Boerne Chapter

Coral honeysuckle, a NICE! vine for landscaping

Author: Bill Ward

Guess what was the first plant to bloom in our yard in 2010? No, it wasn’t anemone nor agarita, usually the first two natives to flower when winter starts to give way to spring. It was coral honeysuckle! That vine began to put out a few red flowers only days after the deep freeze of January.

Maybe it was showing its appreciation for being the only vine chosen for the “10 for ’10” list of ten favorite NICE! (Natives Instead of the Common Exotics!) plants to be highlighted in 2010. Coral honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens) is the NICE! Plant of the Month for March.

Red flowers
Coral honeysuckle in bloom. (photo by Bill Ward)

The word “honeysuckle” might frighten some home gardeners because of the bad reputation of Japanese honeysuckle (L. japonica), one of the most notorious invasive exotic plants ever introduced into the southern part of this country.

Never fear; the coral honeysuckle is easily contained. It will not invade the whole yard. On a fence or trellis, coral honeysuckle will bloom off and on for most of the year. Its whorls of bright-red trumpet flowers, shiny dark-green oval and oblong leaves, and red berries make this honeysuckle a showy vine for home landscaping. Hummingbirds are attracted to the blooms, and other birds come for the fruit.

Other common names for L. sempervirens are woodbine, trumpet honeysuckle, red honeysuckle, and evergreen honeysuckle. This vine is widely available at local nurseries, along with varieties that produce cream-colored or yellow flowers.

Coral honeysuckle is a native of East Texas and much of the eastern US. In Central Texas it has been collected in Hays and Travis Counties. There even are reports of L. sempervirens from Bandera and Kerr Counties, but coral honeysuckle is not typical of Edwards Plateau flora. Despite its natural range, coral honeysuckle does well in gardens in the Boerne area. It grows in partly shady spots, preferably with morning sun and afternoon shade. Coral honeysuckle apparently tolerates a wide variety of soils, and once established, it requires very little, if any, watering. In Hill Country gardens, coral honeysuckle needs to be protected from browsing deer.

The Boerne Chapter of the Native Plant Society of Texas provides free planting and care instructions for coral honeysuckle at the nurseries participating in Operation NICE! (Hill Country African Violets & Nursery and Maldonado Landscape & Nursery in Boerne and Medina Garden Nursery in Medina). The instruction sheets also are available at Cibolo Nature Center.

Green plant with white flowers
White honeysuckle, native of the Hill Country. (photo by Wilt Shaw)

There is a honeysuckle indigenous to the Boerne area that also should be considered for home landscaping. This is the white honeysuckle (L. albiflora), also called Texas honeysuckle. This honeysuckle is a native over much of the Edwards Plateau as well as North Texas and Trans-Pecos Texas. White honeysuckle is non-aggressive and generally grows as a white-flowering bush with vine-like branches.

For the past few years I have participated in restoration of the riparian habitat at the Cibolo Nature Center. This particular ecological restoration involves only removal, not addition, of plant species. We are attempting to eliminate the invasive exotic species, which are replacing the native vegetation.

One Asian exotic which may prove impossible to eliminate is the Japanese honeysuckle, washed downstream from Boerne yards. Some parts of the Cibolo Creek bank are impenetrable because of the tangled masses of Japanese honeysuckle. It is choking out many native bushes and small trees.

So many stream banks, woods, and bushy areas all over the South are invaded by Japanese honeysuckle that many people think it is a natural part of Southern vegetation. It is not, and once Japanese honeysuckle establishes itself in a locality, it is difficult to remove.

In the interest of the health of our ecological system, coral honeysuckle and white bush honeysuckle are better choices for home landscapes than the traditional and widely available, but highly invasive, Japanese honeysuckle.

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About the Region

New Braunfels, the location of our Fall 2024 Symposium, straddles both the Edwards Plateau Ecoregion and the Blackland Prairie ecoregion. Interstate 35 divides the city of New Braunfels; its path through the city closely parallels the boundary of these two ecoregions, with the Edwards Plateau on the west side and the Blackland Prairies region to the east. The Edwards Plateau area is also called the Hill Country; however, this general term covers a much larger area extending farther north. Spring-fed creeks are found throughout the region; deep limestone canyons, rivers, and lakes (reservoirs) are common. Ashe juniper is perhaps the most common woody species found throughout the region. Additional woody species include various species of oak, with live oak (Quercus fusiformis) being the most common. Sycamores (Platanus occidentalis) and bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) border waterways. This area is well known for its spring wildflower displays, though they may be viewed in spring, late summer, and fall, as well. According to Texas Parks and Wildlife, average annual rainfall in the Edwards Plateau ranges from 15 to 34 inches.

The Blackland Prairie extends from the Red River south to San Antonio, bordered on the west by the Edwards Plateau and the Cross Timbers, and on the east by the Post Oak Savannah. Annual rainfall averages 30 to 40 inches, with higher averages to the east. This region is dominated by prairie species. The most common grass species include little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) and Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans) in the uplands and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) in the riparian areas and drainages. Common herbaceous flowering plants include salvias, penstemons, and silphiums. This area has suffered greatly from overgrazing and agricultural use. Few intact areas remain, though many of the plants can be found along county roadsides throughout the region.

Our four host chapters (New Braunfels, Lindheimer, Guadalupe, and the Hill Country chapters) are located in one or both of the ecoregions above. However, the eastern portion of Guadalupe County also falls within the Post Oak Savanna ecoregion. Annual rainfall averages 35 to 45 inches, with higher averages to the east. A wide variety of hardwood trees are found, including several species of oaks, elms, and in the Bastrop area, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Grasses and forbs dominate in the open savannas, with most common grass being little bluestem. Ranching, agriculture, and fire suppression have allowed woody species to encroach on the once-open savannas.

Source: Wildflowers of Texas by Michael Eason