NODDING SPURGE. Native annual. Common in moist soils of disturbed gravelly creekbottoms, mudflats, sandbars, etc.; rare in drier disturbed sites.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Chamaesyce prostrata (Ait.) Small. Euphorbia prostrata Ait. VILLOUS MAT-SPURGE. Native annual. Common in any number of open disturbed situations on all substrates, perhaps more common in sandy soils.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Chamaesyce serpens (H.B.K.) Small. Euphorbia serpens H.B.K. SMOOTH MAT-SPURGE. Native annual. Common in heavy clay or clay loam in pastures, on sparsely vegetated ground-level exposures of Edwards Limestone, and in other open, early successional situations.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Chamaesyce villifera (Scheele) Small. Euphorbia villifera Scheele. VILLOUS ROCK-SPURGE. Native perennial. Frequent on rock outcrops on wooded to somewhat open limestone slopes.


Specimens: 23 sheets at TEX-LL, including 3 from Mt. Bonnell. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Cnidoscolus texanus (Muell. Arg.) Small. TEXAS BULLNETTLE. Native perennial. An unpalatable forb that increases in grazed pastures. Most common on sandy soils, but occasionally on clay loam in our area.


Specimens: 13 sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Cnidoscolus stimulosus); Lynch, 1974. References: Johnson, 1966; Webster, 1967.


Croton alabamensis E. A. Smith. var. texensis S. Ginzbarg. TEXABAMA CROTON. Native shrub. Apparently endemic to the eastern Balcones Escarpment. Locally abundant in the understory of oak-juniper woodlands in a few mesic limestone canyons in the Post Oak Ridge area in the Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge in northwestern Travis County; also locally common under live oak mottes on level to gently sloping uplands at Pace Bend Park several miles to the south; absent from much of the county. Otherwise known only from mesic canyon woodlands associated with a system of limestone canyons on both sides of the Bell-Coryell County line at Fort Hood Military Reservation. The foliage of this large shrub is silvery on the lower surface and is strikingly different from any other plant species of the Edwards Plateau.


Specimens: Gainer Ranch, 5 airmiles SW of Liberty Hill, NE facing drainage and adjacent plateau, 14 May 1989, C. Sexton s.n. (TEX-LL); same location, 6 Jun 1989, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA), 13 Jun 1989, S. Ginzbarg 895 with C. Sexton and J. Gee (TEX-LL), 19 Jun 1989, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA), 12 Aug 1989, S. Ginzbarg 896 (TEX-LL), 12 Aug 1989, S. Ginzbarg 897 (TEX-LL), 8 May 1990, S. Ginzbarg 900 (TEX-LL); locally common under deciduous trees in oak-juniper forest in relatively deep clay loam soils underlain by Glen Rose Limestone, on terraces and steep slopes in narrow side canyon, W side of Post Oak Ridge, NW of Hanging Rock Spring, ca. 2.75 airmiles SSW of summit of Round Mountain, 7 Mar 1990, W. R. Carr, P. McNeal and S. Ginzbarg 10296 (TEX-LL); locally common in silty loam on relatively broad terrace in narrow mesic limestone canyon, in shade of Juniperus ashei, Quercus buckleyi, Ilex decidua, Ilex vomitoria, etc., near jct. of several branches of ravine system at ca. 1000 ft. elev., ca. 3100 ft. N, 2000 ft. W of Hanging Rock Spring, W side of Post Oak Ridge, 15 May 1991, W. R. Carr & J. M. Poole 11153 (TEX-LL); frequent in understory of strip of mostly deciduous woodland (Juglans major-Ulmus crassifolia-Quercus spp.) in stony clay loam at foot of limestone slopes supporting Ashe juniper-oak woodlands, just above bed of ephemeral stream leading E from Hanging Rock Spring (as marked on topo), ca. 5.0 airmiles WNW of jct. R.M. 1431 and Nameless Rd., Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge, 14 Oct 1992, W. R. Carr, J. Siegel & D. Hernandez 12446 (TEX-LL); 9 mi WNW of Leander, Nance property along Gillum Creek, area of limestone hills with oak-juniper, more mesic vegetation in canyons, very abundant in bottom of canyon and up sides to near the top, 4 Jun 1994, G. Nesom 7850 (TEX-LL); Prunus serotina woodland at head of Post Oak Creek, Webster Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 4 Mar 1995, C. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR); locally common in alluvial silt over clay and sand under motte of Quercus fusiformis in shallow drainage on Hensell Sand bench just below Glen Rose Limestone, Taylor Cove, Pace Bend Park, 23 Aug 1996, W. R. Carr 15661 (TEX-LL); [elsewhere in] Pace Bend Park, 5 Sep 1996, W. R. Carr 15673 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Aplet et al., 1994; Ginzbarg, 1992; Webster, 1970.


Croton capitatus Michx. var. lindheimeri (Engelm. & Gray) Muell. Arg. HOG CROTON. Native annual. Uncommon in loose sandy to loamy alluvial soils on open, disturbed Colorado River terraces, and in post oak woodlands on Pleistocene terrace deposits such as at Gloster Bend Resource Area. A very common pasture weed in sandy soils just to the east of our area.


Specimens: Austin 18 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin-Del Valle, 25 Oct 1929, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); Montopolis bridge, 12 Aug 1922, B. C. Tharp 1668 (TEX-LL); Austin, 12 Nov 1930, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 Oct 1941, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); sandpile on Colorado River terrace, S end of Emma Long Metro Park, 10 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3528 (BRIT/SMU) and 24 Sep 1989, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10065 (TEX-LL); occasional weed in garden in loamy sand on level upland underlain by Pleistocene fluviatile terrace deposits, Farquhar Farms ca. 5 mi SE of Manor, 16 Jun 1996, W. R. Carr, M. L. Price, C. & N. Farquhar 15528 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Johnston, 1958.


Croton fruticulosus Torr. BUSH CROTON. Native shrub. Occasional in juniper-oak woodlands on rocky limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: 18 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Johnston, 1958.


Croton glandulosus L. var. lindheimeri Muell. Arg. TOOTHED CROTON. Native annual. Rare in loose sandy to gravelly soil of Colorado River terrace deposits.


Specimens: loose gravelly soil W of Austin, 15 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 Oct 1941, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Another specimen has not been determined to variety: sandpile on Colorado River terrace, S end of Emma Long Metro Park, 24 Sep 1989, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10064 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Johnston, 1958.


Croton glandulosus L. var. septentrionalis Muell. Arg. NORTHERN TOOTHED CROTON. Native annual. Rare in loose sandy to gravelly soil of Colorado River terrace deposits.


Specimens: SW of poor farm, 27 May 1921, B. C. Tharp 1447 (TEX-LL); Austin, Westfield, 1929, B. C. Tharp 5883 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Johnston, 1958.


Croton lindheimerianus Scheele var. lindheimerianus. LINDHEIMER CROTON, THREESEED CROTON. Native annual. Common in early successional grasslands, pastures and disturbed open areas, particularly on sandy substrates.


Specimens: Austin, 12 Nov 1922, B. C. Tharp 2851 (TEX-LL); Austin, 23 Oct 1939, B. H. Warnock 30 (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Aug 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); sandy soil in grove at 32nd and East Ave, Austin, 21 Jul 1946, F. A. Barkley & O. T. Walle 1A (TEX-LL); occasional in sand and gravel alluvium, N bank of Colorado River at US Rt. 183 bridges, 15 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3557 (BRIT/SMU); sandpile on Colorado River terrace, S end of Emma Long Metro Park, 24 Sep 1989, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10067 (TEX-LL); common in dry silt, sand and gravel among limestone boulders exposed in bed of Lake Travis during summer of low water level, Naumann Cove, Pace Bend Park, 31 Jul 1996, W. R. Carr 15653 (TEX-LL). References: Johnston, 1958.


Croton monanthogynus Michx. ONESEED CROTON, DOVEWEED, MEXICAN TEA. Native annual. Common in pastures, early successional grasslands, and disturbed areas.


Specimens: 17 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Johnston, 1958.


Croton texensis (Kl.) Muell. Arg. TEXAS CROTON. Native annual. Occasional in disturbed sandy soils, most frequent on Colorado River terraces.


Specimens: 10 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Johnston, 1958.


Ditaxis humilis (Engelm. & Gray) Pax var. humilis. Argythamnia humilis (Engelm. & Gray) Muell. Arg. var. humilis. LOW WILDMERCURY. Native perennial. Frequent in early successional grasslands and disturbed sites, usually in calcareous clayey soils derived from limestone or chalk.


Specimens: Univ. campus, 5 Apr 1910, Birge [?] 3095 (TEX-LL); limestone valleys at Harthaven, 6 Oct 1944, B. H. Warnock W1013 (TEX-LL); Pilot Knob, F. A. Barkley & C. Rowell 101 (TEX-LL); Shield Ranch, 17 Jul 1982, D. W. Dunlap 133 (TEX-LL); disturbed gravelly clay loam in recently cleared juniper woodland, ca. 2500 ft. N of jct. Spicewood Springs Rd. and Old Lampasas Trail, 24 Nov 1984, W. R. Carr 6168 (BRIT/SMU); local in gravelly clay near unshaded E fenceline in NE corner of Carl Cemetery, W side of Carl Rd., 0.8-0.9 mi. N of F.M. 1327, 8 Sep 1990, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10794 (TEX-LL); plateau top, Webster Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 26 Apr 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Johnston & Warnock, 1962a.


Ditaxis mercurialina (Nutt.) Coult. Argythamnia mercurialina (Nutt.) Muell. Arg. var. mercurialina. TALL WILD-MERCURY. Native perennial. Rare (or overlooked due to its similarity to Argythamnia simulans); at least one of our two records is from a relict prairie grassland on Austin Chalk.


Specimens: 7 mi SSE of Austin on small limestone knob, 9 Aug 1946, F. A. Barkley & C. M. Rowell 91 (TEX-LL); Austin Chalk 10 mi N of Austin on Dessau Farm Rd, 100 yds E of Dallas Hwy, 13 Jun 1950, Tharp & York 50-160 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Johnston & Warnock, 1962a.


Ditaxis simulans (J. Ingram) Radcl.-Sm. & Govaerts. Argythamnia simulans J. Ingram. PLATEAU WILD-MERCURY. Native perennial; endemic to the Edwards Plateau and adjacent north-central Texas, with records from Bandera, Bell, Blanco, Brown, Burnet, Comal, Frio, Gillespie, Hays, Kendall, Kerr, Kimble, McCulloch, Travis, Uvalde and Williamson counties. In our area, it is common in juniper-oak woodlands on limestone slopes and uplands west of the Balcones Escarpment.


Specimens: 13 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Euphorbia bicolor Engelm. & Gray. SNOW-ON-THE-PRAIRIE. Native annual. Occasional in a variety of open disturbed situations.


Specimens: 9 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Euphorbia corollata L. Agaloma corollata (L.) Raf. FLOWERING SPURGE. Native perennial. Normally associated with sandy soils but occasionally found in heavy clays of Blackland Prairie sites and on Cretaceous limestone along the eastern edge of the Balcones Escarpment. Apparently rare within Travis County; no recent reports or specimens.


Specimens: Manor R.R. crossing, 19 Oct 1929, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Euphorbia cyathophora Murr. Poinsettia cyathophora (Murr.) Kl. & Gke. PAINTED SPURGE. Native annual. Occasional in clay loam and humus in mesic wooded limestone canyons and in shaded gravelly creekbeds, sometimes in more open areas along margins of woodlands on limestone slopes.


Specimens: not examined. Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986). References: Dressler, 1961.


Euphorbia dentata Michx. Poinsettia dentata (Michx.) Kl. & Gke. TOOTHED SPURGE. Native annual. A rather ubiquitous weed, occurring in small numbers in all habitats.


Specimens: not examined. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Dressler, 1961.


Euphorbia heterophylla L. Poinsettia heterophylla (L.) Kl. & Gke. CATALINA. Native annual. Doubtful in our area except perhaps as a cultivated plant. Reported by Lynch (1974) from disturbed areas and from the shoreline of Lake Austin. Some of our unvouchered reports are doubtless based on specimens of the exceedingly variable Euphorbia cyathophora.


Specimens: not examined. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. Other reports: Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary (Lyter, 1986). References: Dressler, 1961.


Euphorbia hexagona Nutt. SIXANGLE SPURGE. Native annual. A species of sandy soils of the Great Plains, known in our area only from deep loose alluvial sands of contemporary Colorado River deposits.


Specimens: Colorado River beach below dam, Austin, 27 Oct 1923, B. C. Tharp 2279 (TEX-LL); sandpile on Colorado River terrace, S end of Emma Long Metro Park, 10 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3524 (BRIT/SMU) and 24 Sep 1989, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10058 (TEX-LL).


Euphorbia longicruris Scheele. Tithymalus longicruris (Scheele) Small. WEDGELEAF SPURGE. Native annual. Although described by Mary Sophie Young (1920) as "abundant on the [University of Texas] campus" and represented by numerous specimens, this species has seldom been observed in Travis County during the last 50 years. Elsewhere in central Texas it occurs on open, vernally moist rocky limestone slopes; the plants reported from Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986) might occupy such habitat. However, most of the specimens from our area seem to have been collected east of the Balcones Escarpment, perhaps from Austin Chalk prairies and/or post oak woodlands.


