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White Ash

Fraxinus americana

Other common name(s):

American Ash, Cane Ash, Smallseed White Ash, Biltmore White Ash, Biltmore Ash

Family:

Oleaceae (Olive Family)

Plant Ecoregion Distribution Map

East Central Texas Plains, Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes, Western Gulf Coastal Plain
Bastrop Lost Pines, Floodplains and Low Terraces2, Northern Post Oak Savanna, Northern Prairie Outliers, San Antonio Prairie, Southern Post Oak Savanna
Northern Humid Gulf Coastal Prairies
Flatwoods, Floodplains and Low Terraces3, Pleistocene Fluvial Terraces, Red River Bottomlands, Southern Tertiary Uplands, Tertiary Uplands

Plant Characteristics

Growth Form

Tree

Height

60
to
80
ft.

Spread

50
to
70
ft.

Leaf Retention

Deciduous

Lifespan

Perennial

Habitat and Care Requirements

Soil Type(s)

Deep, Moist

Light Requirement

Sun, Part Shade, Shade

Water Requirement

High

Native Habitat

Grassland, Woodland

Bloom and Attraction

Bloom Color

Yellow, Purple

Bloom Season

Spring

Seasonal Interest

Fall Color, Seeds, Forage, Larval Host

Wildlife Benefit

Browsers, Butterflies, Birds, Small Mammals

Maintenance

A good shade tree, with a medium growth rate. Ashes provide excellent fall color. Seedlings will tolerate quite a bit of shade, but more sun will be necessary as the tree matures. Susceptible to a wide variety of disease and insect pests; usually not a problem to healthy trees. Prune in fall. Propagation: Seed.

Comments

Large tree with straight trunk and dense, conical or rounded crown. Leaflets rounded, with whitish lower surfaces. Winged seeds, called samara. Attract butterflies. Birds each seeds. Provides cover and nesting sites. Browsed by deer. Larval Host: Eastern Tiger Swallowtail, Hickory Hairstreak, Mourning Cloak, Red-spotted Purple, Viceroy & Tiger Swallowtail.
Previous Scientific Name(s): Synonym(s): Fraxinus americana var. biltmoreana, Fraxinus americana var. crassifolia, Fraxinus americana var. curtissii, Fraxinus americana var. juglandifolia, Fraxinus americana var. microcarpa, Fraxinus biltmoreana

References

1) Griffith, Bryce, Omernick & Rodgers (2007). Ecoregions of Texas. 2) Miller, George O., Landscaping with Native Plants of Texas 2nd Ed., 2013, pg 48. 3) Wasowski and Wasowski, Native Texas Plants Landscaping Region by Region, 1991, pg. 334. 4) https://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=FRAM2. 5) https://portal.torcherbaria.org/portal/taxa/index.php?taxon=Fraxinus+americana&formsubmit=Search+Terms. 6) http://bonap.net/TDC/Image/Map?taxonType=Species&taxonId=15507&locationType=County&mapType=Normal. 7) https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=32931#null