Specimens: Grooms place, NE of University, 3 Apr 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); on rocks and slopes E of Yucca Hill, Austin, 19 Apr 1901, Long s.n. (TEX-LL); E of Watter's Station, 22 Apr 1901, Long & Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); near Austin, 18 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); University campus, 5 Apr 1910, Breuer & Roberts 3048 (TEX-LL); North Austin, Ave. F., 9 Apr 1944, C. C. Albers 44072 (TEX-LL); NE edge of Austin, 20 Apr 1946, C. L. York 46040 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Euphorbia marginata Pursh. Agaloma marginata (Pursh) Löve & Löve. SNOW-ON-THE-MOUNTAIN. Native annual. Occasional in a variety of disturbed situations, perhaps more common west of the Balcones Escarpment. Often abundant in heavily utilized pastures on deep clay soils.


Specimens: 6 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Euphorbia peplidion Engelm. Tithymalus peplidion (Engelm.) Small. LOW SPURGE. Native annual. Rare, known in our area from two collections from a single site.


Specimens: Brackenridge Field Station, in Butterfly Meadow, in opening near the creek with sparse low herbaceous vegetation dominated by Hymenoxys linearifolia, Erodium texanum, Astragalus nuttallianus var. trichocarpus, and Evax sp., rare annuals at edge of clearing, 13 Apr 1991, M. H. Mayfield, J. M. Mendenhall & M. Phaneuf 718 (TEX-LL) and 10 May 1992, M. H. Mayfield 1180 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Euphorbia roemeriana Scheele. Tithymalus roemerianus (Scheele) Small; Tithymalus commutatus of auth. ROEMER SPURGE. Native annual; endemic to the Edwards Plateau, with reports from Bandera, Bosque, Comal, Edwards, Fayette, Hays, Kendall, Travis, Uvalde and Williamson counties. Locally common in limited habitat, most often in loamy soils on colluvial slopes or in sandy to silty soils on alluvial terraces within wooded mesic limestone canyons.


Specimens: 17 sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Euphorbia spathulata Lam. Tithymalus spathulatus (Lam.) Small; Euphorbia arkansana Engelm. & Gray. WARTY SPURGE. Native annual. Frequent in grasslands and open woodlands on a broad spectrum of soil types.


Specimens: 16 sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974; presumably the Tithymalus arkansanus of Young, 1920.


Leptopus phyllanthoides (Nutt.) Webster. Andrachne phyllanthoides (Nutt.) Coult.; Savia phyllanthoides (Nutt.) Pax & K. Hoffm. MAIDENBUSH. Native subshrub. Known in Texas from a few populations in Bexar, Comal, Hays, Johnson, Kendall, Kerr, McLennan, Travis, Williamson, and Val Verde counties; ranging patchily north and east to Alabama, Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Rare in our area, usually rooted in fractured limestone situated just above the normal water level of perennial streams yet subject to violent scouring during occasional floods.


Specimens: Barton Creek above Zilker Park, rare and local shrubs in crevices of limestone boulders, 5 May 1971, M. C. Johnston 7438 & 7439 (TEX-LL); limestone outcrops along Onion Creek ca. 1 mi S of Buda, 28 Apr 1972, L. E. Urbatsch 989 (TEX-LL); locally abundant, growing from cracks in limestone bedrock on occasionally inundated shelf on S bank of Bull Creek, N of Loop 360 upstream from bridge at its jct. with Lakewood Dr., 11 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4199 (UVST); in fractures of mostly unshaded limestone shelf ca. 5 ft. above normal level of Bull Creek, 200 ft. SW of Loop 360 bridge between two branches of Spicewood Springs Rd., 10 Oct 1982, W. R. Carr 4395 (TEX-LL) and 19 June 1988, W. R. Carr 8979 (BRIT/SMU); locally abundant in fractures of limestone bedrock exposed on unshaded stream terrace, S bank of Bull Creek ca. 1500 ft. W of Loop 360 bridges 0.6 mi NE of Lakewood Dr., 20 June 1988, W. R. Carr 8987; rare, several small shrubs on N side of Barton Creek at N end of S-curve ca. 4500 ft. WSW of S end of Barton Springs Pool, 24 Jun 1988, W. R. Carr 9002 (TEX-LL); one colony in fracture of Edwards Limestone exposed in bed of Bear Creek, ca. 200 ft. SE of upper falls on Lancaster Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 26 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr 18905 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Clark, 1967; Mahler, 1988; Warnock & Johnston, 1960; Webster, 1967; Webster 1970.


Phyllanthus abnormis Baill. var. abnormis. SAND LEAF-FLOWER, DRUMMOND LEAF-FLOWER. Native annual. Rare in grassland and disturbed areas on deep loose sand or compacted sand and gravel of ancient and modern Colorado River deposits.


Specimens: sandpile on bank of Colorado River at Lake Austin City Park, 10 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3523 (TEX-LL); loamy fine sand on old Colorado River terrace deposits, seldom used soccer field, level unshaded area on N side of W. First St., 0.3 mi. W of Lamar, Austin, 6 Sep 1991, W. R. Carr & W. C. Bergquist 11385 (TEX-LL); opening in post oak woodland on gravelly loamy sand over Pleistocene terrace deposits, Farquhar Farms ca. 5 mi SE of Manor, 7 Apr 1996, W. R. Carr, M. L. Price & D. A. Brown 15130 (TEX-LL); rare in deep, well drained, calcareous, mildly alkaline, fine sandy loam in mown lawn/grassland on level upland on Pleistocene terrace deposits, Mary Quinlan Park, 11 Oct 1996, W. R. Carr 15793 (TEX-LL). Webster (1970) cited an additional specimen from Travis County: Hall 581 (F, GH, NY). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Webster, 1967; Webster, 1970.


Phyllanthus polygonoides Spreng. KNOTWEED LEAF-FLOWER. Native perennial. Frequent in a variety of habitats, perhaps most common in shallow gravelly clays on rocky limestone slopes.


Specimens: 21 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Webster, 1967; Webster, 1970.


Phyllanthus urinaria L. PEEWATER LEAF-FLOWER. Annual, "native to tropical east Asia, now a circumtropical migrant" (Webster, 1970). Rare in our area, a weed of super-irrigated gardens, not escaping unintentional cultivation.


Specimens: weed in Alocasia macrorhiza bed, Zilker Gardens, Austin, 197?, M. C. Johnston s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Webster, 1967.


Ricinus communis L. CASTOR-BEAN. Naturalized annual, probably native of Africa (Correll & Johnston, 1970). Cultivated in many parts of the world as the source of castor oil, but probably introduced to our area as an ornamental. Gardeners who favor its unique display of huge foliage and red-tinged inflorescences should be aware that the seed of castor-bean contain the phytotoxin ricin, one of the most toxic compounds known (Webster, 1967). Naturalized but uncommon in light-textured alluvial soils on open disturbed terraces; sometimes abundant along margins of now-defunct sewage ponds at Williamson Creek and Hornsby Bend.


Specimens: sand banks on river below Austin, 22 Sep 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Bee Creek, 5 Oct 1901, Ferguson & Winker s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 12 Oct 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Webster, 1967.


Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. CHINESE TALLOW. Naturalized tree; native of Asia, introduced to our area via the horticultural trade as a shade tree notable for its colorful fall foliage. Widely planted, frequently escaping and now naturalized, invading and becoming a tenacious weed of woodlands along rivers and streams as well as in mesic limestone canyons. The waxy seed coat provides the tallow used in candle-making in China (Webster, 1967).


Specimens: Austin, fall 1933, no collector or number (TEX-LL); hills W of Austin, Commons Ford Rd. ca. 1 mi N of Bee Cave Rd., juniper and oak woodland on limestone, shallow soil of roadside, B. Ertter & M. Baker 4813 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Stillingia sylvatica L. QUEEN'S DELIGHT. Native perennial. A species of the southeastern United States, attributed to Travis County by Rogers (1951). Normally in sandy soils, infrequently occurring on limestone "only as a result of its putative hybridization with Stillingia texana" (Rogers, 1951). Locally common in deep loose Eocene sands in Bastrop County; possibly occurring in Travis County on alluvial terraces of the Colorado River.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Johnston & Warnock, 1963; Rogers, 1951; Webster, 1967.


Stillingia texana I. M. Johnst. TEXAS QUEEN'S-DELIGHT. Native perennial. A species primarily of limestone areas of central Texas, extending north to southern Oklahoma and south to northern Coahuila. Common in shallow well drained clays and clay loams in grasslands and open woodlands on limestone uplands and slopes.


Specimens: 15 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1974 (as Stillingia angustifolia); Lynch, 1974. References: Johnston & Warnock, 1963; Rogers, 1951; Webster, 1967.


Tragia betonicifolia Nutt. CLIMBING NOSEBURN. Native perennial herbaceous vine. Rare, known in our area from two specimens collected on the same day, presumably at the same site. Perhaps a rare component of the vegetation of post oak woodlands on sandy to gravelly soils.


Specimens: Austin, 14 May 1940, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL) and B. H. Warnock 20627 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Miller & Webster, 1967; Webster, 1967.


Tragia brevispica Engelm. & Gray. SHORTSPIKE NOSEBURN. Native perennial herbaceous vine. Occasional in and along margins of juniper-oak woodlands on limestone uplands and in canyons, sometimes in grasslands on sandy soils.


Specimens: 16 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Miller & Webster, 1967; Webster, 1967.


Tragia ramosa Torr. Tragia nepetifolia Cav. COMMON NOSEBURN, CHICHICASTLE. Native perennial. Teasingly polymorphic and seemingly ubiquitous, in open juniper-oak woodlands on rocky limestone slopes and uplands, grasslands on deeper clay soils, post oak woodlands on gravelly terrace deposits, and dry disturbed sites of all description. Johnston (1962) remarked that "noseburns are often quite abundant in grazed grasslands, and are among that great retinue of noxious, toxic or unpalatable plants that flourish under the abusive practices of overstocking that are the rule rather than the exception in the rangelands of western Texas."


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Johnston, 1962; Miller & Webster, 1967; Webster, 1967.


CALLITRICHACEAE WATER-STARWORT FAMILY


Callitriche heterophylla Pursh. LARGE WATER-STARWORT. Native annual or perennial. Normally submersed in quiet shallow water, with only the broad upper leaves floating on the surface, occasionally becoming stranded on mudflats. Uncommon but quite frequently collected, with specimens from Barton Creek, Bull Creek, Dry Creek, and the Colorado River.


Specimens: 15 sheets at TEX-LL, Mar 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Fassett, 1951.


Callitriche nuttallii Torr. NUTTALL WATER-STARWORT. Native annual or perennial. Essentially terrestrial, in seasonally moist sandy loam or silt in and along ephemeral wet spots supporting a suite of similarly short-lived species, including Callitriche peploides. No recent reports or specimens from our area.


Specimens: Austin, 1 Feb 1936, B. C. Tharp 46018 (TEX-LL); County Club Golf Links, Austin, 3 Mar 1936, B. C. Tharp 47019 (TEX-LL); country club golf course, Austin, 10 Feb 1937, B. C. Tharp 47016 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Fassett, 1951.


Callitriche peploides Nutt. MAT WATER-STARWORT. Native annual or perennial. Often with Callitriche nuttallii in ephemeral moist spots. In nearby counties Callitriche peploides is commonly found in compacted soil of puddles in tire tracks. No recent reports or specimens from our area.


Specimens: Lake Austin silt, 12 Apr 1931, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin Country Club, 20 Feb 1931, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL) and 4 Mar 1936, B. C. Tharp 47000 (TEX-LL); Colorado River bank near Austin, 1 Apr 1936, B. C. Tharp 47007 (TEX-LL); Municipal Golf Course at Austin, 10 Feb 1937, B. C. Tharp 47009 (TEX-LL); Colorado River silt near Austin, 15 Feb 1937, B. C. Tharp 47008 (BRIT/SMU, TEX-LL) and 10 Mar 1937, B. C. Tharp 47013 (TEX-LL); Austin, 15 Feb 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Fassett, 1951.


ANACARDIACEAE SUMAC FAMILY


Rhus lanceolata (Gray) Britt. Rhus copallina L. var. lanceolata Gray. FLAMELEAF SUMAC. Native tree. Common in disturbed or early successional areas in clay soils on limestone slopes and uplands, particularly on dry rocky roadsides and along roadcuts. A species of the Edwards Plateau, west Texas and New Mexico, here at or near the eastern limit of its range. Rhus copallina, a closely related species ranging across much of eastern North America, may occur in the eastern part of Travis County.


Specimens: 12 sheets at TEX-LL, June 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Barkley, 1943.


Rhus trilobata T. & G. var. trilobata. Rhus aromatica Ait. var. flabelliformis Shinners; Schmaltzia trilobata (Nutt.) Small. SKUNKBUSH SUMAC, FRAGRANT SUMAC. Native shrub. Common in woodlands and shrublands on rocky limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: 15 sheets at TEX-LL, June 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974 (as, apparently erroneously, Rhus aromatica Ait. var. serotina (Greene) Rehd.). References: Barkley, 1943.


Rhus trilobata T. & G. var. pilosissima Engl. Rhus aromatica Ait. var. pilosissima (Engl.) Shinners; Schmaltzia trilobata (Nutt.) Small var. pilosissima (Engl.) Barkley. Native shrub. A pubescent-leaved variety normally occurring in the Panhandle and Trans-Pecos, known in our area from a single specimen. Its local habitat and status are unknown.


Specimens: Austin, 2 Sep 1918, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Barkley, 1943.


Rhus virens Gray var. virens. Schmaltzia virens (Lindh.) Small. EVERGREEN SUMAC. Native shrub. Common in juniper-oak woodlands and mixed shrublands on dry rocky limestone slopes, with Quercus sinuata var. breviloba in shinneries on massive upland outcrops of Edwards Limestone, and in deep well drained rock rubble on stream terraces; occasional in more mesic woodlands on shaded canyons slopes.


Specimens: 15 sheets at TEX-LL, June 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Barkley, 1943.


Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze subsp. verrucosum (Scheele) Gillis. Rhus toxicodendron L. var. eximia (Green) McNair of Correll & Johnston (1970) and Lynch (1974); Rhus toxicodendron L. of Young (1920). POISON IVY, POISON OAK. We have two taxa of poisonous Anacardiaceae but several possible names for each. This shrub-like variety ranges from the Edwards Plateau of central Texas north to the Arbuckle Mountains of Oklahoma, on limestone gravels, talus, bluffs, as well as on alluvial banks and even in oak-pine woodlands on excessively drained sand (Gillis, 1971). It ranges across our area but is most conspicuous in juniper-oak woodlands, mottes of live oak, and on other upland sites.


Specimens: Waller Creek, Jul 1911, McKee & Wesley 3877 (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 1/2 mi S of Barton Springs, 13 Oct 1959, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL); outskirts of Austin on campus of St. Edward's University, Cretaceous limestone at edge of Edwards Plateau, climbing Juniperus ashei, 2 Jul 1960, W. T. Gillis 3679 (TEX-LL); West Lake Hills on W side of Austin, along Bee Creek and on rocky limestone hills with scrubby Quercus, Juniperus ashei woods, 30 May 1974, M. Nee & M. Whelan 11803 (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 23 Jul 1976, E. McKinney 065 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Barkley, 1943; Gillis, 1971.


Toxicodendron toxicarium (Salisb.) Gillis. Rhus toxicodendron L. var. vulgaris Michx. of Correll & Johnston (1970) and Lynch (1974); Rhus radicans L. of Young (1920). POISON IVY. This variety, normally a high-climbing vine, is common in deciduous woodlands on alluvial terraces, in limestone ravines, and other more-or-less mesic shaded sites.


Specimens: Bee Creek, 20 Oct 1900, Long & Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, July 1912, J. L. White s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 17 Apr 1935, C. C. Albers 35023 (TEX-LL); rocky limestone soils, shady, 300 yards up above Barton Springs, Austin, in stream bed, 3 Aug 1946, W. J. Krodel 32 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Barkley, 1943; Gillis, 1971.


AQUIFOLIACEAE HOLLY FAMILY


Ilex decidua Walt. WINTERBERRY, DECIDUOUS HOLLY. Native shrub. Frequent in woodlands on alluvial terraces and in mesic limestone ravines, but also occasional on upland sites on all substrates.


Specimens: 14 sheets at TEX-LL, June 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Lundell, 1943.


Ilex vomitoria Ait. YAUPON. Native shrub. Common in post oak woodlands; less frequent in oak-juniper woodlands in mesic limestone canyons and live oak woodlands on uplands.


Specimens: 7 sheets at TEX-LL, June 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Lundell, 1943.


ACERACEAE MAPLE FAMILY


Acer negundo L. BOXELDER MAPLE. Native tree. Occasional in deciduous woodlands in loamy soils on stream and river terraces. Represented in our area by var. negundo and var. texanum Pax.


Specimens: several sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Rulac texana); Lynch, 1974.


HIPPOCASTANACEAE HORSE-CHESTNUT FAMILY


Aesculus pavia L. var. pavia. RED BUCKEYE. Native tree. Frequent in and along the margins of mixed woodlands in and along limestone canyons and on uplands, perhaps more frequent in deeper alluvial or colluvial soils of valleys and lower slopes than in shallower soils of rocky upper slopes.


Specimens: 19 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Wyatt & Lodwick, 1981.


Aesculus pavia L. var. flavescens (Sarg.) Correll. PALE BUCKEYE. Native tree. A yellow-flowered form of the typical variety, found in similar habitats.


Specimens: rare in mixed woodland at mouth of mesic limestone ravine, S side of Bull Creek, S side of Loop 360 ca. 0.8 mi N of Lakewood Drive, Austin, 9 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4653 (BRIT/SMU); mesic hardwood forest in lower ravine of Hamilton Creek, 0-0.8 mi upstream from Pedernales River, 8 Apr 1989, S. L. Orzell & E. L. Bridges (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Wyatt & Lodwick, 1981.


SAPINDACEAE SOAPBERRY FAMILY


Cardiospermum halicacabum L. BALLOONVINE. Native annual vine. Scattered in ruderal areas in alluvial soils, most common along high water line in backwater areas of major impoundments.


Specimens: 10 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Sapindus saponaria L. var. drummondii (Hook. & Arn.) L. Benson. Sapindus drummondii Hook. & Arn. WESTERN SOAPBERRY. Native tree. A common tree of deciduous woodlands on alluvial terraces, occurring in smaller numbers in most other woodland types.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Ungnadia speciosa Endl. MEXICAN BUCKEYE. Native shrub. Common in and characteristic of mixed woodlands in mesic rocky limestone canyons of the Balcones Escarpment and westward; rare on calcareous soils to the east such as at Webberville (Precinct 1) Park.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


RHAMNACEAE BUCKTHORN FAMILY


Berchemia scandens (Hill) K. Koch. ALABAMA SUPPLEJACK. Native woody vine. Rare to frequent in woodlands in mesic limestone canyons and on stream terraces.


Specimens: Walnut Creek, Oct 1900, Ferguson & Ramsey s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 Oct 1906, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); occasional in thickety understory of riparian/terrace forest strip on silty alluvium and limestone on bank of perennial stream, W bank of Bull Creek ca. 50 ft. S of N edge of Stenis Tract (a Prop 2 tract), ca. 0.5 mi N of Loop 360 bridge, E side of Spicewood Springs Rd., 18 April 2000, W. R. Carr 18846 (TEX-LL). Johnston & Johnston (1969) cited two additional specimens from Travis County: Austin, Aug 1921, E. D. Schulz 694a; Austin, 19 May 1918, E. J. Palmer 13661. Dispositions were not provided. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Ceanothus herbaceus Raf. Ceanothus ovatus Desf. INLAND CEANOTHUS. Native shrub. Rare and local on exposures of dry limestone, marl or chalk. In addition to the specimen locations above, there is a conspicuous colony along the E side of Mt. Bonnell Rd., 0.2 mi. N of W. 35th St.


Specimens: Austin, 18 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); dry ground along railroad, near Austin, 10 Apr 1918, M. S. Young 88 (TEX-LL); Austin, 8 Apr 1922, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); W of Austin, 1 Apr 1940, B. H. Warnock 134 (TEX-LL); limestone slopes, W side of Mt. Bonnell, 25 Mar 1946, B. H. Warnock 46032 (TEX-LL); limestone hill 1 mi SW of Camp Mabry, 27 Mar 1946, B. H. Warnock 46062 (TEX-LL); floodplain margin of Taylor Slough at Scenic Drive, 27 Mar 1974, D. H. Riskind 1681 (TEX-LL); Ligon property ca. 3 mi N of jct/ F. M. 620 and F. M. 2222, shrub in light shade under oak, upland site, 14 Apr 1980, Bro. D. Lynch 8377 (SEU); frequent in very shallow eroded gravelly loam over Austin Chalk outcrop, top of bluff on SW side of Walnut Creek, ca. 1200 feet upstream from Lamar Blvd. bridge, Walnut Creek Metro Park, 25 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & J. Wright 10776 (TEX-LL); local on dry limestone outcrop in partially shaded openings in Ashe juniper-oak woodland on lower Georgetown or upper Edwards Formation, ca. 100-200 ft. N of W 35th St. fenceline, ca. 1000 ft. W of Exposition Blvd., Camp Mabry, 22 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr 11089 (TEX-LL); Cow Creek Rd. at R. M. 1431, 12 Jul 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Johnston & Johnston (1969) cited two additional specimens from Travis County: dry hills, Austin, 10 May 1872, E. Hall 101; limestone uplands, 21 Mar 1944, B. C. Tharp 44-004. Dispositions were not provided. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Colubrina texensis (T. & G.) Gray var. texensis. TEXAS COLUBRINA. Native shrub. Common in shrublands on steep dry rocky slopes and bluffs, slightly less common on more temperate slopes and uplands; mostly on limestone and chalk but occasionally common in calcareous soils in the Blackland Prairie belt.


Specimens: on bluff of Onion Creek at Post Road, 16 May 1940, C. L. Lundell & A. A. Lundell 8932 (TEX-LL); Austin, 12 Aug 1943, F. A. Barkley 13463 (TEX-LL); Mt. Bonnell, 1 Mar 1945, B. H. Warnock 45-4 (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 2.5 mi WSW of St. Edward's University campus, 4 Apr 1954, Bro. D. Lynch C.S.C. s.n. (TEX-LL). Johnston & Johnston (1969) cited five additional specimens from Travis County: Austin, May 1872, E. Hall 100; Santa Monica bluffs, 26 Apr 1898, W. L. Bray s.n.; above bridge at foot of Congress avenue, 22 Apr 1901, Long & Ferguson s.n.; Austin, 18 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n.; Mt. Bonnell, 15 May 1930, B. C. Tharp s.n.; Austin, Mt. Bonnell, 24 Jun 1946, C. C. Albers, Barkley & Warnock 4644. Dispositions were not provided. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Johnston & Johnston, 1969; Johnston, 1971.


Condalia hookeri M. C. Johnst. var. hookeri. Condalia obovata of auth. BRASIL. Native shrub or small tree. Occasional in shrublands on steep dry rocky limestone slopes, bluffs, and uplands; rather rare in canyon woodlands.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Johnston, 1962a; Johnston & Johnston, 1969.


Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Chinese raisin tree. Introduced tree, sometimes cultivated for its edible fruiting peduncles. Reported by Goldman (1998) from a limestone cliff along Town Lake across from Brackenridge Field Labs.


Specimens: NE-facing limestone cliff along edge of Town Lake, directly across lake from boat ramp at University of Texas Brackenridge Field Lab, 30 Sep 1997, D. Goldman & J. Crutchfield 1105 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Rhamnus caroliniana Walt. CAROLINA BUCKTHORN. Native tree. Common in mixed woodlands in mesic limestone canyons and on alluvial terraces; scarce in more xeric situations.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991; additional specimens were cited by Johnston & Johnston (1969). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Ziziphus obtusifolia (T. & G.) Gray. Condalia obtusifolia of auth. LOTEBUSH. Native shrub. Locally common in shrublands on xeric rocky slopes, e.g., on the W side of Mt. Bonnell; occasional in grasslands and open woodlands on limestone uplands, in the Blackland Prairie, and in calcareous alluvium.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991; additional specimens were cited by Johnston & Johnston (1969). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Ziziphus zizyphus (L.) H. Karst. Ziziphus jujuba Mill. JUJUBE. Adventive shrub; an Old World shrub formerly cultivated for its edible fruits. Rare in our area, sometimes forming small thickets in ruderal urban areas. In addition to the Austin locations cited below, Lynch (1974) reported a naturalized population on Cumberland Road one block west of Congress.


Specimens: "Wheatville", Austin, May 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); vicinity of 51st and Duval, scattered but relatively common in this large neighborhood, vacant lots, alleyways, with a few large trees persisting in yards, flowering May, mature fruits in Aug-Sep, larger plants fruiting abundantly, 15 May 1992, G. Nesom s.n. (TEX-LL); N side of Enfield Rd. in first long block W of jct. with Lamar Blvd., open limestone slopes in area otherwise inhabited by mostly herbaceous weeds, 9 Jul 1992, J. Williams s.n. (TEX-LL); N side of Enfield Rd. ca. 50 ft. E of intersection with first street W of Lamar Blvd.-Shoal Creek overpass, Austin, 18 Oct 1992, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 12448 (TEX-LL); locally common at edge of weedy riparian woodland on W bank of Waller Creek ca. 500-600 ft. S of 51st St., E side of tennis courts at UT Athletic Field, Austin, 18 Aug 1997, W. R. Carr 16850 (TEX-LL). Johnston & Johnston (1969) cited additional specimens from Travis County, from plants obviously in cultivation: Austin, cultivated, 15 Jul 1946, Warnock et al. 46497; Brackenridge Field Station at old home site, M. C. Johnston s.n. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Ziziphus vulgaris); Lynch, 1974.


VITACEAE GRAPE FAMILY


Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehne. PEPPERVINE. Native woody vine. In various situations but most common in riparian thickets and along margins of deciduous woodlands on stream terraces.


Specimens: 10 sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Ampelopsis cordata Michx. GRAPELEAF AMPELOPSIS. Native woody vine. Occasional along margins of mostly deciduous riparian woodlands, usually along perennial streams.


Specimens: Bull Creek, 11 Aug 1920, Schultz s.n. (TEX-LL); Young's Ranch, W of Austin, Sep 1930, P. Hoglund s.n. (TEX-LL); Ligon property, F. M. 620 ca. 3 mi N of F. M. 2222, vine in trees above head of canyon, 27 Jun 1980, N. McGowan 8406 (TEX-LL); locally abundant in shrubland on dry limestone shelf a few feet above normal level of Bull Creek, ca. 300 ft. downstream from low water crossing under Loop 360 bridge between two jcts. with Spicewood Springs Rd., 28 Apr 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15189 (TEX-LL), 11 Jun 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15518 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Cissus incisa (Nutt.) Des Moul. Cissus trifoliata (L.) L. IVY TREEBINE. Native woody vine. Occasional in woodlands on all soil types.


Specimens: Bull Creek above Austin, 12 Oct 1900, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 3 Nov 1900, Long s.n. (TEX-LL); in pasture of A. S. Bergstrom Farm, Decker, 3 Jul 1944, C. L. Lundell 13076 (TEX-LL); vine climbing over rocky slope, jct. 1st St. & Williamson Creek S of Austin, 17 Jul 1955, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Parthenocissus heptaphylla (Buckl.) Small. SEVENLEAF CREEPER. Native woody vine; endemic to the Edwards Plateau and adjacent areas, with records from Bandera, Bexar, Blanco, Burnet, Coleman, Comal, Edwards, Fayette, Kerr, Kimble, Llano, Mason, Pecos, San Saba, Schleicher, Travis, Uvalde, and Val Verde counties. Occasional in oak-juniper woodlands in limestone canyons, juniper-oak woodlands on uplands; less common and generally in drier situations than its congener.


Specimens: Mansfield Dam, on cyclone fence on steep rocky slope on Lake Austin side of dam, unshaded, 8 Oct 1979, Bro. D. Lynch 8410 (SEU); in oak-elm-cedar thicket in upland savanna, along hiking trail in SW 1/4 of McKinney Falls SP, 19 Oct 1985, W. R. Carr & E. A. Kutac 7024 (SEU); West Lake Hills on W side of Austin, along Bee Creek and on rocky limestone hills with scrubby Quercus, Juniperus ashei woods, 30 May 1974, M. Nee & M. Whelan 11831 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: McKinney Falls SP (Johnston & Riskind, 1975).


Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. VIRGINIA CREEPER. Native woody vine. Frequent in deciduous riparian woodlands on alluvial terraces, in oak-juniper woodlands in limestone canyons, in mottes of live oak on level uplands; occasionally in neglected urban lots.


Specimens: mountain sides above Austin, 12 Oct 1900, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Mt. Bonnell ravine, 25 Apr 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); bluff on Shoal Creek, 20 Aug 1920, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Lake Austin, 5 Aug 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); South Austin door yard, 20 Jun 1953, B. C. Tharp 53-361 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Vitis cinerea Engelm. ex Millardet var. helleri (Bailey) M. O. Moore. Vitis berlandieri Planch. SWEET GRAPE, DOWNY GRAPE, WINTER GRAPE. Native woody vine. Frequent along the margins of woodlands throughout.


Specimens: Walnut Creek N of Austin, Oct 1900, Ferguson & Ramsey s.n. (TEX-LL); Montopolis bridge, 27 Apr 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Waller Creek, 7 June 1901, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); mixed woodland on high S bank of Town Lake, 200 ft. SE of MoPac bridges, 18 May 1986, W. R. Carr & M. A. Wade 7464 (UVST); juniper-oak-silktassel woodland on Glen Rose slopes, Brightleaf State Natural Area, 24 Apr 1995, W. R. Carr & L. Kissock 14511 (TEX-LL) and 11 May 1995, W. R. Carr & L. Kissock 14629 (TEX-LL); local in shrubland dominated by Juniperus ashei, Eysenhardtia texana and Rhus virens on outcrop of Edwards Limestone, dry top of bluff on S side of Bear Creek just W of staircase ca. 300 ft. E of W fenceline of Tabor Tract (a Prop 2 tract), ca. 3.6-3.7 airmiles S to SSE of R. M. 1826 bridge over Slaughter Creek, 24 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr 18898 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Gandhi & Brown, 1989; Moore, 1991.


Vitis cordifolia Michx. FROST GRAPE, CHICKEN GRAPE. Native woody vine. Included here solely on the basis of its report by Young (1920).


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Vitis monticola Buckl. MOUNTAIN GRAPE. Native woody vine; endemic to the Edwards Plateau and Lampasas Cutplain, with records from Bandera, Bexar, Blanco, Bosque, Comal, Coryell, Edwards, Hamilton, Kendall, Kerr, Kimble, Kinney, Lampasas, Llano, Palo Pinto, Real, San Saba, Travis, Uvalde and Val Verde counties. Common in our area, mostly in juniper-oak woodlands on fairly dry to mesic limestone slopes.


Specimens: Bull Creek, 18 Apr 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); oak woods on limestone near upper Bull Creek, 18 May 1946, Tharp, York & Barkley 16T214 (TEX-LL); juniper-oak woodland on dry limestone slopes, bluff above N bank of Bull Creek near waterfall at low water crossing on N side of Loop 360 between Lakewood Drive and Spicewood Springs Rd., 20 Jun 1982, W. R. Carr 4107 (UVST).


Vitis mustangensis Buckl. Vitis candicans Engelm. MUSTANG GRAPE. Native woody vine. Common in a variety of habitats, perhaps most conspicuous along riparian woodlands where it often covers the canopy of trees and, along with weedy shrubs such as Baccharis neglecta, forms dense thickets.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Vitis rupestris Scheele. SAND GRAPE, SUGAR GRAPE. Native woody vine. Lynch (1974) from steep limestone slopes. Apparently rare or overlooked; perhaps some of our unvouchered reports of Vitis monticola actually belong here.


Specimens: Austin, spring 1928, J. F. Normand s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


TILIACEAE BASSWOOD FAMILY


Tilia americana L. var. caroliniana (P. Miller) Castiglioni. Tilia caroliniana P. Miller; Tilia floridana Small. CAROLINA BASSWOOD, CAROLINA LINDEN. Native tree. Apparently a very rare component of mostly deciduous forests in rich, mesic limestone ravines.


Specimens: Austin, no date, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); R. O. Kretschmar ranch on Marshall Ford Rd. in Austin Project, tree at edge of Turkey Creek, 21 Jun 1968, Bro. D. Lynch 8443 & 8444 (SEU); Edwards Plateau Lab., TSNL, Kretschmar section, small tree in bottom of a deep canyon, shaded, 21 Apr 1984, Bro. D. Lynch & C. Sexton 9783 (SEU). Previous Travis County floras: none.


MALVACEAE MALLOW FAMILY


Abutilon fruticosum Guillemin & Perrottet. Abutilon incanum (Link.) Sweet, Abutilon texense T. & G. TEXAS INDIAN-MALLOW. Native perennial. Common in grasslands, shrublands, and along woodland margins on dry rocky limestone slopes and uplands; less common in sandier substrates E of the Balcones Escarpment.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Fryxell, 1983; Fryxell, 1988.


Abutilon theophrasti Medic. CHINGMA, VELVETLEAF MALLOW. Adventive annual. Rare, apparently a waif known from a single collection.


Specimens: Kuehne Garden, just outside Austin on Dallas Highway, 26 June 1936, B. C. Tharp 44480 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Abutilon wrightii Gray. WRIGHT INDIAN-MALLOW. Native perennial. Rare in open woodlands on rocky limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: Bee Creek, rich drift soil, 20 Oct 1900, Long & Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Mt. Bonnell, 25 May 1913, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL) ; Austin [Barton Creek?], 19 Oct 1923, R. H. Painter 395 (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch above Cow Creek on Lake Travis, 2 Jun 1951, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-949 (TEX-LL); rare, local, with Bernardia, Colubrina, and Condalia in shallow clay loam in dry opening in juniper woodland on top of high bluff about S shoreline of Lake Austin, E side of Weston Dr. N of Bee Caves Rd., 9 Dec 1984, W. R. Carr 6180 (UVST); near Loop 360 bridge, 29 Jun 1989, C. W. Sexton s.n. (COA); rare in opening in Quercus fusiformis-Juniperus ashei woodland on shallow gravelly clay or clay loam on Glen Rose Limestone ridgetop, near SE corner of Pace Bend Park, 22 Aug 1996, W. R. Carr 15659 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Fryxell, 1988.


Allowissadula holosericea (Scheele) Bates. Wissadula holosericea (Scheele) Gke. VELVETLEAF MALLOW. Native perennial. Ranging from northeastern Mexico N to the Trans-Pecos and E to Travis County. Occasional in clay soils on rocky slopes and uplands, often along margins of juniper-oak woodlands.


Specimens: 20 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Bates, 1978; Fryxell, 1988.


Anoda cristata (L.) Schlecht. CRESTED ANODA. Native perennial? A species ranging from southwestern North America to South America, apparently a rare waif in our area. No recent reports or collections.


Specimens: Onion Creek, 23 Oct 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Shoal Creek, 11 Nov 1917, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Fryxell, 1987; Fryxell, 1988.


Callirhoe involucrata (Torr.) Gray var. lineariloba (T. & G.) Gray. SLIMLOBE POPPYMALLOW. Native perennial. Common in grasslands and open areas on a variety of substrates.


Specimens: 14 sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (not as to variety); Lynch, 1974. References: Dorr, 1990; Waterfall, 1951.


Callirhoe leiocarpa Mart. TALL POPPYMALLOW. Native perennial. Less common than the preceding, in similar habitats.


Specimens: Austin, 1 May 1928, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Onion Creek beyond Del Valle, 6 May 1923, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 May 1935, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 2 May 1935, LeSueur s.n. (TEX-LL); McKinney Falls State Park, opening in woodland, shallow soil over limestone, Bro. D. Lynch & E. A. Kutac 9865 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Wild Basin (Muzos, 1986). References: Dorr, 1990; Waterfall, 1951.


Callirhoe pedata (Nutt. ex Hook.) A. Gray. Callirhoe digitata Nutt. var. stipulata Waterfall. FINGER POPPYMALLOW. Native perennial. Frequent in grasslands and along woodland margins on a variety of substrates.


Specimens: 13 sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Dorr, 1990; Waterfall, 1951.


Cienfuegosia drummondii (Gray) Lewt. SULPHUR-MALLOW. Native perennial. A 19th- Century specimen with no stated county was attributed to Travis County by Fryxell (1969). In Texas, this showy mallow is more or less restricted to coastal prairies on slightly saline or sodic soils; its occurrence in the Austin area seems doubtful.


Specimens: [County not stated:] banks of the Colorado above Austin, Buckley s.n. (PH).

Hibiscus lasiocarpos Cav. WOOLLY ROSEMALLOW. Native perennial. Rare in moist soils around springs and on banks of the Colorado River.


Specimens: low wet banks of Colorado River ca. 1000 ft. above Tom Miller Dam, 19 Jul 1966, Bro. D. Lynch 8451 (SEU); Lake Travis ca. 2/3 mi upstream from Pace Bend, on limestone at edge of shore, unshaded, 16 Jul 1972, Bro. D. Lynch 8450 (SEU); rare, local in dense stand of Cladium jamaicense under broken canopy of Taxodium and Fraxinus, saturated alluvial soil at or scarcely above level of Colorado River, W bank ca. 25 ft. S of footer of Tom Miller Dam, 11 June 1996, W. R. Carr & P. D. Turner 15517 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Fryxell, 1988; Wise & Menzel, 1971.


Malva neglecta Wallr. CHEESEWEED. Adventive annual or perennial. Rare in our area, known from a single collection.


Specimens: roadside, Austin, 26 May 1916, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Malva parviflora L. LITTLE MALLOW. Adventive or naturalized perennial. Occasional in disturbed soils and gardens.


Specimens: Austin, no date [1900-1930?], C. Hartmann s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River below mouth of Onion Creek, 26 Mar 1950, J. Peak s.n. (TEX-LL); occasional in compacted sandy-gravelly alluvial soil on trail along W edge of Shoal Creek Blvd. between W. 38th St. and W. 39 1/2 St., Austin, 29 Mar 1983, W. R. 4617 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: none. However, reports by Young (1920) of Malva rotundifolia L. and Malva borealis Wallr. are apparently based on misidentifications of Malva parviflora.


Malvastrum aurantiacum (Scheele) Walp. WRIGHT FALSEMALLOW. Native perennial; a Texas endemic ranging from Cameron County north to Dallas and Tarrant counties (Hill, 1982). Rare or overlooked in our area, in grassy open areas mostly on alluvial terraces.


Specimens: Waller Creek, 10 Oct 1928, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); SEU property just E of campus, low edge of abandoned pasture invaded by mesquite, 10 Jul 1970, Bro. D. Lynch 8452 (SEU); fairly dry gravelly clay loam on unshaded, formerly grazed river terrace, Onion Creek Preserve, 1.4 airmiles WSW of mouth of Onion Creek at Colorado River, 5 Oct 1988, W. R. Carr, M. Campbell & J. Gee 9308 (TEX-LL) and Bro. D. Lynch, M. Campbell & J. Gee 7889 (SEU); terrace of Shoal Creek ca. 800 ft. S of W. 34th St. bridge, Austin, 11 May 1996, W. R. Carr & M. L. Price 15342 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Hill, 1982.


Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Gke. THREELOBE YARDMALLOW. Native perennial. A very common weed of urban lawns and alleys, pastures, roadsides, disturbed creekbottoms, and other ruderal habitats. Although reportedly native to Texas, this mallow is seldom encountered in undisturbed situations.


Specimens: 5 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. A report by Young (1920) of Malvastrum americanum (L.) Torr, a subtropical species restricted in Texas to the Lower Rio Grande Valley, was based on specimens now attributed to this species. References: Fryxell, 1988; Hill, 1982.


Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. var. drummondii (T. & G.) Schey. Malvaviscus drummondii T. & G. TURK'S CAP. Native perennial, sometimes becoming woody in age. Frequent in mostly deciduous woodlands on alluvial terraces and other mesic, partially shaded sites.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Schery, 1942.


Meximalva filipes (Gray) Fryxell. Sida filipes Gray. VIOLET SIDA. Native perennial. A species of the South Texas Plains, southern Edwards Plateau and adjacent Mexico, here at the northeastern limit of its current distribution. Rare but locally common in brushy thickets on dry limestone slopes.


Specimens: W bluff, Bee Creek, 5 Oct 1901, Winkler & Ferguson 641 (TEX-LL); Austin, Oct 1919, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); high rocky point W of S branch of Bee Creek, Oct or Nov 1919, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); frequent in clay loam in openings in juniper-oak woodland on limestone ridgetop, home construction sites on North Cat Mt., 27 May 1982, W. R. Carr 3999 (UVST) and 11 Jul 1982, W. R. Carr 4151; abundant on steep dry rocky limestone slope, in shrubland of Bernardia, Condalia, etc., Little Bee Creek ravine, W of W end of Tom Miller Dam, 14 Nov 1982, W. R. Carr 4518 (BRIT/SMU); limestone cliff above Barton Creek 1 mi S of Loop 360, 10 Sep 1983, J. Larke 2 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Fryxell, 1976.


Modiola caroliniana (L.) G. Don. CAROLINA MODIOLA. Native perennial. Occasional, somewhat weedy in disturbed creekbottoms and on watered lawns.


Specimens: Bee Creek, 18 Apr 1901, Long & Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Bee Creek ravine, 1 Apr 1914, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); lower end of Town Lake, disturbed sandy soil, unshaded, 16 May 1968, Bro. D. Lynch 8459 (SEU); Edwards Plateau Lab. I, TSNL, Kretschmar, bank of pond in a creek bed, unshaded, 4 Apr 1982, Bro. D. Lynch 9776 (SEU); tight silt and gravel in dry creekbed, N side of Cat Mt. off Far West Blvd., 8 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4185 (BRIT/SMU); NW Austin, Loop 360 at Balcones Fault Historical Marker N of Spicewood Springs Rd., between creek and cedar-covered hillside, 23 Apr 1983, B. Ertter 4759 (TEX-LL); dry compacted gravelly soil, mown park lawn along W side of Shoal Creek ca. 300 ft. S of W. 34th St. bridge, Austin, 17 Apr 1983, W. R. Carr 4717; locally abundant weed in shaded, well watered clayey soil of lawn in front of Geology building on University of Texas campus, 19 Mar 1986, W. R. Carr 7190 (BRIT/SMU); Austin, SEU campus, grassy area S of swilling pool, unshaded, 10 Apr 1994, Bro. D. Lynch 9825 (SEU). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Fryxell, 1988.


Pavonia lasiopetala Scheele. Pavonia wrightii Gray. WRIGHT PAVONIA. Native shrub. Frequently collected but quite uncommon, in open juniper-oak woodlands on dry rocky slopes and uplands.


Specimens: 14 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Fryxell, 1988.


Rhynchosida physocalyx (Gray) Fryxell. Sida hastata St. Hil.; Sida physocalyx Gray. SPEARLEAF SIDA. Native perennial. Occasional in a variety of habitats, perhaps most common in open or partially shaded disturbed sites on alluvial or sandy soils.


Specimens: 11 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Fryxell, 1978; Fryxell, 1988.


Sida abutifolia H.B.K. Sida filicaulis T. & G.; Sida diffusa of auth. SPREADING SIDA, CREEPING YELLOW SIDA. Native perennial. Common in pastures, old fields, disturbed grasslands and lawns.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Fryxell, 1979b.


Sida lindheimeri Engelm. & Gray. SHOWY SIDA. Native perennial. Rare, probably restricted to open areas on deep loose sands of ancient or modern Colorado River deposits.


Specimens: Austin, 9 Aug 1922, B. C. Tharp 1502 (TEX-LL); sand [on] banks of Colorado River below Montopolis bridge, 20 Sep 1970, T. J. Watson 552 (TEX-LL); sandpile on Colorado River terrace, S end of Emma Long Metro Park, 24 Sep 1989, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10071; loamy fine sand on old Colorado River terrace deposits, seldom used soccer field, level unshaded area on N side of W. First St., 0.3 mi. W of Lamar, Austin, 6 Sep 1991, W. R. Carr & W. C. Bergquist 11382 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Fryxell, 1979a; Fryxell, 1979b.


Sida rhombifolia L. ARROWLEAF SIDA. Native perennial. Rare in disturbed moist sandy soils.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Others: in sandy to loamy alluvial soil on disturbed river terrace, N side of Colorado River under and W of US Rt. 183 bridges, 1 Nov 1981, W. R. Carr 3655 (disposition unknown). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Fryxell, 1979b.


Sida spinosa L. SPINY SIDA. Native annual. Apparently a rare weed in our area.


Specimens: occasional in disturbed clay loam in unshaded vacant lot, W side of N. Lamar S of W. 34th St., directly across from Hillbert's hamburger place, Austin, 7 Nov 1982, W. R. Carr 4507 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Fryxell, 1979b.


STERCULIACEAE CACAO FAMILY


Firmiana simplex W. Wight. CHINESE PARASOL-TREE. Introduced tree. A native of Asia, cultivated in the Austin area and occasionally escaping into wooded stream terraces and mesic limestone ravines.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Austin Nature Center (Campbell & Gee, 1988); Brightleaf State Natural Area (Carr, 1996).


Melochia pyramidata L. BROOMWOOD. Perennial, native of South Texas and the southern Edwards Plateau, perhaps adventive in our area. A rather widespread and common weed of various soils elsewhere, but apparently rare here at (or beyond?) the northern limit of its range. Known from dry gravel in the bed of Barton Creek and in a recently bladed area at Walnut Creek Park (P. Turner, pers. comm.).


Specimens: rare in gravel and silt among limestone rock rubble in frequently flood-scoured bed of Barton Creek, ca. 500 ft. upstream from "Danger" signs on cliff on E bank ca. 3/4 mi upstream from Barton Springs Pool, 16 Nov 1996, W. R. Carr, P. McNeal & P. Turner 15851 (TEX-LL).Previous Travis County floras: none.


CLUSIACEAE (incl. HYPERICACEAE) ST. JOHN'S-WORT FAMILY


Ascyrum hypericoides L. Hypericum hypericoides (L.) Crantz. ST. ANDREW'S CROSS. Native shrub. Restricted to post oak woodlands on sandy gravelly Colorado River terrace deposits; probably extirpated from much of its original range within the county but extant in undeveloped areas near the Bastrop County line.


Specimens: near dam, sandy post oak soil, Austin, 3 Nov 1900, W. H. Long s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Westfield, 28 Sep 1929, B. C. Tharp 5885 (TEX-LL); Austin, 3 Jul 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); post oak woodland on gravelly loamy sand over Pleistocene terrace deposits, Farquhar Farms ca. 5 mi SE of Manor, 2 Nov 1995, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15836 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Adams, 1957.


Hypericum drummondii (Grev. & Hook.) T. & G. DRUMMOND ST. JOHN'S WORT. Native annual. Like the preceding, largely restricted to post oak woodlands on sandy gravelly Colorado River terrace deposits and probably extirpated from much of its original range within the county.


Specimens: Austin, June 1902, Bray s.n. (TEX-LL); common in gravelly soil, Austin, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Westfield, Austin, 1 Jun 1950, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); first knoll E of Garfield on Hwy 71, 5 Oct 1966, J. A. Mears 1007 (TEX-LL); gravelly loamy sand over Pleistocene terrace deposits, opening in post oak woodland, Farquhar Farms SE of Manor, 22 Nov 1995, W. R. Carr, C. & N. Farquhar 15097 (TEX-LL); rare in old field grassland or dominated by Aristida purpurea and Sporobolus cryptandrus, in deep, well drained, noncalcareous, mildly alkaline fine sand loam over Hensell Sand, SE corner of Pace Bend Park, 27 Aug 1996, W. R. Carr 15666 (TEX-LL); rare, a few dozen plants noted in one spot, in red stony clay (Speck Series) in bed of old ranch track and in other sparsely vegetated spots in pasture grassland on very gently sloping upland underlain by Edwards Limestone, Edwards 118 Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 9 Dec 1999, W. R. Carr 18659 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


ELATINACEAE WATERWORT FAMILY


Bergia texana (Hook.) Walp. TEXAS BERGIA. Native perennial. Rare in mud along unshaded margins of stock tanks and seasonally wet areas. No recent reports or collections.


Specimens: stock pond, upper Pease pasture between Shoal Creek and RR opposite 25th St., Austin, 12 Aug 1920, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 23 Nov 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 2 Nov 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Oct 1941, B. C. Tharp s.n. (SEU); 4 mi S of Austin on old Lockhart Rd., edge of pasture in black muck soil, 9 Aug 1946, F. A. Barkley, C. M. Rowell, & H. V. Copeland 80c (TEX-LL); 7 mi SSE of Austin on small limestone knob, 9 Aug 1946, F. A. Barkley & H. V. Copeland 80 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Elatine brachysperma Gray. SHORTSEED WATERWORT. Native annual? In mud in shallow vernal pools on limestone ridgetops and other seasonally wet spots. Diminutive and easily overlooked but apparently rare in our area.


Specimens: Austin, 1935, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Country Club, Austin, 15 Feb 1932, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); locally common but inconspicuous in clay mud in shallow water in vernal pool in depression in Edwards Limestone exposed in pasture on level ridgetop, ca. 100 ft. W of N-S fenceline in center of Post Oak Ridge, ca. 1800 ft. N, 800 ft. W of Hanging Rock Spring, 15 May 1991, W. R. Carr & J. M. Poole 11156 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Duncan, 1964.


TAMARICACEAE TAMARISK FAMILY


Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. SALT-CEDAR. Adventive tree or shrub. Included here solely on the basis of its report from Travis County by Stanford (1976). These plants may actually represent Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Baum, 1967; Baum, 1978.


CISTACEAE ROCK-ROSE FAMILY


Helianthemum georgianum Chapm. GEORGIA ROCKROSE. Native perennial. A rare component of post oak woodlands and associated grasslands on sandy gravelly soils over Pleistocene deposits of the Colorado River. Probably extirpated from much of its original range within the county but perhaps extant in undeveloped areas along the eastern and northwestern edges of the county.


Specimens: Austin, near Country Club, 1 May 1929, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 14 May 1940, B. H. Warnock 250 (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 May 1944, B. C. Tharp 44105 (TEX-LL); gravelly soil, Country Club Golf Links, 14 May 1946, B. C. Tharp 16041 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Dauod & Wilbur, 1965; Wilbur, 1969.


Helianthemum rosmarinifolium Pursh. ROSEMARY ROCKROSE. Native perennial. Like the preceding a component of post oak woodlands and associated grasslands on sandy gravelly soils over Pleistocene deposits of the Colorado River, but also occurring on Speck soils over Edwards Limestone.


Specimens: post oak woods, Austin, 24 May 1916, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); gravelly soil, Austin, 20 May 1922, B. C. Tharp 1672 (TEX-LL); occasional in formerly grazed grassland openings in live oak savanna on Speck soils over Edwards Limestone on karstic upland, ca. 300 ft. W of gate at W end of Green Emerald Terrace, ca. 2.2 airmiles NW of R. M. 1626 bridge over Bear Creek, on Edwards 82 Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 8 May 2000, W. R. Carr 18949 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Dauod & Wilbur, 1965; Wilbur, 1969.


Lechea san-sabeana (Buckl.) Hodg. SAN SABA PINWEED. Native perennial; endemic to Texas, with records from the post oak belt on Eocene sands, Central Mineral Basin (Llano Uplift), Cross Timbers, sandy barrier islands, etc. Rare in openings in post oak woodlands on sandy to gravelly soils of Pleistocene terrace deposits at Farquhar Farms, 5 mi SE of Manor (pers. obs., 16 Jun 1996) and in NE corner of Pace Bend Park, (pers. obs, 17 Jul 1996).


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Dauod & Wilbur, 1965; Wilbur, 1969.


Lechea tenuifolia Michx. NARROWLEAF PINWEED. Native perennial. Like our other representatives of the Cistaceae, Lechea tenuifolia is apparently restricted in Travis County to post oak woodlands on sandy gravelly Pleistocene terrace deposits of the Colorado River. Although the majority of such habitat has been lost to urban development, there are recent collections of Lechea tenuifolia from the eastern and northwestern edges of the county.


Specimens: Austin, 10 May 1920, B. C. Tharp s.n. (SEU); among blackjack oaks on coarse gravel hill NE of Austin, 18 May 1946, J. Adamcik, C. M. Rowell, & F. A. Barkley 16T200 (TEX-LL); edge of post oak woodland on Pleistocene terrace deposits, F. M. 973, 0.8 mi. S of Bloor Rd., 19 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & M. Enquist 10760 (TEX-LL); scarce in sandy/gravelly soil in early successional grassland in open post oak-blackjack oak woodland recently cleared of invading juniper, ca. 100-1000 ft. NW of Singleton Rd. near its S end at S end of Gloster Bend Resource Area, 30 Jul 1991, W. R. Carr & D. Hernandez 11323 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Wilbur, 1969.


VIOLACEAE VIOLET FAMILY


Hybanthus verticillatus (Ort.) Baill. NODDING GREEN VIOLET. Native perennial. Occasional but usually inconspicuous in a remarkable variety of more or less open upland habitats.


Specimens: 19 sheets at TEX-LL, Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Calceolaria verticillata).


Viola bicolor Pursh. Viola rafinesquii Greene. FIELD PANSY. Native annual. A stemmed annual striking different from our other Viola species. Known in our area from a single recent collection, but to be expected in early successional areas in open post oak woodlands elsewhere, especially during wet years.


Specimens: fine sandy loam Alfisols in shade of post oak, blackjack oak, Texas black hickory on gently sloping former river terrace, in picnic area at N end of road to Kates Cove, Pace Bend Park, 16 Apr 1991, W. R. Carr 11059 (TEX-LL) and 19 Feb 1998, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 17254 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Clausen, Channell & Nur, 1964.


Viola missouriensis Greene. MISSOURI VIOLET. Native perennial. The taxonomy of stemless blue violets poses a quagmire into which no end of hardy individuals seems willing to leap; the identity of any one specimen can be the topic of seemingly endless debate. One sheet from Travis County, B. C. Tharp 847 (TEX-LL), was originally determined Viola langloisii and over the years has been annotated to Viola cucullata, Viola missouriensis, and Viola sororia var. sororia. It is difficult to imagine that more than one stemless blue violet taxon actually occurs within Travis County, and if that is the case Viola missouriensis is its most convenient moniker. In our area stemless blue violets are frequent, sometimes locally abundant, in mostly deciduous woodlands on deep alluvial soils on terraces of perennial and intermittent streams, occasionally extending upslope into oak-juniper woodlands on particularly mesic lower slopes of limestone ravines.


Specimens: Austin, 18 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); 10 mi NW of Austin, 19 Mar 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 18 Mar 1940, B. H. Warnock 70 (TEX-LL); abundant in rocky creek bottom leading into Colorado River near Austin, 23 Mar 1946, B. H. Warnock 46024 (TEX-LL); frequent under rim of Pedernales River, 31 Mar 1946, B C. Tharp & B. H. Warnock 46071 (TEX-LL); base of limestone cliff 1 mi above mouth of Bull Creek, 18 Mar 1947, G. L. Webster 55 (TEX-LL); W side of Lake Austin 1/4 mi S of Mt. Bonnell, wet soil in bottom of wooded canyon, 30 Mar 1964, Bro. D. Lynch 8471 (SEU); Edwards Plateau Lab., TSNL, McDonald, on a limestone boulder at the bottom of a wooded canyon, 31 Mar 1970, Bro. D. Lynch 8470 (SEU); Edwards Plateau Lab I, TSNL, growing from pocket in honeycomb limestone boulder in stream bed, bottom of wooded canyon, McDonald, 7 Apr 1973, Bro. D. Lynch 8469 (SEU); common in fairly deep stony clay loam and leaf litter on narrow terraces in bottom of V-shaped mesic ravine, in shade of hardwood-juniper canyon woodland, S-draining side canyon at north end of West Bull Creek Canyon, just S of power transmission line clearing, ca. 2.45 airmiles E of jct. of R. M. 2222 and R. M. 620, 18 Mar 1990, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 10317 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Russell, 1965; McKinney, 1992.


Viola pratincola Greene. VIOLET. Native perennial. Included here on the basis of the distribution map in Russell (1965), which indicated a record from Travis County; no specimen citations were provided. Unlike Viola missouriensis, this stemless blue violet is tolerant of full sun; it may occur as a lawn weed in our area.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Russell, 1965; McKinney, 1992.


Viola sororia Willd. var. sororia. SISTER VIOLET. Native perennial. See comments under Viola missouriensis.


Specimens: shady canyons in hills about Austin, 26 Feb 1898, no collector/number (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 3 Apr 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Oak Hill, 22 Oct 1923, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Russell, 1965, McKinney, 1992.


PASSIFLORACEAE PASSION-FLOWER FAMILY


Passiflora affinis Engelm. YELLOW PASSION-FLOWER. Native perennial herbaceous vine. Occasional in and along margins of woodland in limestone canyons and uplands.


Specimens: Hamilton's Pool, Aug 1923, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); lakeside bluff, J. B. Watkins Ranch, 29 Jul 1950, B. C. Tharp & C. S. York 50-53 (TEX-LL); growing in tree on limestone bluff, Hamilton Pool, 8 Jul 1966, J. R. Crutchfield 1802 (TEX-LL) and 18 Sep 1996, W. R. Carr, T. Siegenthaler & A. Ahrns 15727 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Passiflora foetida L. var. gossypifolia (Ham.) Mast. CORONA DE CRISTO. Perennial herbaceous vine, native to South Texas but perhaps introduced in our area. Our specimens may represent persistent plantings.


Specimens: growing on tree at front end of vacant lot, apparently has survived from planting, 25 Aug 1972, Bro. D. Lynch 8472 (SEU); Austin, French Legation Museum, 8 Sep 1984, S. Ginzbarg 242 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Passiflora incarnata L. MAY-POP PASSION-FLOWER. Native perennial herbaceous vine. Rare in riparian thickets, fencelines and ruderal urban areas.


Specimens: Austin, May 1933, Kolmel s.n. (TEX-LL); weedy thicket, N bank of Colorado River just W of US Rt. 183 bridges, 15 Oct 1981, W. R. Carr 3560 (BRIT/SMU); vine growing over other plants in a vacant lot, unshaded, 27 Jun 1983, Bro. D. Lynch 9790 (SEU). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Passiflora lutea L. var. glabriflora Fern. YELLOW PASSION-FLOWER. Native perennial herbaceous vine. Occasional in woodlands throughout.


Specimens: Mt. Bonnell, 15 May 1930, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 26 Nov 1933, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); Mt. Bonnell, 28 Jul 1940, R. W. Strandtmann s.n. (TEX-LL); rare beneath oaks, limestone soil, Oswald Wolf's Lodge, 8 mi W of Austin, 30 Sep 1945, B. H. Warnock 45-13 (TEX-LL); lakeside bluff, J. B. Watkins Ranch, 29 Jul 1950, B. C. Tharp & C. S. York 50-52 (TEX-LL); Watkins Ranch above Cow Creek on Lake Travis, 2 Jun 1951, B. C. Tharp et al. 51-956 (TEX-LL); West Lake Hills, Bee Creek, 30 May 1974, M. Nee & M. Whelan 11832 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974.


Passiflora tenuiloba Engelm. SPREADLOBE PASSION-FLOWER. Native perennial herbaceous vine. Rare in woodlands throughout.


Specimens: Shoal Creek, Austin, 2 Oct 1908, York & Wolf s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 9 May 1935, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); limestone slope, Austin, 28 Jun 1983, J. Larke s.n. (SEU); locally frequent in fairly dry clay and humus on wooded rocky limestone slope, NE bank of Lake Austin, 1000-1200 ft. NW of mouth of Bull Creek, 8 Jul 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9055 (BRIT/SMU, UVST); plateau top, Shaw Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 12 May 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: none.


LOASACEAE STICKLEAF FAMILY


Eucnide bartonioides Zucc. YELLOW ROCKNETTLE. Native perennial. An attractive and conspicuous lithophile ranging from west Texas south into northern Mexico; populations in Travis County are at the northeastern edge of the species' range and are remarkably disjunct. Rare on dry limestone cliff faces; extant and unvouchered high on a cliff at the Austin Nature Center.


Specimens: Little Bee Creek, Austin, 23 Jul 1923, E. Fisher s.n. (TEX-LL); crevices in face of limestone cliffs above Cow Creek on Lake Travis, 22 May 1956, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL, BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Thompson & Ernst, 1967.


Mentzelia albescens (Gill. & Arn.) Griseb. WAVYLEAF MENTZELIA. Native perennial. A wide-ranging and reportedly weedy native species that is apparently quite rare in our area. Local occurrences may be associated with sandy gravelly Pleistocene terrace deposits.


Specimens: I & GN RR below feeble-minded colony, 25 Aug 1920, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 21 Jun 1933, E. Whitehouse s.n. (TEX-LL); about Austin, 5 Mar 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); gravelly soil, Austin, 22 May 1942, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL), 1 Jun 1944, B. C. Tharp 44217 (TEX-LL); local in rocky, sandy soil in full sun on open roadside, unnamed road 1.0 mi N of its jct. with F. M. 969, ca. 1.5 airmiles ENE of jct. F. M. 969 and F. M. 973, 22 Apr 1986, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 7327 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Darlington, 1934.


Mentzelia oligosperma Sims. ROCK MENTZELIA. Native perennial. Frequent, usually on dry, unshaded limestone exposed as rimrock along the top of canyons west of the Balcones Escarpment but also on sandy soils of riverbottoms and ruderal areas.


Specimens: 11 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Darlington, 1934.


Mentzelia reverchonii (Urban & Gilg) Thomps. & Zavort. REVERCHON MENTZELIA, PRAIRIE STICKLEAF. Native perennial. Rare in area, known from a single historic specimen.


Specimens: According to annotations, C. Wright 211 (TEX-LL) was collected on sand bars in the Colorado River at Austin. Previous Travis County floras: none.


CACTACEAE CACTUS FAMILY


Coryphantha sulcata (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose var. sulcata. Mammillaria sulcata Engelm. Native shrub. Occasional in grasslands and open woodlands on a variety of well drained substrates.


Specimens: limestone 5 mi NW of Austin, 12 Jul 1943, F. A. Barkley 13294 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Benson, 1969; Benson, 1982.


Echinocactus texensis Hopffer. HORSE-CRIPPLER CACTUS. Native shrub. Occasional in our area, most conspicuous in heavily grazed grasslands in sandy clay soils over limestone.


Specimens: E of city on E 19th St., 11 Apr 1909, Heald s.n. (TEX-LL); in Opuntia-mesquite scrubland about 15 mi S of Austin, sandy gravel, 21 Jun 1947, F. A. Barkley & G. L. Webster 7103 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Benson, 1969; Benson, 1982.


Echinocereus reichenbachii (Terscheck) Haage f. var. reichenbachii. Echinocereus caespitosus Engelm. WHITE LACE CACTUS. Native shrub. Our most common non-Opuntia cactus, found in shallow clayey to sandy soils on open limestone slopes and uplands. A form with reddish spines, common on granite and gneiss outcrops of the Llano Uplift, occurs on related Colorado River terrace gravels in the northwestern part of the county.


Specimens: limestone 5 mi NW of Austin, 12 Jul 1943, F. A. Barkley 13295 (TEX-LL); Edwards Plateau Lab. I, TSNL, unshaded level grassy area dominated by Stipa leucotricha, soil several inches deep, Edwards limestone, Kretschmar, 22 Apr 1972, Bro. D. Lynch 8480 (SEU); Edwards Plateau Lab. I, TSNL, shallow soil over Edwards limestone, several plants scattered over 1/2 acre, 22 Apr 1972, Bro. D. Lynch 9838 (SEU). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Benson, 1969; Benson, 1982.


Escobaria missouriensis (Sweet) D. R. Hunt. Coryphantha missouriensis (Sweet) Britton & Rose. Native shrub. Occasional in grasslands and open woodlands on a variety of well drained substrates. Represented, according to specimen citations in Benson (1969), by var. robustior (Engelm.) D. R. Hunt (Coryphantha missouriensis var. robustior (Engelm.) Benson) and var. similis (Engelm.) N. P. Taylor (Coryphantha missouriensis var. caespitosa (Engelm.) L. Benson).


Specimens: several at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Mammillaria missouriensis, not to variety). References: Benson, 1982.


Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck var. lindheimeri (Engelm.) Parfitt & Pinkava. Opuntia lindheimeri Engelm. var. lindheimeri. LINDHEIMER PRICKLYPEAR. Native shrub. Presumably the common large pricklypear found in pastures, grasslands, shrublands and open woodlands throughout our area. However, Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii may also be present. According to Parfitt & Pinkava (1989), the spines of Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii have a chalky white outer layer and the fruit is barrel-shaped, whereas the spines of Opuntia engelmannii var. lindheimeri lack this chalky white outer layer, thus appearing yellow, and the fruit is pyriform or rather abruptly narrowed at the base.


Specimens: sunny exposure in limestone soil on hill near Lake Austin, 18 May 1946, C. M. Rowell & F. A. Barkley 16T237 (TEX-LL); 4 mi E of Austin along TX Farm Rd. 469 [sic], 18 Oct 1959, R. M. King & W. S. Burnett 2206 (TEX-LL). Benson (1969) cited five additional specimens, including: mouth of Pedernales River, 13 May 1963, Weniger s.n. (disposition not provided). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Benson, 1982.


Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. var. humifusa. Opuntia compressa (Salisb.) MacB. EASTERN PRICKLYPEAR. Native shrub. Status uncertain in our area.


Specimens: growing with Opuntia lindheimeri in grassy clearing, Brackenridge Field Tract, 21 Aug 1978, K. A. Grant 78-34 (TEX-LL). Benson (1969) cited one specimen of Opuntia compressa (Salisb.) MacB. from Travis County: Pease Place, 1902, Ferguson s.n. This specimen is presumably referable to Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. var. humifusa, but given the confusing history of nomenclature in Cactaceae, one cannot be certain. See also Benson (1982).


Opuntia leptocaulis DC. TASAJILLO, PENCIL CACTUS. Native shrub. Occasional in shrublands, open woodlands and grasslands on a variety of well-drained substrates; often in fencerows in sandy soils.


Specimens: [to county only], 1902, Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); 1/2 mi ESE of jct. of Onion and Williamson creeks, stony soil, level, unshaded, 5 Jul 1954, Bro. D. Lynch 8482 (SEU); Hwy 969, 10.2 mi E of Hwy 973, common at edge of woods, 2 May 1990, M. Bierner 90-149 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Benson, 1969; Benson, 1982.


Young (1920) reported Opuntia imbricata (Haw.) DC. (Opuntia arborescens Engelm.) was "found in a few places here along roadsides." Opuntia imbricata, the tree cholla of western deserts, is certainly not native to the Travis County area, and although it has long been cultivated here it does not escape and is not naturalized.


Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. var. macrorhiza. PLAINS PRICKLYPEAR. Native shrub. Status uncertain. This may be the low-growing, small-jointed pricklypear found in small numbers in a variety of grassland and open situations, often on somewhat sandy soils. It is difficult to distinguish from Opuntia humifusa var. humifusa, which also reportedly occurs in our area.


Specimens: growing in shaded woods in Pease Place, black soil, spring 1902, A. M. Ferguson s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 10 May 1933, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Benson (1969) cited an additional specimen from Travis County: mouth of Pedernales River, 13 May 1963, Weniger 177 (disposition not provided). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (not as to variety). References: Benson, 1982.


Opuntia phaeacantha Engelm. var. major Engelm. PRICKLYPEAR. Native shrub. Status uncertain due to nomenclatural confusion; this could be the Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii of Parfitt & Pinkava (1989); see above. Benson (1969) cited three specimens from Travis County: mouth of Pedernales River, 13 May 1963, Weniger 173, 174, and 175. The last specimen was also cited under Opuntia phaeacantha Engelm. var. discata (Griffiths) Benson & Walkington. See also Benson (1982). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other references: Grant & Grant, 1982.


Thelocactus setispinus (Engelm.) E. F. Anderson. Ferocactus setispinus (Engelm.) L. Benson; Echinocactus setispinus Engelm. HEDGEHOG CACTUS. Native shrub. Occasional in Blackland Prairie grasslands and open post oak woodlands, mostly in the eastern half of the county.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, 1996. Benson (1969) cited one specimen from Travis County: in Opuntia-mesquite scrubland about 15 mi S of Austin, 21 Jun 1947, B. L. Westlund, G. L. Webster & C. M. Rowell 7102 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Benson, 1982.


ELAEAGNACEAE OLEASTER FAMILY


Elaeagnus angustifolia L. RUSSIAN OLIVE. Adventive tree or shrub. Occasionally cultivated, rarely escaping.


Specimens: one shrub ca. 5 ft. tall; apparently naturalized in weedy woodland on deep silty alluvial soil on frequently inundated lower creek terrace, SW bank of Williamson Creek, ca. 0.9 creekmiles downstream from (SE of) IH-35 bridge, Austin, 3 Feb 1991, W. R. Carr & P. McNeal 10915 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


LYTHRACEAE LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY


Ammannia auriculata Willd. EARLEAF AMMANNIA. Native annual. Rare or, due to its similarity to other species, simply overlooked, on seasonally exposed mudflats along stock tanks and other impoundments with fluctuating water levels; probably also on unshaded banks of the Colorado River and in gravel and mud beds of intermittent streams. Perhaps best distinguished from other Ammannia species in our area by its capsules which, at 2.5 mm or less in diameter, are at least 1 mm narrower than those of our other species (Graham, 1985).


Specimens: 15 mi SE of Austin, 19 Sep 1941, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); edge of pasture tank, 4 mi S of Austin on old Lockhart road, 9 Aug 1946, F. A. Barkley & H. V. Copeland 57 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Graham, 1975.


Ammannia coccinea Rottb. SCARLET AMMANNIA. Native annual. Occasional in habitats described under Ammannia auriculata. "In the field, Ammannia coccinea is easily distinguished from Ammannia robusta by its deep [rose purple] petal and [deep yellow] anther color. On herbarium specimens the species is usually identified by the combination of stout peduncles, 3- to 5-flowered cymes, and mature capsules that are intermediate in size between those of Ammannia robusta and Ammannia auriculata" (Graham, 1985).


Specimens: Waller Creek, 10 Oct 1914, E. Pearson s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River, Austin, 2 Nov 1938, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Lake Austin, 13 Oct 1941, B. Moon 171 (TEX-LL); Lake Austin shore under Mt. Bonnell, 12 Aug 1943, F. A.Barkley 13430 (TEX-LL); Shoal Creek just N of Steck Ave. bridge, 10 Oct 1979, S. Graham 700 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Graham, 1975; Graham, 1985.


Ammannia robusta Heer & Regel. ROBUST AMMANNIA. Native annual. Rare, or overlooked due to its resemblance to local congeners, probably in habitat described under Ammannia auriculata. Very similar to Ammannia coccinea, but distinguished on the basis of pale lavender petals and yellow anthers (Graham, 1985).


Specimens: 7 mi SSE of Austin on small limestone knob, 9 Aug 1946, F. A. Barkley & H. V. Copeland 81 (TEX-LL; det. S. Graham 1979). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Graham, 1975; Graham, 1985.


Lagerstroemia indica L. CREPE-MYRTLE. Introduced shrub. Native of the Old World; one of the most commonly utilized ornamental shrubs in suburban Austin. Rarely escaping and apparently not currently naturalized in our area.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, May 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Lythrum alatum Pursh var. lanceolatum (Ell.) T. & G. Lythrum lanceolatum Ell. LANCELEAF LOOSESTRIFE. Native perennial. A species of wet areas of the southeastern United States, here at or near the southwestern limit of its current distribution. Our single specimen was annotated by Shirley Graham in 1974; additional specimens or reports are needed to clarify the status and habitat of this taxon in our area.


Specimens: moist sandy soil, 15 mi NW of Austin, 18 Jul 1943, F. A. Barkley 13582 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Graham, 1975.


Lythrum californicum T. & G. CALIFORNIA LOOSESTRIFE. Native perennial. Uncommon on unshaded stream banks and beds, seepage slopes and other open areas that are decidedly wet during at least part of the year.


Specimens: near Austin, 16 May 1907, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 6 May 1908, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); along RR, Austin, 13 May 1918, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Onion Creek, 8 Jul 1920, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); south Austin, low field along Missouri-Pacific track, 16 May 1954, Bro. D. Lynch 8485 (SEU); SEU campus, bottom of swale, black soil, unshaded, 4 Jun 1954, Bro. D. Lynch 8498 (SEU); SEU campus, edge of swale, black soil, unshaded, 26 Jun 1957, Bro. D. Lynch 8484 (SEU); rare in wet clayey soil on seep-fed open slope on high E bank of Shoal Creek, ca. 1000 ft. S of W. 45th St. bridge, Austin, 8 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7522 (SEU) and 17 Jun 1986, W. R. Carr 7587 (BRIT/SMU, SEU). Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Graham, 1975.


Lythrum ovalifolium Koehne. PLATEAU LOOSESTRIFE. Native perennial. Johnston (1988) reported that this taxon, previously presumed endemic to the Edwards Plateau, has been found in central Coahuila. Rare, occurring as small scattered populations in pockets of moist shallow alluvium on scoured limestone streambeds.


Specimens: Barton Creek, 1 Nov 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 3 May 1936, B. C. Tharp 42-28 (TEX-LL); Edwards Plateau Lab. I, TSNL, growing in 4 inches of water in stream below 15 ft. high N-facing cliff, Rathbone, 23 Sep 1973, Bro. D. Lynch 8499 (SEU); unnamed creek on E side of R. O. Drive ca. 1 mi off [NE of] US [sic] Rt. 71, ca. 3 mi E of Pedernales River, 6 Jul 1986, R. Brant 586-2 (TEX-LL); moist clay silt in partially shaded creekbed, tributary of Bull Creek ca. 1.0-1.1 airmiles WNW of jct. Loop 360 and N branch of Spicewood Springs Rd., 5 Aug 1988, W. R. Carr 9116 (BRIT/SMU, UVST); ponded area upstream from concrete creek crossing, unnamed branch of Bull Creek, 2.7 airmiles NE of jct. R. M. 2222 and R. M. 620, Hanks Tract, 25 Aug 1992, W. R. Carr, T. Cook and J. Davis 12234 (TEX-LL); creek near S end of Nagel Tract, Balcones Canyonlands NWR, 3 Oct 1995, C. W. Sexton s.n. (BCNWR). Previous Travis County floras: none. Other reports: Travis Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary (Lyter, 1986). References: Graham, 1975.


Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne. TOOTHCUP. Native annual. Rare in moist sandy soils in ditches, along margins of stock tanks, and, according to B. C. Tharp, in hog wallows.


Specimens: wet sandy soil to left of Cameron Rd. across from Country Club Golf Links, Austin, July 1920, B. C. Tharp 755 (TEX-LL); wet sand flat on Cameron Rd. just this side of H & TC RR, Austin, July 1920, B. C. Tharp 757 (TEX-LL); Austin, 11 Aug 1936, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); gravelly hog wallow, 15 mi SE of Austin, 29 Jul 1941, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Graham, 1975.


ONAGRACEAE EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY


Calylophus berlandieri Spach subsp. berlandieri. Calylophus drummondianus Spach subsp. berlandieri (Spach) Towner & Raven. HALFSHRUB SUNDROPS. Native perennial. Apparently known in our area from a single specimen, probably taken from openings in post oak woodlands on well drained sandy soils.


Specimens: none at TEX-LL, Nov 2001. Towner (1977) cited one specimen from Travis County: Austin, 1938, B. C. Tharp (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: one of the three Meriolix species listed by Young (1920) is almost certainly referable to this taxon. References: Munz, 1944; Towner, 1977.


Calylophus berlandieri Spach. subsp. pinifolius (Engelm. ex A. Gray) Towner. Calylophus drummondianus Spach subsp. drummondianus; Oenothera serrulata Nutt. var. drummondii T. & G.; Meriolix melanoglottis and Meriolix spinulosa of local auth. SUNDROPS. Native annual or perennial. Frequent in grasslands and openings on gravelly clay soils on limestone slopes and uplands, perhaps also in post oak woodlands.


Specimens: 26 sheets at TEX-LL, Dec 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974.


Gaura brachycarpa Small. PLAINS GAURA. Native annual. Occasional in sandy soils of floodplains and open or disturbed areas on grasslands over limestone and chalk.


Specimens: river floodplain, Austin, 8 Apr 1917, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River floodplain, Austin, 9 Apr 1929, A. A. Armer 5515 (TEX-LL); Austin, 1 Apr 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); Carrington Farm, 20 May 1944, C. C. Albers 256 (TEX-LL); limestone cliffs above Pedernales River W of Hamilton Pool, 10 Apr 1949, G. L. Webster 74 (TEX-LL); grazed grassland on shallow stony Brackett soils on +/- level upland underlain by Glen Rose Limestone, S side of main house on Baker Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 19 Apr 2000, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 18852 (TEX-LL); openings in live oak savanna on Speck soils over Edwards Limestone on karstic upland, Edwards 82 Tract (a Prop 2 tract), 8 May 2000, W. R. Carr 18946 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Raven & Gregory, 1972.


Gaura coccinea Pursh. WILD HONEYSUCKLE, LINDA TARDE. Native perennial. Lynch (1974) reported this taxon from Travis County, "along roadsides and on stony, disturbed soil," suggesting a common local status. However, few specimens have been collected.


Specimens: in hills behind Highland Park Baptist Church, 1 block N of Balcones and Hancock, no date, M. Turner s.n. (TEX-LL). Apr 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Lynch, 1974. References: Raven & Gregory, 1972.


Gaura drummondii (Spach) T. & G. Gaura odorata Lag. SWEET GAURA. Native perennial. Occasional in disturbed sandy to clayey soils of old fields, roadsides and railroad embankments.


Specimens: I & GN RR, Austin, 4 May 1917, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); river floodplain, 15 May 1918, M. S. Young 97 (TEX-LL); roadside, stony disturbed soil, SEU farm, 1 Apr 1954, Bro. D. Lynch s.n. (TEX-LL); RR embankment, 35th at Funston, Austin, 13 Jun 1964, P. H. Raven & D. P. Gregory 19373 (TEX-LL). The type specimen was collected by Thomas Drummond in Austin in 1833 or 1834 (Raven & Gregory, 1972). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Munz, 1944; Raven & Gregory, 1972.


Gaura parviflora Hook. Incl. var. lachnocarpa Weatherby. LIZARDTAIL GAURA. Native annual. A frequent weed of various soils in disturbed grasslands, vacant lots, and along roadsides. "Probably originally a native of the shortgrass prairie of the interior of the United States" (Raven & Gregory, 1972).


Specimens: Austin, 2 May 1907, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Karling's farm above Walnut Cr., 17 May 1940, C. L. & A. A. Lundell 8949 (TEX-LL); gravel sandbar 5 mi NW of Austin, 12 Jul 1943, F. A. Barkley & J. Cohn 3196 (TEX-LL); Pilot Knob, 30 May 1951, Tharp & Barkley 51-876 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Munz, 1944.


Gaura sinuata Nutt. WAVYLEAF GAURA. Native perennial. Occasional in early successional grasslands and disturbed open areas; especially common in the Blackland Prairies but also in lighter sandier soils (Raven & Gregory, 1972).


Specimens: campus, Austin, 30 Apr 1915, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); dry rocky limestone soil, 10 Apr 1946, J. C. Johnson 6029 (TEX-LL); Pilot Knob, 30 May 1951, Tharp & Barkley 50-881 (TEX-LL); RR embankment, 35th at Funston, Austin, 13 Jun 1964, P. H. Raven & D. P. Gregory 19374 (TEX-LL); meadow NW of Highland Mall, between Middle Fiskville Rd., Highland Mall Blvd., and E. Huntland Dr., full of wildflowers, shallow soil on limestone, 30 Apr 1983, B. Ertter 4788 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Raven & Gregory, 1972.


Gaura suffulta Gray subsp. suffulta. HONEYSUCKLE GAURA. Native annual. Occasional in disturbed sandy to clayey soils in grasslands and open areas, mostly east of the Balcones Escarpment.


Specimens: along I & GN RR, 4 May 1917, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Colorado River floodplain, 23 Apr 1929, A. A. Armer 5515 (TEX-LL); along roadside in prairie, Lockhart Rd., 5 mi S of Austin, 14 May 1940, C. L. Lundell & A. A. Lundell 8852 (TEX-LL); Austin Chalk 10 mi N of Austin on Dessau Farm Road, 13 June 1950, Tharp & York 50-148 (TEX-LL); Pilot Knob, 30 May 1951, Tharp & Barkley 50-841 (TEX-LL); Pilot Knob, 26 Mar 1956, S. Ely s.n. (TEX-LL); Burnet Rd., Austin, 9 Apr 1966, H. M. Burlage s.n. (TEX-LL); locally common on grassy, regularly mown embankment of freeway, NW corner of Mopac (Loop 1) and Loop 360, i.e., W side of MoPac less than 1 mi N of jct. US Rt. 183, 28 Apr 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15180 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Munz, 1944; Raven & Gregory, 1972.


Ludwigia decurrens Walt. WINGSTEM WATER-PRIMROSE. Native perennial. A species primarily of the southeastern United States, of sporadic occurrence in our area. Rare in herbaceous thickets on moist alluvial soils on frequently flooded streambottoms.


Specimens: silt of Lake Austin, 20 Oct 1922, B. C. Tharp 1524 (TEX-LL); Austin, 24 Oct 1939, B. H. Warnock 45 (TEX-LL); Austin, 28 Oct 1939, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL); rare in wet clay in mostly unshaded limestone bed of Shoal Creek 1000-2000 ft. S of W. 29th St., Austin, 2 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr 9201 (UVST). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Ludwigia glandulosa Walt. TORREY SEEDBOX. Native perennial. A species of moist sandy soils of the southeastern United States, of unpredictable occurrence here at the western limit of its current distribution. Fairly common in Bastrop County, and to be expected in seasonally wet open areas in eastern Travis County.


Specimens: Austin, W of poor farm, 27 May 1921, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven subsp. octovalvis. Jussiaea suffruticosa L. var. octofila (DC.) Munz; Jussiaea suffruticosa L. var. ligustrifolia (H.B.K.) Griseb. SHRUBBY WATER-PRIMROSE. Native annual (or perennial?). Frequent in tall dense herbaceous vegetation on saturated alluvial soils along unshaded stretches of frequently scoured creekbottoms and on the more stable banks of Colorado River impoundments.


Specimens: 13 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Munz, 1944.


Ludwigia palustris (L.) Ell. MARSH SEEDBOX. Native perennial. Apparently rare in our area; some of our specimens may in fact be Ludwigia repens.


Specimens: Edwards Plateau Lab., TSNL, Rathbone, shallow water in stream, unshaded, ca. 1/2 mi downstream from stone cabin, 29 May 1969, Bro. D. Lynch 8512 (SEU); moist, shaded, mossy bank of tributary of Bull Creek, 200-1000 ft. S of Spicewood Springs Rd. low water crossing ca. 300-400 ft. E of Old Lampasas Trail, 100 ft. E of Scotland Well Rd., 16 Jul 1988, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 9062 (UVST); emergent on silt and sand on shaded bar in bed of Bull Creek, N-S stretch ca. 1500 ft. upstream from Loop 360 bridge ca. 0.6 mi NE of Lakewood Drive, 28 Apr 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15185 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Ludwigia peploides (H.B.K.) Raven subsp. peploides. SMOOTH WATER-PRIMROSE. Native perennial. Common in perennial streams, with submersed stems erect and emergent stems trailing over the surface of the water, forming loose mats.


Specimens: 13 sheets at TEX-LL, 1991. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Jussiaea diffusa misapplied?).


Ludwigia repens Forst. Ludwigia natans Ell. CREEPING SEEDBOX. Native perennial. Frequent in moist alluvial soils in beds of perennial and intermittent streams.


Specimens: Shoal Creek, Austin, 1 Nov 1916, E. Allen s.n. (TEX-LL); Barton Creek, 23 July 1943, F. A. Barkley 13358 and 13369 (TEX-LL); Bull Creek, 18 May 1946, B. C. Tharp, F. A. Barkley & J. J. Sperry 16T252 (TEX-LL); Little Walnut Creek between Austin and Sprinkle, 12 Jul 1946, C. L. York, H. V. Copeland & J. C. Johnson 6038 (TEX-LL); sandy alluvium under Salix shade, bed of Bull Creek, S side of Loop 360 W of Spicewood Springs Rd., 7 Aug 1982, W. R. Carr 4176; Bull Creek City Park on SE side of Loop 360, SW of Spicewood Springs Rd., wet ground along creek in oak-juniper woodland on limestone, 14 May 1983, B. Ertter & J. Saunders 4843 (TEX-LL); rare in wet clay over limestone in mostly unshaded bed of Shoal Creek 1000-2000 ft. S of W. 29th St., Austin, 2 Sep 1988, W. R. Carr 9202 (UVST); mudflat along Colorado River at Red Bud Isle, 12 Aug 1990, W. R. Carr & D. A. Brown 10752 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Ludwigia uruguayensis (Camb.) Hara. URUGUAY WATER-PRIMROSE. Native perennial. Rare in moist soils of stream banks.


Specimens: McKinney Falls SP, front edge of seep at edge of wooded area, N side of flat broad stream bed just upstream from second falls, shaded except in morning, 22 Jul 1989, Bro. D. Lynch & E. A. Kutac 9879 (SEU). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Oenothera biennis L. COMMON EVENING-PRIMROSE. Adventive biennial. Native but often weedy in much of northeastern North America. A rare waif in our area, probably not a persistent member of our flora.


Specimens: disturbed clay on roadside, Weston Drive just N of Bee Caves Rd, 19 Oct 1986, W. R. Carr 7913 (BRIT/SMU). Previous Travis County floras: none.


Oenothera cordata J. W. Loudon. VARIABLE EVENING-PRIMROSE. Native annual. Common in early successional communities in deep loose sands on Eocene strata to the east, but apparently rare in Travis County. This taxon has in the past been submerged within Oenothera heterophylla Spach but was resurrected by Dietrich & Wagner (1988).


Specimens: Austin, 5 May 1931, B. C. Tharp s.n. (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none. References: Dietrich & Wagner, 1988.


Oenothera grandis (Britt.) Smyth. Oenothera laciniata Hill var. grandiflora (S. Wats.) Robins. LARGE SUNDROPS. Native annual. All of our records are from the floodplain of the Colorado River from times that pre-date the construction of Town Lake. Possibly extant on sandbars below Longhorn Dam or in loose, well drained sand in unshaded uplands on Pleistocene river deposits in the eastern half of the county.


Specimens: near Austin below river bridge, 10 Apr 1907, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); near river bridge, Austin, 27 Mar 1909, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); river floodplain, Austin, M. S. Young s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, Colorado River, 23 Apr 1929, A. Armer 5350 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Oenothera jamesii T & G. TRUMPET EVENING-PRIMROSE, RIVER PRIMROSE. Native biennial. Rare but exceptionally conspicuous in moist to saturated soils of unshaded limestone creekbottoms in counties to the immediate north and west, but apparently rare in such habitat within Travis County. Young (1920) found this species along "the bank of Barton Creek," but our specimens seems to represent a recent introduction.


Specimens: small local population in dry roadbase on shoulder of Southwest Parkway at Republic of Texas Blvd., 6 Sep 1996, W. R. Carr & T. Siegenthaler 15675 (TEX-LL); median at intersection of Southwest Parkway and Travis Country Circle Rd., plants at bottom of gradual slope leading to concrete ditch running beneath road, [no date], S. J. Siedo 0100 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920.


Oenothera kunthiana (Spach) Munz. KUNTH SUNDROPS. Native annual. Raven in Correll & Johnston (1970) described the habitat as "gravel bars and flat sandy often weedy places." Apparently rare in our area.


Specimens: Edwards Plateau Lab. I, TSNL, unshaded bare gravelly area from which road fill had been removed, Walnut formation, McDonald, 6 Jun 1973, Bro. D. Lynch 8512 (SEU); Lake Travis, Devil's Hole,, stony soil, light shade, next to an abandoned road, 14 Apr 1977, T. Backus s.n. (SEU). None at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: none.


Oenothera laciniata Hill. CUTLEAF EVENING-PRIMROSE. Native annual. Occasional in alluvium in unshaded, disturbed areas on floodplains and terraces, in well drained sandy soils of post oak woodlands, and in loamy soils in openings of juniper-oak woodlands on limestone slopes and uplands.


Specimens: Austin, 19 Apr 1907, H. H. York s.n. (TEX-LL); Shoal Creek, Austin, 30 Apr 1909, Heald & Wolf s.n. (TEX-LL); Austin, 19 Apr 1937, B. C. Tharp s.n. (SEU); Austin, 12 Apr 1944, B. C. Tharp 44140 (TEX-LL); frequent on sandy hillside, 1 mi E of Montopolis bridge, 3 Apr 1946, B. H. Warnock 46106 (TEX-LL); SEU campus, sandy loam brought to campus, S side of building, 23 Mar 1963, Bro. D. Lynch 8517 (SEU); sandy loam, flood plain at lower end of Town Lake, unshaded and disturbed, 6 Apr 1968, Bro. D. Lynch 8516 (SEU); drainage on W side of Loop 360, ca. 2 mi N of Rt. 2244, just N of Wild Basin, hillside, openings in woodland of oak, juniper, and mixed shrubs on limestone hills, 14 May 1983, B. Ertter & J. Saunders 4830 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920; Lynch, 1974. References: Munz, 1944.


Oenothera macrocarpa Nutt. subsp. macrocarpa. Oenothera missouriensis Sims. MISSOURI FLUTTERMILL. Native perennial. Locally frequent on open slopes on alternately wet and dry clayey soil derived from softer powdery marly strata in the Glen Rose Formation; often conspicuous on xeric, sparsely vegetated roadcuts.


Specimens: 5 sheets at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Megapterium missouriense). References: Munz, 1944.


Oenothera speciosa Nutt. SHOWY EVENING-PRIMROSE. Native perennial. Common to locally abundant, in grasslands, open woodlands, and disturbed sites on all soils. One of our more conspicuous early spring wildflowers.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Hartmannia speciosa); Lynch, 1974. References: Munz, 1944.


Oenothera triloba Nutt. STEMLESS EVENING-PRIMROSE. Native annual or biennial. Occasional in grasslands and open areas on a variety of well drained sites, usually in shallow clay on limestone ridgetops but also in sandier soils.


Specimens: numerous sheets at TEX-LL, 1996. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920 (as Lavauxia triloba); Lynch, 1974. References: Munz, 1944.


Stenosiphon linifolius (James) Heynh. FALSE GAURA. Native perennial. Apparently rare, known in our area from a single recent collection.


Specimens: ca. 20-25 plants in well drained gravelly clay loam on graded, unshaded, occasionally mown grassy roadside, some plants in roadbase and others at base of natural Glen Rose Limestone slope, both sides of Oasis Bluff Trail at bridge over Bullick Hollow Creek and upslope to west, 23 Aug 1994, M. W. Turner 49 (TEX-LL) and 12 Aug 1996, W. R. Carr 15637 (TEX-LL). Previous Travis County floras: none.


HALORAGACEAE WATER-MILFOIL FAMILY


Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdcourt. Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb.; Myriophyllum proserpinacoides Gill. PARROTFEATHER MILFOIL. Naturalized submersed aquatic perennial. Native of South America, introduced for ornament. Apparently uncommon in our area, but tending to be noticed only when emersed on mudflats. According to Aiken (1981), only pistillate flowers have been observed on plants in North America.


Specimens: along W bank of Colorado River between Red Bud Trail bridge and Tom Miller Dam, 2 Sep 1982, W. R. Carr 4271; submersed in water ca. 1 ft. deep, in +/- perennially ponded stretch of Bull Creek ca. 1500 ft. upstream from Loop 360 bridge ca. 0.6 mi NE of Lakewood Drive, 28 Apr 1996, W. R. Carr & P. Turner 15184 (TEX-LL). Other sheets on loan from TEX-LL during 1990's, not examined. Previous Travis County floras: Young, 1920. References: Aiken, 1981.


Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx. COMMON MILFOIL. Native submersed aquatic perennial. This may be the most co